Hunt Gary D, Part 2

Norman E. Olson, 47, a Baptist minister and gun-shop owner in
Alanson, is the Commander of the 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, Northern
Michigan Regional Militia. After a few months of discussion and
recruitment, the group was established in April 1994. It conducts
training exercises twice a month. At a recent session, weapons
reportedly included Chinese SKS semi-automatic assault rifles,
shotguns and deer rifles.

When residents complained about militia members clad in camouflage
uniforms and painted faces gathering with their rifles at a village
park and a public campground in Pellston, the village council banned
firearms from those and other village sites. Militia commander Olson
threatened to sue the village for allegedly violating his rights. He
also announced that his group would no longer convene in the park or
the campground, saying: “The people of Pellston have got to want the
light of liberty.”

Olson strenuously denies that the Northern Michigan Regional Militia
is racist or anti Semitic. He claims some Jewish ancestry, and
professes admiration for Israel. But his militia’s rhetoric on
occasion has been extreme and alarmist. In reference to the aborted
march on Washington promoted by Indianapolis militia leader Linda
Thompson, Olson has written: “Many thousands are prepared to go to
Washington in uniform, carry their guns, prepared to present the
ultimatum to the President and to Congress. This may be the beginning
of a Concord-like confrontation.” A militia pamphlet distributed at a
May meeting in Petoskey attended by some 55 people reportedly asked:
“What force exists to prevent a state or federally orchestrated
massacre like the one in Waco from occurring in Michigan?” Ray
Southwell, a real estate agent who is the group’s information
officer, has said: “I’d guess that within the next two years, you
will see the Constitution suspended.” His further prediction:
“Christian fundamentalists will be the first to go under fascism this
time. Just like the Jews were the first last time.”

Southwell speaks as though he regards confrontation with law
enforcement as inevitable. His militia is preparing for the day “when
martial law is declared.” “We are taking a stand.” he says, “and are
prepared to lose everything.”

Other militia activists in Michigan have had their own encounter with
the law. Police in Fowlerville (Livingston County) arrested three
militia members on September 8, 1994. Loaded rifles and handguns, as
well as gas masks, night-vision binoculars and two-way radios, were
found in their car. At the men’s scheduled September 14 hearing, at
least two dozen uniformed supporters staged a protest in front of the
courthouse and stomped on a United Nations flag. The suspects failed
to appear and are considered fugitives. They were described by their
supporters as security aides to Mark Koernke (a.k.a. “Mark from
Michigan”), a former Army intelligence officer whose “America in
Peril” video and speeches have helped to recruit members to militias
around the country.

All the confrontational talk has caught the attention of law
enforcement authorities. “Some of their material is disquieting
because it defines the U.S. government as the enemy said a Michigan
State Police commander. “It is disquieting if people think redress is
in armed conflict with the U.S. government.” The head of the Detroit
office of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms expressed the
hope “that the militia groups would use the power of the vote rather
than the threat of armed violent confrontation to accomplish their


Militias are active in Missouri but do not appear to be as
well-organized as in other states. They operate in at least five
southern Missouri counties: Crawford, Green, Barton, Dade and Cedar,
and number collectively approximately 130 members. The militias hold
irregular meetings to view training videos, discuss paramilitary
techniques and exchange literature reflecting right-wing views.

Missouri’s militias are attempting to organize themselves for
political action by, among other things, running candidates for local
office. In keeping with their political aspirations, they have
attempted to avoid any public identification with more extreme
groups. although some members also belong to the John Birch Society
and the Populist Party.


Militias have been forming in Montana since February 1991. While the
rhetoric of these groups focuses on gun control and other familiar
militia causes, examination reveals that some of the leading figures
in the Montana militia movement have also participated in the
activities of racist and anti-Semitic groups.

Meetings have been held across the state, drawing as many as 800 at a
March 10 meeting in Kalispell. Two other meetings there also drew
over 150 participants. Similar gatherings held in Hamilton, Eureka,
Big Timber and Great Falls drew over 200 participants each. Smaller
numbers attended meetings in Sanders County, Billings and Troy. While
the crowds at initial meetings have been large, they have tended to
fall off somewhat at subsequent gatherings.

