The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)
Nuremberg, war crimes, crimes against humanity

The Trial of German Major War Criminals

Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany
9th August to 21st August 1946

Two Hundred and Fourth Day: Thursday, 15th August, 1946
(Part 1 of 5)

[Page 188]

THE PRESIDENT: Sir David, I have one or two announcements to make. The Tribunal will sit in closed session this afternoon. There will be no open session after one o'clock today. The Tribunal will not sit in open session on Saturday.

The affidavit of the Polish priest which was offered the other day is admitted.

A request has been made to the Tribunal that the report of Colonel Neave be made available to counsel for the SS. The Tribunal has requested Colonel Neave to prepare for its assistance summaries of the evidence of witnesses heard before the Commission, and a report grouping the testimony of the witnesses before the Commission with respect to the points on which they have given evidence. These summaries and the report mentioned are not parts of the record and are not accorded any evidential value by the Tribunal, which has before it, and will consider, the transcript of the entire evidence before the Commission. Counsel for the organizations and counsel for the prosecution may see these documents and may comment on them in their arguments within the time heretofore allowed, but the Tribunal will not grant any delay or any additional time for argument with regard to them.

The Tribunal has also received an application that Dr. Klefisch might make a speech on the law with reference to the organizations, and a speech in writing has been deposited with the Tribunal on behalf of Dr. Klefisch. The Tribunal does not propose to hear an additional speech on behalf of the organizations, but it will consider the speech in writing which has been deposited by Dr. Klefisch.

I now turn to a completely different subject. The Tribunal has been informed that some of the defendants have deposited long statements for translation by the translation division.

There is no necessity for the defendants' statements to be translated, and they will not be translated by the translation division. The Tribunal draws the attention of the defendants and their counsel to the order of 23rd July, 1946, which was in the following terms: "In view of the full statements already made by the defendants and their counsel, the Tribunal assumes that if it is the desire of the defendants to make any further statements, it will be only to deal with matters previously omitted. The defendants will not be permitted to make further speeches or to repeat what has already been said by themselves or their counsel, but will be limited to short statements of a few minutes each to cover matters not already covered by their testimony or the arguments of counsel." The Tribunal will adhere strictly to this order, and the defendants will not be allowed to make statements which last longer than, as the order says, "a few minutes." These statements will be made by the defendants from their places in the dock.

That is all.

SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: My Lord, the affidavit of the Polish priest to which your Lordship referred is Document 4043-PS, and now becomes GB 606.


Q. Witness, before the Tribunal adjourned, you made a comment on a note of Captain Roehm on the Document 2822-PS, which was a minute from General von Reichenau to the Supreme SA Command.

[Page 189]

SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: My Lord, it is in Document Book "Y," the original document book.


Q. Now, you see what that document is, that von Reichenau is saying that the desire has been transmitted to him from the Defence Policy Bureau of the Party to be also represented in the Reich Defence Council. He goes on to say:

"I want to submit for consideration that this representation be combined in personal union with the representation of the Supreme SA Command, and that possibly one suitable person be charged with both representations."
Now, look at these words which you mentioned yesterday, as suggesting that there was nothing military in the wishes of the SA. Are these the words? Follow and see that I get them right. "An Krueger," nein, "Mit Reichenau am - " and then the figures - "16 and 11, vereinbart als Vertreter," then "O.B.S.A.F." I will repeat that, "der O.B.S.A.F. Krueger." Does that mean now that the two parts of the representation are not to be combined, agreed with Reichenau on the 16th of the 11th, that the representative of the supreme SA leadership is Krueger. In other words, that Krueger was to represent the SA leadership on the Reich Defence Council. Is that not what Roehm has written?

[Max Juettner] A. Krueger was the Chief of Training and Instruction, and as such -

Q. First of all, answer my question. Is not that what is there, that Krueger is to be the representative of the SA leadership on the Reich Defence Council?

A. According to this remark, yes.

Q. That was the remark that you were trying to make out yesterday, showing that the SA were not connected with military matters. It shows they were represented directly on the Reich Defence Council, does it not?

A. I gave reasons yesterday why that was, namely, for clearing the territory left of the Rhine for the event which I also mentioned yesterday, a clearing out of men of the population.

SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: My Lord, in the interest of time, I should ask the Tribunal's approval of the following course: I have a certain number of new documents which are of a public nature. I shall propose to put them in without referring to the witness unless there is any point that the Tribunal would like to put to him. Then when we come to documents with which the witness can help the Tribunal I shall cross-examine on them.

My Lord, I think there would be some saving of time. I hope the Tribunal will approve.


SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: If your Lordship pleases. If your Lordship would look at the Document Book 16B, at Page 53.

THE PRESIDENT: The defence counsel of course have these documents, have they not, or will have them?

SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: Certainly, my Lord, they will be given to them as we go along.

