Q. In what camp?
Q. Was this at a later stage?
Q. I would ask you to submit these three signs.
Presiding Judge: Perhaps he would like to retain them. We
have already had a case such as this. He has shown them to
us, and that is sufficient.
State Attorney Bach: But I think the witness should be able
to get them back…it is possible that the Court has already
seen these signs previously.
[To witness] You mentioned here the camp at Sered. When
were you taken to Sered?
Witness Rosenberg: I was taken to the camp at Sered at the
beginning of September 1944.
Q. Who arrested you?
A. Men of the “Hlinka Guard” arrested me.
Q. When you reached Sered, did you arrive alone, or with
Q. Where was your family?
A. They were in a bunker.
Q. Outside the town?
A. Yes. Outside the town.
Q. Who was in charge of the camp of Sered when you arrived
A. When I reached Sered, the man in charge was Knollmeyer.
Q. Was he an SS man?
A. He was a young SS man, about 20 years of age.
Q. A German?
A. A German, from Bratislava.
Q. Please tell the Court how they behaved towards all of you
at Sered at that time?
A. When they arrested me, they took us from the “Hlinka
Guard” to the SD at Trencin, from there to Jihlava prison,
and from Jihlava they took us to the Sered concentration
camp. We arrived there at night. When we got down from the
railway carriages, there were young German lads and also men
of the “Hlinka Guard” standing on the sides; and anyone who
did not jump far enough away from the carriage was beaten.
Presiding Judge: We have already heard of the Sered camp
from Dr. Abeles, is that not so?
State Attorney Bach: Dr. Abeles was there only at the final
stage. There we were told about his mother, but that was
later on. [To witness] Do you recall an incident with a Jew
Witness Rosenberg: Yes.
Q. What happened to him?
A. Grossmann was a Jew approximately 50 years old. He was
cleaning the courtyard with a broom. Knollmeyer passed by
him and hit him. The Jew then stood up and raised his arm
in order to protect his face. And Knollmeyer said to him:
“You accursed Jew – you want to defend yourself?” and he
shot him there, in the courtyard.
Q. And killed him?
A. Yes, he killed him.
Q. Please tell the Court what the “Schoener Abend”
(beautiful evening) was?
A. Schoener Abend – this was the name which I gave it in my
memoirs. This was on the Sabbath of Penitence (during the
ten days of Penitence starting with Rosh Hashana), in 1944.
It was after work, and all of us were already in the huts.
Then the orderlies came and announced that there was an
order for us to come out by nine o’clock, that all the
prisoners had to assemble on the large square in the centre
of the camp, and that all of us had to report there. First
of all the young people went there, and in the end, shortly
before nine o’clock, they brought the elderly people and the
children. From nine o’clock we were required to stand at
attention there, all the time, and this lasted until
midnight. Throughout that time we stood in one place. And
during this time, from the building which housed the German
headquarters, we heard a loud order to bring a rabbi, with a
prayer-book, and then one of the orderlies went and summoned
a rabbi – one of the rabbis – it was Rabbi Unger, of blessed
memory, of Piestany, who was the youngest of them –
accompanied the orderly.
Q. Was he the brother-in-law of Rabbi Weissmandel?
A. Yes, he was the brother-in-law of Rabbi Weissmandel. He
went there. They were having a party there. Later on, some
time afterwards, we noticed that they had requested the
orderlies to bring blankets. And subsequently we saw that
they were carrying out someone’s body inside the blankets.
When I was at home, in my town, I had worked as an assistant
to the Burial Society. On the following morning, they
summoned me, and I had to be one of the burial party. Then
Knollmeyer gave orders that all these bodies should be
buried there, in the camp, behind the bath-house.
Q. Was Rabbi Unger one of them?
A. One of them was Rabbi Unger, and there were two others
whom they had killed that night.
Q. Do you know why they killed Rabbi Unger?
A. I heard it the following morning. At that time there was
also Slovak gendarmerie in the camp, but they had no duties.
One of the gendarmerie was an acquaintance of mine from our
neighbourhood, and he told me they had seen everything. He
had heard that they had told him to pray and to translate
the prayers into German. He then translated to them, but
they told him that he was not translating correctly, and
they began beating him, and in the end they took him to the
toilet where they shot him. We heard this shot outside.
The following morning I saw the body of this rabbi, and I
observed that one ear – it was the left ear, if I remember
correctly – was hanging only by a piece of skin; it was
horrible to see what the body looked like.
Q. When did Brunner come to Sered?
A. After this “beautiful evening.” I heard there that one
of the citizens of the town of Sered had gone to Bratislava,
in order to report on what had occurred at Sered. The
following day – or a few days later – I heard that a new
commander had arrived, and the entire command was changed;
they also dismissed the Slovakian gendarmerie.
Q. So, in that case, who was in charge?
A. That was when Brunner arrived, with a new team, namely
with the SS.
Q. When Brunner arrived, did the deportations begin?
A. When Brunner arrived, it was several days after this
terrible evening, and five or six days thereafter the first
Presiding Judge: We have already heard about the Brunner
period, anyway, Mr. Bach.
State Attorney Bach: We have heard about a particular
action performed by Brunner. But I want to ask one further
question. The witness was present on the occasion of a
certain selection, of both Rabbi Weissmandel and Gisi
Fleischmann, and I want to question him on this.
Presiding Judge: So please proceed with that – we have
already heard a general description.
State Attorney Bach: When was the first transport?
Witness Rosenberg: On 30 September 1944.
Q. Who conducted the selection for each transport?
A. Brunner himself used to make the selection for each
Q. Do you remember Rabbi Weissmandel?
Q. Did you see him at Sered?
Q. Were you present when Rabbi Weissmandel was sent to a
transport for deportation?