Montana militias often dwell on the state’s history as an independent
outpost of freedom. A recent militia newsletter quoted, with
approval, Gary Marbut, president of The Montana Shooting Sports
Association (an anti-gun control group) in a call for rejection of
all federal control over the state:

Montanans are fed up with the federal government dictating to Montana
and the people of Montana and we are through with Congress’s
increasing encroachment on the Bill of Rights. We have a thirst for
freedom in Montana, and we simply will not subsist under the boot
heel of federal tyranny. There may be some debate about what the
Second Amendment means to the U.S. Supreme Court or the people of
Peoria, but there is no question about what the Second Amendment
means to the people of Montana. “The great purpose” as Patrick Henry
said, “is that every man be armed.”


The Militia of Montana (M.O.M.) is among the most visible and the
most extreme of such groups in the country. M.O.M. is run in Noxon,
Montana by the Trochmann brothers, John and David and David’s son
Randy. all of whom have long been involved in the white supremacist
movement. The Trochmanns have been members of the Aryan Nations, the
Idaho based neo-Nazi organization that promotes anti-Semitism, white
supremacy and the establishment of a white racist state. John
Trochmann was a featured speaker at the Aryan Nations Congress in
1990. He has also been an active supporter of Randy Weaver, the white
supremacist who was involved in a shoot-out with federal authorities.
Some members of M.O.M. circulate neo-Nazi publications among
themselves. One such book, Seed of the Woman, is a “novel” detailing
the wild exploits of several young neo-Nazis in a contemporary
America peopled by gross stereotypes. Its favorable depiction of
Nazi-inspired slaughter and its promotion of Nazi doctrine make it a
prescription for violence against Jews, blacks. homosexuals and

M.O.M.’s eight-page pamphlet. “The Militia,” discusses the history of
militias and their origin in the United States, arguing that the
Second Amendment was intended to allow the citizens to form
“unorganized” militias in order to protect themselves from a
potentially tyrannical government. It outlines the militia’s role as

To balance the military power of the nation with the might of the
militia will put at odds any scheme by government officials to use
the force of the government against the people. Therefore, when the
codes and statutes are unjust for the majority of the people, the
people will rightly revolt and the government will have to acquiesce
without a shot being fired, because the militia stands vigilant in
carrying out the will of the people in defense of rights, liberty and

The purpose of government is in the protection of the rights of the
people, when it does not accomplish this, the militia is the crusader
who steps forward, and upon it rests the mantle of the rights of the
people. (sic)

Displaying the group s attitude towards taking up arms, John
Trochmann recently said: “We don’t want bloodshed. We want to use the
ballot box and the jury box. We don’t want to go to the cartridge
box. But we will if we have to.”

M.O.M.’s newsletter, Taking Aim, details the ways that the government
is currently failing to protect the rights of the people. It cites
gun control and the crime bill as evidence of this, but also suggests
a variety of conspiracy theories about plans by world leaders to
implement a world government. M.O.M. plays to paranoid fears by
making wild claims about the supposed activity of foreign military
troops in Montana and across the country. One report on the activity
of out-of-state troops brought in to fight forest fires concludes:
“One more note: Mysterious deaths have been taking place since these
troops appeared. Coincidence? We do not know.” While the newsletter
does not echo the racist ideology of the Trochmanns, it makes a
homophobic slur in alluding to rumors regarding Attorney General
Janet Reno’s sexual orientation.

