Attorney General: This is not yet the end of the disaster.
We also have the reports of the year 1942. Here is a
summary on the successes scored in the war against bandits
in Southern Russia, in the Ukraine and in Bialystok from
1September to 1 December 1942 – three months. The report
seems to be important because it is brought to the knowledge
of no less a personage than the Fuehrer himself. It is
typed on a special typewriter which is used for the
convenience of the Fuehrer when he reads it. The
accompanying letter is typed in the usual manner, but the
report is typed on the typewriter known as the
“Fuehrertypewriter.” For the three months October,
November, December 1942, the total of Jews executed is
Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/338.
Attorney General: German armament factories claimed that
this adversely affected the war effort. May I read two
passages of a letter of 2 December 1941 addressed by the
Inspector of Armament Works in the Ukraine to Infantry
General Thomas in Berlin.
Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/339.
Attorney General: “The attitude of the Jews” – so it says on
page 2, second paragraph – “was from the outset one of fear
and submission. They avoided anything the German
administration would find fault with. That they hated deep
in their hearts the German administration and army is
obvious and not surprising. But it has not been proved that
they as a whole have taken part in acts of sabotage or such
like to a large extent. There were among them – just as
among the Ukrainians – some terrorists or saboteurs. But
that the Jews as such were a threat to the Wehrmacht cannot
be maintained.” And the subsequent paragraph: “The manner
in which the “actions” were carried out against men and old
people, women and children of all ages, was ghastly. By the
sheer number of executions this action is so gigantic that
it is without precedent. So far about 150,000 to 200,000
Jews were murdered in part of the Ukraine without the least
consideration of economic requirements.”
Presiding Judge: Was this an internal report of the German
Attorney General: This was an internal report devoted to the
difficulties encountered by the arms factories as a result
of the killings of the Jews.
Presiding Judge: Of the army?
Attorney General: From officer to officer. Not only the
military but also the administration in the East said that
they cannot tolerate the murders. Mr. Kube who as a rule
did not distinguish himself as friendly to Jews – as the
Court heard and will hear again – writes to the
Reichskommissar for the Eastern territory: “To bury alive
severely injured people who then worked their way out of
their graves, is such an abysmal swinish behaviour that it
ought to be brought to the knowledge of the Fuehrer and the
Reichsmarschall. The civil administration in White Russia
has spared no effort – as directed by the Fuehrer and the
Reichsmarschall – to win the population over to Germany.
This effort is incompatible with such methods.” This is
Presiding Judge: He was Kommissar of…?
Attorney General: White Russia.
Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/340.
Attorney General: The same exhibit contains a report sent to
Kube by one of his men named Carl. He describes the
abhorrent murders in Slutsk: “There are no words to describe
the brutality of the German police, and of the Lithuanian
partisans in particular, when they forcibly collected Jews
and murdered them. This can no longer be called an
operation against Jews. This already looked like a
Occasionally the occupation authorities in the East did not
succeed in disguising what was actually going on from their
allies or others. In his aide-memoire of 15 May 1943, von
Thadden gives details of a visit to Minsk by an Italian
delegation. When they enquired about the heaps of small
bundles and suitcases, Kube replied: “This is all that is
left of the Jews deported to Minsk.” He even showed them
the gas van which was used for the killing of Jews. “The
fascists were deeply shocked,” von Thadden concludes.
Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/341. And is this
the same Kube who complained?
Attorney General: Yes, this is the same Kube.
Later we shall see other reports by the same Kube. He who
pretends to complain, some months later writes on 31 July
1942 that the Slutsk region has been relieved of the burden
of several thousand Jews. He mentions that he cannot
receive any more Jews and requests the Reichskommissar to
stop the transports of Jews to Minsk until the partisan
threat has been overcome.
Presiding Judge: This document is marked T/342.