A. Yes. This was in the selection for the third transport,
on 10 October. We, all the prisoners, stood outside, and
Brunner began selecting. Rabbi Weissmandel had a large
family. I do not remember exactly how many – Rabbi Unger’s
widow was there and the whole family. First of all he sent
these large families to the right – this was the side for
those destined for the transport, for deportation. He stood
there with all his family.
Q. So he, too, as I understand, was sent to the right?
Q. Where were you sent to?
A. I belonged to what they called the “Lagerinsassen” (camp
inmates); as a carpenter, I worked in the carpentry shop.
He himself did not only automatically give a sign regarding
them – he also inquired as to their work. The
Judenaeltester (the Jewish Elder) would stand at his side,
and he would ask “Who is this?” “Who is this?” “Who is
that?” Rabbi Friedel stood in front of me. There he was
not the Rabbi Friedel, but “Friedel, the carpenter.”
Q. Was that what the Judenaeltester called him?
A. Yes. He stood there like a labourer, like all of us, and
the Judenaeltester said to him: “Obersturmfuehrer, Sir, this
is my best mechanical carpenter” – that is what the
Judenaeltester said to Brunner. He gave his sign for him to
go to the left. I was the next to stand there after him.
He asked about me, “Who is this?” I myself answered by
saying “A carpenter, a bachelor,” for I knew it was worth
something not to have a family with me. Then he gave the
sign to go to the right. Each one had to approach the SS
and then to turn to the left or to the right. I came up and
turned towards the left, and he asked me: “Hey, you, where
are you going, where are you going?” I replied: “Over
there.” To this day I do not know how it happened, but that
is how it was.
Q. Did you actually notice when Rabbi Weissmandel was put on
to the transport?
A. I witnessed yet another incident with Rabbi Weissmandel.
This was when Brunner and the Judenaeltester came and stood
next to us, and then one of his deputies came along and said
to him: “Obersturmfuehrer, Sir, there is a woman here who
maintains that she is an Aryan.” On hearing this, he said:
“Call Rabbi Weissmandel.” They fetched Rabbi Weissmandel,
and Brunner said to him: “This woman maintains that she is
an Aryan. What do you say about that?” To this Rabbi
Weissmandel answered: “This can only be verified in the case
of men.” On hearing this reply he struck him with the stick
that he had in his hand and with which he used to indicate
his selection – he gave him a blow on his head with the
stick, and on one side, and the stick broke. At this, he
then took the piece which remained and threw it at him.
Q. In spite of the fact that you were saved in that
incident, were you assigned later for a transport, for
A. Yes. Some days afterwards, about two or three days
later, they brought my parents to the Sered camp. I saw
them as they stood there with the rest of the Jews near the
entrance, and I gave them a sign so that they should
understand that I was not supposed to be there. Later on
they took them and placed them in huts which had been
prepared for the reception of new guests, as we called
them.. I waited until they had gone inside, and then I went
up to them. At that very moment one of the orderlies came
along and told me that I had to report to Brunner. I did
not know what the reason was. When I came to Brunner, he
said to me: “You swine, you sent a letter outside that we
are sending off transports – how did you dare do such a
thing?” I told him that was not correct, that I had not
written and that I had not passed on information to anyone.
The truth was that I had indeed done so, and they had
apparently found my note, for I had sent it with one of the
Q. For this reason he gave an order to deport you?
A. Yes. Standing next to him was the deputy of my
“Aryanizer,” the deputy commander of the “Hlinka Guard” –
and because I maintained that this was not true, he said to
him: “Do you hear what he is saying?” The man stood at
attention and said: “Hauptsturmfuehrer, Sir, I wish to
state, with due respect, that it is true.” With this, he
summoned the orderlies and told them to take me away to
Q. Was it clear to you, on that occasion, that you would now
be included in the transport?
Q. Did you see Mrs. Gisi Fleischmann in the camp?
A. I not only saw her; I was together with her in that room
for a day or a day-and-a-half, that is to say, until the
night before the deportation.
Q. And were you, in fact, supposed to be in the same
A. Yes, we were supposed to be in the same transport.
Q. And your parents were also supposed to be in the same
A. Yes. We were, all of us, registered for the transport,
myself included. Gisi Fleischmann stood there, behind me,
and she tried to speak to Brunner. She wanted to speak to
him several times. And then he turned around, turning his
back on her. Subsequently she said to me: I have to try
once more, and she suddenly stood before him. He said to
her: Get away from here! This one, too, has deceived us.
Q. Mr. Rosenberg, how were you saved this time?
A. That night, before the deportation, we were together, all
of us, in a part of the camp that was guarded by the
“Feldgendarmerie,” which did not belong to the camp itself,
and which had come there during the night. One of the chief
orderlies had brought with him the cap and stripes of an
orderly and said to me, in Slovakian: “Adolo, come quickly!”
I went back, kissed my parents, and fled to a place where I
would be able to change… Previously I had had a moustache,
and I removed it.
Presiding Judge: Is your name Adolo?
Witness Rosenberg: This is a nick-name.
State Attorney Bach: You said that you parted from your
parents. Did your parents know at that time what fate
Witness Rosenberg: Yes. My father said to me, in German:
“Do something to get out of here. Outside you have a wife
and child. I, too, would like to go on living – but what
can I do? This will not last much longer.”
Q. And then, by this means, you got out and were liberated?
A. I went back to the carpentry shop that same night, and
there, in the carpentry shop, we had a place which we called
our bunker. I went inside it. Some boards had been placed
in front of it – they camouflaged the entire bunker, and I
remained there until the transport left.