M.O.M. advertises and distributes books, tapes and videos that
provide further “information” on their conspiracy theories. Typical
of the selection is a video advertised as “The Countdown to History
(Biochip – Mark of the Beast) UN Police Force, One World Govt., Chip
implants. All by the year 2000-Totally Documented.” Also offered are
tapes and videos on organizing militias and on survival and combat


M. J. “Red” Beckman, an influential figure in the militia movement,
has a record as an anti-Semite and an anti-tax activist. He recently
lost a long struggle with the IRS when he was finally evicted from
his land long after it had been sold to pay for taxes due the
government. Beckman, like many militia proponents, is a conspiracy
theorist. He has said that the Federal Reserve Bank, the
International Monetary Fund and the so-called New World Order are
conspiring to dominate the world. In his 1984 book, The Church
Deceived, Beckman proclaimed that the Holocaust was a judgement upon
the Jews for worshipping Satan. More recently. he appeared on
KULR-TV, a Montana television station. and repeated his view that
Jews are worshippers of Satan.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire law provides for an “unorganized militia” made up of
all citizens over the age of 18 who are not in the national guard or
state guard. Militia enthusiasts in New Hampshire have pointed to the
state’s legislation (as well as the Second Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution) to explain and justify their seemingly oxymoronic
organization of “unorganized militias.” There is nothing to suggest,
however, that they actually intend to serve according to the spirit
of the laws by which they justify their own existence. Such laws call
for the governor of the state to direct members of the “unorganized
militia” to serve in the National Guard during times of crisis.

New Hampshire is the home of the Constitution Defense Militia, a
well-organized group with at least 15 members. It is not known if the
group engages in paramilitary training or the stockpiling of weapons.

The group has held meetings at the home of Edward L. Brown of
Plainsfield. Brown is outspoken in his support of the concept of
militias and devotes much of his time and energy to the causes
embraced by them: opposition to gun control, the United Nations and
the federal government. He recently lobbied against a bill that would
ban guns in school zones, for example.

While much of Brown’s activity appeals to mainstream opponents of gun
control and big government, his enthusiasm for conspiracy theories
and his reliance on extremist propaganda places him on the far
reaches of the political spectrum. Brown is a devoted reader of The
Spotlight, the organ of Liberty Lobby, the best-funded and most
active anti-Semitic propaganda organization in the United States. In
a recent telephone call to ADL, Brown acknowledged that he gets his
information on domestic and international affairs from The Spotlight.
He recently wrote letters to his Congressman and Senators in
Washington regarding the alleged build-up of hostile foreign troops
inside the United States. Other members of his militia reportedly
also embrace conspiracy fantasies involving the Council on Foreign
Relations, the Trilateral Commission, and the Rockefeller Foundation.

At a recent meeting of the group, members expressed their admiration
for two extremist figures: Bo Gritz and Linda Thompson (see the
sections of this report on Idaho and Indiana). The group has been in
contact with Gritz regarding the organization of militias.

New Mexico

As in neighboring Arizona, the organization of militias in New Mexico
is in the nascent stages. Thus far, the most visible manifestation of
pro-militia sentiment in New Mexico has been found in The Free
American, a monthly newspaper published privately by Clayton R.
Douglas and his wife, Jan Douglas. The September 1994 issue contained
an advertisement declaring: “It’s Time To Take Matters Into Our Own
Hands. It’s Time To Protect Our Constitution! Join The New Mexico
Unorganized Militia.” The accompanying phone number for more
information was the number of the newspaper itself.

The militia movement appears to be taking hold in Catron County, an
area that in recent years has experienced much anti-federal
government sentiment among some residents. Among the groups
attempting to organize a local militia are “Concerned Citizens” and
the “Patriots of Catron County.”

Finally, literature from Linda Thompson’s (see Indiana section)
“Unorganized Militias of the United States.” has been distributed
through gun shops in Albuquerque.

North Carolina

North Carolina’s militia movement has been fueled by an alarmist
vision of a U.S. government bent on the destruction of American

A Monroe-based group called Citizens for the Reinstatement of
Constitutional Government has coalesced around Albert Esposito. He
denies that he is preaching revolution, but his rhetoric includes
clear overtones of preparation for battle with the imagined enemy. He
urges the group to amass caches of the “Four B’s”: Bibles, bullets,
beans and bandages. Many members own semiautomatic weapons, including
AR-15’s and AK-47s.