Attorney General: In his statement, Paul Blobel tells us
about killings in gas vans, which Kube inadvertently had
shown the Italians. I have only two copies, Sir. I shall
submit the third one with our marks on it. He says that as
far as he knows no more than 10,000 to 15,000 were killed in
such vans by Sonderkommando 4Q. He also tells us how the
killings in these vans were carried out, of the women and
children who were put to death in them. He denies having
shot 33,000 Jews in Kiev. It may have been no more than
half that number, he says.
Presiding Judge: This is Blobel?
Attorney General: It is Blobel.
Judge Halevi: This was submitted to the Accused, I think.
Attorney General: This has also been submitted to the
Accused, and I think it is in your hands as T/216. I do not
wish to submit the document twice.
Presiding Judge: Blobel’s statement in Case IX.
Attorney General: There exist several statements by Blobel.
To be on the safe side, we may as well leave it in the file.
Let me rather duplicate than omit something.
Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/343.
Attorney General: Now we have some of Eichmann’s dealings
with individual cases of Jews. I shall proceed in
chronological order. The first case is still a light one.
Our No. 128 is sent by IVD4 on 11 September 1940, which
means before the outbreak of the German-Russian war.
Eichmann is asked whether a Jewish couple can be allowed to
go to Russia. He says that he does not care if the Jewish
couple Radzysnski moves from the Generalgouvernement to
Russian territory, by prior approval of the authorities of
the Generalgouvernement. It is noteworthy, Your Honour,
that the Ministry for Foreign Affairs applies to Eichmann
when a question of Jews leaving the Generalgouvernement
Presiding Judge: How do we know that they applied to
Attorney General: He writes “Im Auftrage” (per pro). It is
signed by him. The document emanated from Department IVD4,
with reference to their letter of 20 August 1940, and he
signed it. When the Ministry for Foreign Affairs has a
query concerning Jews – this is our submission – they turn
to Eichmann, irrespective of the territory in question.
Presiding Judge: What is the meaning of “Ein Abschub ist
Attorney General: It is not possible to deport them. With
the approval of the Generalgouvernement it will be possible
to evacuate them to the Russian territory. He explains that
previously the Russians raised no objection to the entry of
Presiding Judge: This is marked T/344.
Attorney General: You have it as T/37(118).
On 30 September 1941 Eichmann informs von Thadden of the
Ministry for Foreign Affairs that the whereabouts of the Jew
Itzig Hersch Reifer of Lvov, or formerly of Lvov, until the
end of October 1942, and registered there, are unknown; he
apparently has crossed the border illegally into Rumania.
He requests that the Consul General of Rumania be notified
Presiding Judge: This is marked T/345.
Attorney General: You have it as T/37(17).
In order to show how Eichmann dealt with the individual case
that follows, I have to present a brief testimony to explain
the documents. With your permission I shall call Mr. Aaron
Judge Raveh: Concerning the previous document, T/344, do
you by any chance have a copy of the communication sent by
the Ministry for Foreign Affairs?
Attorney General: Not to our knowledge. It is clear from
the document that the Rumanian authorities applied to the
Judge Raveh: No, I am talking about the previous one,
Attorney General: We do not have it, Sir. When we have
them, we shall submit the whole bundle of documents on each
individual case, as the Court will see.
Presiding Judge: [to the witness] Do you speak Hebrew?
Witness Silbermann Yes.
[The witness is sworn.]
Presiding Judge: What is your name?
Witness: Aaron Silbermann.
Attorney General: You live in Ness Tsiona, 2 Ezra St.?
Witness Silbermann Yes.
Q. You had a brother-in-law named Gershon Willner?
Q. When was he born?
A. He was born in 1904.
Q. He was married to your sister Miriam?
Q. When did he marry her?
A. In 1938.
Q. He was a dentist?
A. After the marriage he moved to Lvov and opened his
Q. What was his nationality?
A. Argentinian, he also was in possession of an Argentinian
Q. What did he do after the outbreak of the German-Russian
A. Three months after the war broke out he came to us with
his wife Miriam.
Q. Where to?
A. To Jacmierz near Sanok in Galicia. He stayed with us
until 27 December 1941, the day on which the “action” of the
furs was carried out.