The Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service
January 19, 1942
Operational Situation Report USSR No. 157
- Einsatzgruppe D
- Location: Simferopol
General situation and mood
The mood was also influenced by the deportaion of Jews, Gypsies and Krimchacks from the Crimea during the period under report. The unfounded fear that the Germans would exterminate the entire population had subsided entirely a few weeks after the occupation of the Crimea. It was revived when the deportation of 12 - 13,000 Jews, Krimchaks and Gypsies was started in the beginning of December. It surfaced for the first time due to Bolshevik proaganda spread by Jewish refugees and [German] soldiers' gossip; the Jews were convinced that they would be shot and not deported, while the population was terrified of being deported by the Germans. A few days after the deportations, calm set in. While the population in the towns of Simferopol, Karasubasar, and Mushta were quiet again, the Karaites in Yevpatoria are still convinced that their turn has come now. On December 20, 1941, they even delivered all the gold in their possession to the Teolkommando leader, a large amount, as a sign of their loyalty. Obviously they do so from fear and in the hope that this would prevent their deportation.
The deportation of the Jews, Krimchaks, and Gypsies, which is seen almost without exception as the last deportation, is generally welcomed. This again proves the general rejection of Jewry on the part of the population, in the countryside as well as in the towns. The identical treatment for Jews and Krimchaks is looked upon as natural because the Krimchaks are generally regarded as Jews.
According to th experiences recorded to date, the majority of the population knows, even if only vaguely, about recent developments in the war situation in the Crimea and the rest of the eastern front. In recent days, from time to time, there was a rumor that the Russians are advancing toward Moscow and Rostov and that the German troops in the Crimea are in danger. The effect, however, is not so much joy as fear that with the return of the Russians, a new wave of liquidations and deportations could occur. The Tartars, who freely offered their services to the Germans, declared that they can only accept existence under German protection. They rightly assume that they would be totally exterminated if the Reds returned.
The fact that 7,000 Russian prisoners of war, taken during the occupation of Feodosia, broke out and did not flee towards the landed Russian troops but rather started marching almost unguarded towards the German troops in order to reach Simferolpol indicates the extent of the rejection of Bolshevism as well as indifference and rejection of the war among other sectors of the population.
The Security and SD-work was intensified during the time covered by the report, the aim being the final elimination of unreliable elements. With special regard to the utilization of Tartars, the confidential agents' network at Simferopol is ready for action. Individual resulta are already at hand. Among others that were caught during the last few days were Ivanov Ivanovich, friend and assistant to Mokrousov, partisan-leader of the Crimea, at present employee of the town administration, and Petchenko, one of the partisan leaders, who was staying in the town.
Katchura, generally known throughout the Crimea to be a notorious NKVD agent, having thousands of lives on his conscience, was last seem in Simferopol.
Hazanov, party organizer and commander of an extermination battalion.
Vera Sergevner and her sister Maria, liason agents between Simferopol and Mokrousov.
Exdorf, head of police district 6, a Jew with false papers, a member of an extermination battalion.
685 Jews, 1,639 partisans and Communists were shot between January 1 and 15, for a total of 80,160. The fight against partisans was primarily conducted by intelligence work during the time covered by the report. Where troops and armed Tartars were available, actions were undertaken, the Kommandos supplying data and leadership. Tdraktash near Sudak was attacked by 80-90 partsans and isolated Soviet soldiers. The Tartar Sef-Defense Company which had already been organized was mobilized by Sonderkommando 10b. The results: 50 prisoners, 10 dead, one heavy machine-gun, five rifles, ammunition, and other material was captured. One Tartar was wounded. The Tattar Self-Defense Company stood the test very well. Four partisans were killed and one taken prisoner by Kommando 11b in the course of reconnonitering near Alushta.
(The Einsatzgruppen Reports by Yitzak Arad, Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector, editors. p. 284-86)
For additional information about the mobile killing units, and what
the Allies had discovered about their operations, see
Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew by Richard Breitman, and
Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland by Christopher R. Browning
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