The group’s program is a mixture of anti-government, religious and
conspiratorial ideas. It aims to “make the Holy Bible and the United
States Constitution the law of the land.” and it vows to “resist the
coming New World Order (one world government).” To accomplish its
goals, it promises to “Remove treasonous politicians and corrupt
judges from positions of authority, and return authority to the
people.” (Precisely how these malefactors are to be removed from
office is not slated.)

Citizens for the Reinstatement of Constitutional Government meets
twice a month, alternating between Monroe, in Union County, and
Matthews, in neighboring Mecklenburg County. At one meeting,
Esposito, a 43-year-old contractor, reportedly repeated G. Gordon
Liddy’s alleged statement about the new crime law’s assault weapons
ban: “He said. If they pass it, don’t obey it. And if they come after
you, meet force with force.”

The group has distributed application forms for the “National Free
and Sovereign Civilian Militia, North Carolina state Division.” The
forms ask applicants whether they are proficient in the operation of
handguns and rifles. “reloading ammo,” and a variety of survivalist

Esposito has espoused his views on guns at Union County
commissioners’ meetings. He also railed against federal encroachment
in announcing his support for a nonbinding resolution passed by the
commission in support of school prayer. Holding a copy of the
Constitution in the air, he declared: “We control the county. Not

Consistent with such anti-federal government views, Esposito says he
has refused to file federal income tax returns for three years
running because he regards the tax as unconstitutional.

The group he leads split off from a tax-protest group in Charlotte
called the Carolina Patriots, three of whose leaders were convicted
in October 1994 of conspiracy to help people avoid their tax
obligations. Esposito’s group has attempted to distance itself from
the Carolina Patriots.

In addition to their views on guns and taxes, members of the Monroe
group have expressed ideas and conspiracy theories that are
characteristic of some other militias around the country. These
include charges that the Federal Reserve system has enriched a tiny
elite (the group’s literature advocates the abolition of the Federal
Reserve), and that some government employees have been implanted with
computer chips in order to monitor the citizenry. Another claim made
at one of the group’s meetings, that the government cannot require
private citizens to obtain a driver’s license, echoes the stand of an
earlier extremist group, the Posse Comitatus.

A separate North Carolina militia group has been formed in
Greenville, in the eastern part of the state. Led by Scott Brown, the
unit is part of the Idaho-based United States Militia Association.
Brown reportedly has said his group worries that government
representatives “don’t really understand what the Constitution means
and stands for, and they’re voting away our unalienable rights.” It
is not known whether the Greenville unit is engaging in any more
incendiary rhetoric or activity. But this fear — which is apparently
spreading and growing — that the government is a threat to the
rights of the people, is a central theme that militia groups are
feverishly trying to exploit.

A computer bulletin board in Alamance County, called “The Spirit of
’76.” has served as an area recruiting point for the militia led by
Linda Thompson, the Indianapolis woman who is a leading figure in the
militia movement nationwide. Another bulletin board system that made
Thompson’s computerized materials available has referred individuals
interested in joining the militia to The Spirit of ’76. For its part,
The Spirit of ’76 has declared itself off limits to police and other
government authorities by posting a warning that states: “This BBS
[bulletin board system] is a PRIVATE system. Only private citizens
who are NOT involved in government or law enforcement activities are
authorized to use it.”


Several militia-like groups have arisen in scattered communities in
the State of Ohio. One such militia has been meeting and conducting
paramilitary training exercises in Pike County in rural south central
Ohio. There is overlapping participation, and a weapons-sales
connection, among the Pike County militia, the neo-Nazi SS Action
Group and the Ku Klux Klan.

Other militia groups have arisen in Franklin County and Warren
County. A militia-type group called “Patriots” meets in Cincinnati
and conducts paramilitary exercises in rural Clermont County.


On July 27 of this year, James Roy Mullins, a founding member of a
militia-like group called The Blue Ridge Hunt Club, was arrested and
charged with the possession and sale of a short-barreled rifle and
unregistered silencers and with facilitating the unlawful purchase of
a firearm. Ultimately, three other members were also charged with
firearm offenses. Federal officials said that Mullins had formed the
club to arm its members in preparation for war with the government.
The cases are pending.

