- Alfred Jodl
- A. Positions Held By Jodl
- B. Functions Of Jodl’s Positions
- C. Jodl’s Part In The Conspiracy To Commit Crimes Against Peace.
- D. Jodl’s Part In Planning And Launching Wars Of Aggression.
- E. Jodl’s Part In The Conspiracy To Commit War Crimes Against Humanity.
- Legal References And List Of Documents Relating To Alfred Jodl
A. POSITIONS HELD BY JODL.
Operations Department of the Army (Heer), 1932-35. Chief of the National Defense Section in the High Command of the Armed Forces (Abteilung Landesverteidgung im OKW), 1935 — Oct. 1938. Artillery Commander (“Artillerie Kommandeur” of the 44th Division. Vienna and Brno, Oct. 1938 — 27 August 1939. Chief of Operation Staff of the High Command of the Armed Forces (Chef des Wehrmachtsfuhrungstabes in Oberkommndo der Wehrmacht), August 1939 — 1945.
Dates of Promotion:
1932 — Major and Oberstleutnant 1936 — Oberst 1939 — Generalmajor 1940 — General der Artillerie 1944 — Generaloberst (2865-PS).
B. FUNCTIONS OF JODL’S POSITIONS.
Jodl’s most important office was that of Chief of the Operations Staff (Wehrmachtsfuehrungstab) in OKW. In this capacity he was directly subordinate to Keitel and equal in status to other departmental chiefs in OKW. However, insofar as the planning and conduct of military affairs are concerned, Jodl and his staff were more influential than the other departments.
The OKW Operations Staff was also divided into sections. Of these the most important was the “National Defense” section, of which Warlimont was chief. He was primarily concerned with
the development of strategic questions. From 1941 onwards Warlimont, though charged with the same duties, was known as Deputy Chief of the OKW Operations Staff. (3707-PS)
Jodl drafted many directives for Hitler to sign, for the preparation of military operations and plans of deployment, and for the possible initiation and commencement of military measures relating to matters of organization, operations, or “war economics.” While in a theater of operations, Jodl would report twice daily to Hitler about operations, and then prepare the Fuehrer directives. There was direct contact between Hitler and Jodl, though Keitel was kept informed of what passed between them.
In addition to certain ministerial functions, the OKW was Hitler’s military staff. Its most important duty was the development of strategic and operational plans. Such plans were worked out by the OKW Operations Staff in broad outline, and then in more detail by the Commanders and Chiefs of Staffs of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. After Hitler had approved the plans they were transmitted by the OKW to the appropriate military authorities (3705-PS; 3702-PS; 3707-PS).
C. JODL’S PART IN THE CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT CRIMES AGAINST PEACE.
Jodl’s loyalty to the Nazi party doctrine is evident in a speech he delivered on 7 November 1943. He spoke of the National Socialist Movement and its struggle for internal power as the preparation for liberation from the Treaty of Versailles. (L-172)
He also stated, in a speech on the occasion of the attempted assassination of Hitler, that his aims had been in general agreement with the aims of the party. (1808-PS)
At the sixth meeting of the Working Committee of the Reich Defense Council on 7 February 1934 Jodl pointed out that the practical execution of the preparations for mobilization, which had been ordered by the Army and the highest Reich authorities, were making a considerable enlargement of personnel necessary. He suggested, however, that this enlargement of personnel ought not to result in “the disquieting of foreign countries through conspicuous mobilization measures.” (EC-405)
In the presence of Jodl, Generalmajor Keitel pointed out at the eleventh meeting that the mobilization year was to begin on 1 April and to end on 31 March of the following year. A “Mobilization Book for Civilian Agencies” was to be issued for the first time on 1 April 1936. Keitel said that this day, to the extent
possible, should find the nation ready and prepared. He declared that, according to the will of the Fuehrer, the economic management of the country should put the enhancement of military capacity deliberately above all other national tasks It was the function of all members of the Reich Defense Council, he emphasized, to use all available resources economically and to ask for only such funds and raw materials that were absolutely and exclusively needed for the defense of the Reich. Colonel Jodl said that the Mobilization Book for the Civilian Departments constituted the unified basis for the carrying out of mobilization outside of the Army (EC-406).