The group, formed earlier in 1994, has had as many as 15 members.
They are said to have met three times before Mullins’ arrest. While
members of the group say that their purpose is to lobby against gun
control laws, federal law enforcement officials tell a much different
story. An ATF official who investigated the case said that “Mullins
is organizing a group of confederates, to be armed and trained in
paramilitary fashion, in preparation for armed conflict with
government authorities should firearms legislation become too
restrictive.” Evidence of such preparation is substantial. In
searches of members’ homes and storage facilities, federal agents
found a stockpile of weapons. In Mullins’ home, agents found 13 guns,
several of which had homemade silencers. They also found explosives,
hand grenades, fuses and blasting caps in a separate warehouse.

Even pretrial incarceration has not stopped Mullins from threatening
violence. While in jail, he wrote a letter to a friend saying that he
wanted to borrow a machine gun in order to “take care of unfinished
business” with certain prosecution witnesses.

The strongest indications of the group’s goals was the draft of a
portion of its newsletter found on a computer disk obtained by
federal agents. On the disk, Mullins had written:

Hit and run tactics will be our method of fighting… We will destroy
targets such as telephone relay centers, bridges, fuel storage tanks,
communications towers, radio stations, airports. etc… human targets
will be engaged … when it is beneficial to the cause to eliminate
particular individuals who oppose us (troops. police, political
figures, snitches, etc.).

An ATF official also said that Mullins was planning to arm the group
by burglarizing the National Guard Armory in Pulaski, Virginia.


Given the revolutionary posturing of so many of the militias, and the
role in them of hatemongers of long standing, the better part of
wisdom dictates that close attention be paid to them. There is a role
here for the press and for citizen organizations that monitor
extremism. The Anti-Defamation League is pledged to do its part.

The chief responsibility for keeping on top of the militia threat,
however, plainly rests with the law enforcement branch of government.
That this responsibility must be implemented with all due respect for
the legal rights to which everyone is entitled should go without
saying. Law enforcement agencies need the requisite resources to
monitor these groups and to take appropriate measures, when
necessary, to protect the public.

One such tool is paramilitary training legislation already on the
books of many states. Those laws (many patterned after a model bill
first formulated by ADL, which is appended to this report) should be
applied, where appropriate. In states where such laws have yet to be
adopted, ADL urges that they be given prompt consideration.

The right to hold and promote one’s views on the issues which are
agitating the militias — such as gun control, the environment, and
abortion — is inviolate under the Constitution. There is no right,
however, to use force or violence either to impose one’s views on
others or to resist laws properly enacted. That is the crux of the
problem presented by the rise of the militias.



A. (1) Whoever teaches or demonstrates to any other person the use,
application, or making of any firearm, explosive or incendiary
device, or technique capable of causing injury or death to persons,
knowing or having reason to know or intending that same will be
unlawfully employed for use in, or in furtherance of, a civil
disorder; or

(2) Whoever assembles with one or more persons for the purpose of
training with, practicing with, or being instructed in the use of any
firearm, explosive or incendiary device, or technique capable of
causing injury or death to persons, intending to employ unlawfully
the same for use in, or in furtherance of, a civil disorder, shall be
fined not more than ___ or imprisoned not more than ___ years, or

B. Nothing contained in this section shall make unlawful any act of
any law enforcement officer which is performed in the lawful
performance of his official duties.

C. As used in this section:

(1) The term “civil disorder” means any public disturbance involving
acts of violence by assemblages of three or more persons, which
causes an immediate danger of or results in damage or injury to the
property or person of any other individual.

(2) The term “firearm” means any weapon which is designed to or may
readily be converted to expel any projectile by the action of an
explosive; or the frame or receiver of any such weapon.

(3) The term “explosive or incendiary device” means (a) dynamite and
all other forms of high explosives, (b) any explosive bomb, grenade,
missile, or similar device and (c) any incendiary bomb or grenade,
fire bomb, or similar device, including any device which (i) consists
of or includes a breakable container including a flammable liquid or
compound, and a wick composed of any material which, when ignited, is
capable of igniting such flammable liquid or compound. and (ii) can
be carried or thrown by one individual acting alone.

(4) The term “law enforcement officer” means any officer or employee
of the United States, any state, any political subdivision of a
state, or the District of Columbia, and such term shall specifically
include, but shall not be limited to, members of the National Guard,
as defined in section 101(9) of title 10, United States Code, members
of the organized militia of any state or territory of the United
States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the District of Columbia,
not included within the definition of National Guard as defined by
such section 101(9), and members of the Armed Forces of the United


Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith

823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017 (212)
1100 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. (Suite 1020),
Washington, D.C. 20036 (202)

P.O. Box 21639, Albuquerque, NM 87154 (505)

The First Interstate Tower, 3550 North Central Avenue (Suite 914)
Phoenix, AZ 85012 (602)

ATLANTA (Southeast)
One Securities Centre, 3490 Piedmont Road, N.E. (Suite 610),
Atlanta, GA 30305 (404)

BOSTON (New England)
1 Lincoln Plaza (Suite 301), Boston MA 02111 (617)

CHICAGO (Greater Chicago/Wisconsin)
309 West Washington (Suite 750), Chicago, IL 60606 (312)

CLEVELAND (Northern Ohio)
505 Terminal Tower, Cleveland, OH 44113 (216)

COLUMBUS (Ohio/Indiana/Kentucky)
42 East Gay St. (Suite 814), Columbus, OH 43215 (614)

419 Whalley Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (203)

DALLAS (Northwest Texas/Oklahoma)
12800 Hillcrest Road (Suite 219), Dallas, TX 75230 (214)

D.C. (D.C./Maryland)
1100 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. (Suite 1020),
Washington, D.C. 20036

DENVER (Mountain States)
300 South Dahlia Street (Suite 202), Devner, CO 80222 (303)

DETROIT (Michigan)
4000 Town Center (Suite 420), Southfield, MI 48075-1405 (810)

HOUSTON (Southwest)
4635 Southwest Freeway (Suite 400), Houston, TX 77027 (713)

LOS ANGELES (Pacific Southwest)
10495 Santa Monica Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (310)

MIAMI (Florida)
150 SE Second Avenue (Suite 800), Miami, FL 33131 (305)

741 Northfield Avenue, West Orange, NJ 07052 (201)

NEW ORLEANS (South Central)
925 Common Street (Suite 975), New Orleans, LA 70112 (504)

NEW YORK CITY (New York City, Westchester, Rockland, Putnam, and Long
823 U.N. Plaza, New York, NY 10017 (212)

125 Wolf Rd. (Suite 504), Albany, NY 12205 (518)

OMAHA (Plains States)
333 South 132 Street, Omaha, NE 68154 (402)

2700 North Main Street (Suite 500), Santa Ana, CA 92701 (714)

The Commerce Center, 324 Datura Street (Suite 223)
West Palm Beach, FL 33401 (407)

PHILADELPHIA (Eastern Pennsylvania/Delaware)
230 South Broad Street, 20th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (215)

7851 Mission Center Court (Suite 320), San Diego, CA 92108 (619)

22622 Vanowen Street, West Hills, CA 91307 (818)

SAN FRANCISCO (Central Pacific)
720 Market Street (Suite 800), San Francisco, CA 94102-2501 (415)

SEATTLE (Pacific Northwest)
Plaza 600 Building (Suite 720), 600 Stewart Street,
Seattle, WA 98101 (206)

ST. LOUIS (Missouri/Southern Illinois)
10926 Schuetz Road, St. Louis, MO 63146 (314)

6330 Newtown Rd. (Suite 326), Norfolk, VA 23502 (804)

30 King David Street, Jerusalem, Israel 94101

Cooperative Association with the League for Human Rights of Canadian
B’nai Brith
15 Hove Street (Suite 210), Downsview,
Ontario, Canada, M3H4Y8 (416)

[Archive Note: For an update to this report, see URL]


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