D. JODL’S PART IN PLANING AND LAUNCHING WARS OF AGGRESSION.
(See “F,” 1 through 7, in Section 4 of this Chapter on Keitel, where the joint responsibility of Keitel and Jodl for these activities is discussed.)
E. JODL’S PART IN THE CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY.
(1) Murder and ill treatment of civilian population in occupied territories and on the high seas. Jodl ordered the forcible evacuation of all persons in a northern district of Norway, and the burning of all their dwellings. This was to be done so that the inhabitants of that area could not help the Russians (754-PS). Shortly thereafter an evacuation took place in Finnmark County in northern Norway, in the course of which 30,000 houses were damaged. (1800-PS)
Jodl was aware that in 1942 there were continual arrests in Belgrade, and that from fifteen to thirty followers of Mihalovic were shot every day. (1383-PS)
Jodl initialled an order signed for Hitler by Keitel, which provided that enemy civilians guilty of offenses against German troops should be killed without a military trial, and that punishment could be waived in the case of German soldiers who committed offenses against enemy civilians. (886-PS)
Rosenberg was appointed by Hitler on 20 April 1941 “Deputy for a Centralized Treatment of Problems concerning the Eastern Territories.” The highest Reich authorities were to cooperate fully, and Keitel was asked to designate a representative of OKW to sit with Rosenberg. Jodl was appointed as Keitel’s representative with Warlimont as his deputy, and Keitel wrote
to Rosenberg on 25 April 1941 that Jodl and Warlimont would be the OKW representatives. (865-PS)
Responsibility for crimes committed under Rosenberg’s authority thus attach to Jodl as well. In this connection reference is made to Section 7 of this chapter on Rosenberg.
(2) Deportation of civilian populations of and in Occupied Territories for slave labor and for other purposes. Jodl knew of the deportation of workers, for he once told Hitler that the military commander of France had reported tat over 220,000 workers had been deported into the Reich in the past six months. (1383-PS)
(3) Murder and ill treatment of prisoners of war, and of other members of the Armed Forces of the countries with whom Germany was at war and of persons on the high seas. On 18 October 1942 Hitler ordered that commando troops, even if in uniform, should be killed, not only in battle, but in flight or while attempting to surrender. This order was issued by Jodl’s department. (498-PS)
A supplementary explanation of the commando order, signed by Hitler, was distributed to commanding officers only, with a covering memorandum dated 19 October 1942, signed by Jodl (503-PS). Several cases are known in which the order was carried out. (508-PS; 509-PS)
Three specific instances were mentioned by the G-3 of the C in C, Norway, where captured members of sabotage units were executed after interrogations which resulted in valuable intelligence. These occurred at Gloafjord, Drontheim, and at Stavanger. (512-PS)
On 23 June 1944 C in C West requested instructions re- defining the scope of the commando order. In view of the extensive landings in Normandy, it had become difficult to decide which paratroops should be considered sabotage troops under the terms of the order, and which should be considered as engaged in normal combat operations. The question was answered by an order of 25 June 1944, one copy of which was signed by Keitel, reaffirming the full force of the original order. (531-PS; 551-PS)
When allied fliers were forced to land in Germany, they were sometimes killed by the civilian population. The police had orders not to protect the fliers, nor to punish civilians for lynching them. A proposal was considered to order the shooting without court-martial of enemy airmen who had been forced down after engaging in specified “acts of terror.” It is not certain that the
order was ever issued, but it is certain that Keitel and Jodl knew of the lynchings, did nothing to prevent them and in fact considered giving them official justification.
Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Article 6. Vol. I, Pg. 5
International Military Tribunal, Indictment Number 1, Section IV (H); Appendix A. Vol. I, Pg. 29,66
[Note: A single asterisk (*) before a document indicates that the document was received in evidence at the Nurnberg trial. A double asterisk (**) before a document number indicates that the document was referred to during the trial but was not formally received in evidence, for the reason given in parentheses following the description of the document. The USA series number, given in parentheses following the description of the document, is the official exhibit number assigned by the court.]
*388-PS; File of papers on Case Green (the plan for the attack on Czechoslovakia), kept by Schmundt, Hitler’s adjutant, April-October 1938. (USA 26). Vol. III, Pg. 305
*444-PS; Original Directive No. 18 from Fuehrer’s Headquarters signed by Hitler and initialled by Jodl, 12 November 1940, concerning plans for prosecution of war in Mediterranean Area and occupation of Greece. (GB 116). Vol. III, Pg. 403
*446-PS; Top Secret Fuehrer Order No. 21 signed by Hitler and initialled by Jodl, Warlimont and Keitel, 18 December 1940, concerning the Invasion of Russia (case Barbarossa). (USA 31). Vol. III, Pg. 407
*448-PS; Hitler Order No. 22, initialled by Keitel and Jodl, 11 January 1941, concerning participation of German Forces in the Fighting in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations. (GB 118). Vol. III, Pg. 413
*498-PS; Top Secret Fuehrer Order for killing of commandos, 18 October 1942. (USA 501). Vol. III, Pg. 416
*503-PS; Letter signed by Jodl, 19 October 1942, concerning Hitler’s explanation of his commando order of the day before (Document 498-PS). (USA 542). Vol. III, Pg. 426
*508-PS; OKW correspondence, November 1942, about shooting of British glider troops in Norway. (USA 545). Vol. III, Pg. 430
*509-PS; Telegram to OKW, 7 November 1943, reporting “special treatment” for three British commandos. (USA 547). Vol. III, Pg. 433
*512-PS; Teletype from Army Commander in Norway, 13 December 1942, concerning interrogation of saboteurs before shooting; and memorandum in reply from OKW, 14 December 1942. (USA 546). Vol. III, Pg. 433
*531-PS; OKW memorandum, 23 June 1944, citing inquiry from Supreme Command West about treatment of paratroopers. (USA 550). Vol. III, Pg. 435
*551-PS; Order signed by Keitel, 26 June 1944, concerning treatment of Commando participants. (USA 551). Vol. III, Pg. 440
*754-PS; Teletype Order signed by Jodl, 28 October 1944, for evacuation of Norwegians and burning of houses. (GB 490). Vol. III, Pg. 544
*789-PS; Speech of the Fuehrer at a conference, 23 November 1939, to which all Supreme Commanders were ordered. (USA 23). Vol. III, Pg. 572
*865-PS; Correspondence between Keitel, Rosenberg and Lammers, April 1941, concerning appointment of Jodl and Warlimont as OKW representatives with Rosenberg. (USA 143). 621
874-PS; Draft letter to Todt, initialled K, J, and W, 9 March 1941, concerning Deception measures. Vol. III, Pg. 634
886-PS; Fuehrer decree, 13 May 1941, on courts martial and treatment of enemy civilians in the district “Barbarossa” signed by Keitel for Hitler, and initialled by Jodl. Vol. III, Pg. 637
*1039-PS; Report concerning preparatory work regarding problems in Eastern Territories, 28 June 1941, found in Rosenberg’s “Russia File” (USA 146). Vol. III, Pg. 695
*1229-PS; OKW Directive to the German Intelligence Service in the East, signed by Jodl, 6 September 1940. (USA 130). Vol. III, Pg. 849
*1383-PS; Extract from transcription of stenographic report on discussion of current military situation, 12 December 1942. (GB 489). Vol. III, Pg. 958
*1541-PS; Directive No. 20, Operation Marita, 13 December 1940. (GB 117). Vol. IV, Pg. 101
1642-PS; Distribution list, 1 March 1941, for secret map of Soviet Union. Vol. IV, Pg. 154
*1746-PS; Conference between German and Bulgarian Generals, 8 February 1941; speech by Hitler to German High Command on situation in Yugoslavia, 27 March 1941; plan for invasion of Yugoslavia, 28 March 1941. (GB 120). Vol. IV, Pg. 272
*1775-PS; Propositions to Hitler by OKW, 14 February 1938. (USA 73). Vol. IV, Pg. 357
*1780-PS; Excerpts from diary kept by General Jodl, January 1937 to August 1939. (USA 72). Vol. IV, Pg. 360
1800-PS; Preliminary report on Germany’s crimes against Norway, prepared by the Royal Norwegian government. Vol. IV, Pg. 375
*1808-PS; Excerpt of speech by Jodl to Officers and officials of Armed Forces Operations Staff, 24 July 1944. (GB 493). Vol. IV, Pg. 377
*1809-PS; Entries from Jodl’s diary, February 1940 to May 1940. (GB 88). Vol. IV, Pg. 377
*2865-PS; Statement by Jodl, showing positions held by him. (USA 16). Vol. V, Pg. 526
*3702-PS; Affidavit of Colonel-General Franz Halder, 7 November 1945. (USA 531). Vol. VI, Pg. 411
*3705-PS; Affidavit of Field Marshal Walter von Brauchitsch, 7 November 1945. (USA 535). Vol. VI, Pg. 415
*3707-PS; Affidavit of Colonel-General Franz Halder, 13 November 1945. (USA 533). Vol. VI, Pg. 419
*3786-PS; Stenographic transcript of a meeting in the Fuehrer’s Headquarters, 27 January 1945. (USA 787). Vol. VI, Pg. 655
*C-2; Examples of violations of International Law and proposed counter propaganda, issued by OKW, 1 October 1938. (USA 787). Vol. VI, Pg. 799
*G-39; Timetable for Barbarossa, approved by Hitler and signed by Keitel. (USA 138). Vol. VI, Pg. 857
*C-59; Order signed by Warlimont for execution. of operation “Marita” 19 February 1941. (GB 121). Vol. VI, Pg. 879
*C-64; Raeder’s report, 12 December 1939, on meeting of Naval Staff with Fuehrer. (GB 86). Vol. VI, Pg. 884
*C-72; Orders postponing “A” day in the West, November 1939 to May 1940. (GB 109). Vol. VI, Pg. 893
*C-75; OKW Order No. 24 initialled Jodl, signed Keitel, 5 March 1941, concerning collaboration with Japan. (USA 151). Vol. VI, Pg. 906
*C-78; Schmundt’s Order of 9 June 1941, convening conference on Barbarossa on 14 June. (USA 139). Vol. VI, Pg. 909
*C-102; Document signed by Hitler relating to operation “Otto” 11 March 1938. (USA 74). Vol. VI, Pg. 911
*C-103; Directive signed by Jodl, 11 March 1938, on conduct towards Czech or Italian troops in Austria. (USA 75). Vol. VI, Pg. 913
C-123; Jodl Order on capitulation of Leningrad, 7 October 1941. Vol. VI, Pg. 929
*C-134; Letter from Jodl enclosing memorandum on conference between German and Italian generals on 19 January 1941 and subsequent speech by Hitler, 20 January 1941. (GB 119). Vol. VI, Pg. 939
*C-152; Extract from Naval War Staff files, 18 March 1941, concerning audience of C-in-C of Navy with Hitler on 18 March 1941. (GB 122). Vol. VI, Pg. 966
*C-167; Report of meeting between Raeder and Hitler, 18 March 1941. (GB 122). Vol. VI, Pg. 977
*C-182; Directive No. 2 from Supreme Commander Armed Forces, initialled Jodl, 11 March 1938. (USA 77). Vol. VI, Pg. 1017
*D-777; Draft of directive, 15 June 1944, from OKW to Supreme Commander of “Luftwaffe” concerning treatment of Allied “Terrorist”flyers. (GB 310). Vol. VII, Pg. 234
*D-779; Letter from Reichsmarshal to Chief of OKW, 19 August 1944, regarding treatment of Allied “Terrorist” flyers. (GB 312). Vol. VII, Pg. 235
*EC-405; Minutes of Tenth Meeting of Working Committee of Reichs Defense Council, 26 June 1935. (GB 160). Vol. VII, Pg. 450
*EC-406; Minutes of Eleventh Meeting of Reichs Defense Council, 6 December 1935. (USA 772). Vol. VII, Pg. 455
*L-79; Minutes of conference, 23 May 1939, “Indoctrination on the political situation and future aims” (USA 27). Vol. VII, Pg. 847
*L-172; “The Strategic Position at the Beginning of the 5th Year of War” a lecture delivered by Jodl on 7 November 1943 at Munich to Reich ad Gauleiters. (USA 34). Vol. VII, Pg. 920
Statement II; A Short Historical Consideration of German War Guilt, by Alfred Jodl, Nurnberg, 6 September 1945. Vol. VIII, Pg. 662
Statement IX; My Relationship to Adolf Hitler and to the Party, by Erich Raeder, Moscow, fall 1945. Vol. VIII, Pg. 707
**Chart No. 7; Organization of the Wehrmacht 1938-1945. (Enlargement displayed to Tribunal.). Vol. VIII, Pg. 776