DR. BOEHM: Mr. President, I have not got these documents.

THE PRESIDENT: You are just going to be given them, I think.

SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: My Lord, the documents will be given to defence counsel as I read them.

THE PRESIDENT: Certainly, that is what I was asking.

SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: My Lord, this is Document D-951 - I think it is my fault - I did not give the number. My Lord, that becomes GB 607. My Lord, it is a letter, it begins with a letter of Roehm's, then the Chief of Staff

[Page 190]

of the SA, and it encloses a letter from Blomberg to Hitler. My Lord, it is the second enclosure that is important. That is from Berlin on 2nd March, 1934, to the Reich Chancellor:
"I feel it my duty to draw attention once more to the significance of the staff guards of the SA. According to the order of the Chief of Staff, every corps and division (Obergruppe and Gruppe) is to form an armed staff guard with a heavy machine-gun company. This formation is at present taking place. According to the report of the Sixth Military District Headquarters, the SA Brigadefuehrer are also said to be already considering forming such a staff guard, and to be engaging SA men for one to one and a half years' service for this purpose. Selection and training have to take place with the aim of appearing in public. Numerically this would amount to from six to eight thousand SA men permanently armed with rifles and machine-guns in the area of the Sixth Military District Headquarters alone. A particularly awkward factor is that the creation of these staff guards relies on so-called SA auxiliary camps (Hilfswerklager), which are mostly situated in the big towns."
And I call the Tribunal's special attention to the next sentence.
"Today I have received the report that in Hochst on the Main, that is, in the neutral zone, the creation of such an armed staff guard is taking place. Such behaviour renders illusory all the Wehrmacht's care and that of the Krueger depots within the neutral zone which are influenced by it. As the Chief of Staff is away from Berlin I am sending this report direct to the Chancellor.
Signed, von Blomberg."
Do you not realize that is two years before the occupation of the neutral zone on the Rhine? Then, if your Lordship will be good enough to turn over to Page 129, which is Document 4013-PS, that will become GB 608. That is a letter from the defendant Rosenberg, from the local editor's office in Berlin to the Munich editor's office, presumably of the Beobachter:
"The Munich editor's office shall forward immediately in a well-closed envelope the following communication to the Chief of Staff. The authorities here learned that Austrians in Berlin have informed Vienna - " and your Lordship will note that this is 3rd February, 1934 - the Dolfuss Putsch was in July, 1934 - "that the SA plans to have the Austrian formations in Bavaria march into Austria around the 8th or 9th February. Then a military dictatorship would be proclaimed. This morning I had an inquiry from very important English quarters whether it could be possible that, behind the backs of Hitler and Habicht, the Austrians in Germany could invade Austria. My informant added that so far the Austrian charges had been laid aside, but this information had come from such a reliable source that they simply had to contact us. I am afraid of a possible provocation by hired elements which, if announced to the world just at that time, could produce conflicts. I explained that the Fuehrer is not following a peace policy with Poland in order at the same time to start military conflicts with Austria. I report this matter so that if occasion requires the Supreme SA Command may take the necessary steps."
Now, my Lord, the next is the Czechoslovakian matter. If your Lordship turns to Page 65 of the book - that is Document EC 366-1. My Lord, that is exhibit GB 609. It is a report on 11th October, 1938, dealing with the position of the Sudeten Frei Corps in September, 1938. It is made by Lt.- Colonel Koechling, who was the special delegate of the OKW to the Youth Leader of the German Reich. I can give your Lordship the passages very shortly. On the first page, your Lordship will see, about the sixth line from the bottom:
"There were an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 men in the reception camps and villages along the active front."

[Page 191]

If your Lordship will turn to Page 66, line two says that the groups were formed into battalions and so on. Then, line 6
"Supplies had been organized by the SA in conjunction with the NSV, and went smoothly from the very beginning. A very small amount of arms, consisting of Austrian carbines, had been supplied by the Austrian SA."
Then, four lines farther on:
"With magnificent camaraderie and unselfishness, the supreme SA leadership had looked after the Freikorps materially."
Ten lines on:
"Equipping and feeding remained in the care of the NSV and the SA."
Then, my Lord, on Page 67, the fourth line:
"Here again the SA helped in part with available signals apparatus."
Six lines from that:
"The building up of the groups and staffs in the manner ordered was only possible owing to the effective support of the liaison officers provided to each group by the OKH."
Then, four lines on:
"In this the liaison officers were particularly well supported by the German SA leaders from the Reich, who had been put into the Freikorps battalions by the SA. Without their camaraderie and their readiness to do their duty the Freikorps could not have carried out its task.

The supreme leaders appointed to the Freikorps by the supreme SA leadership also contributed essentially to the building up of the Freikorps and to its successes."

And then, my Lord, on the next page there is some discussion about the way the work went on and how the SA continued to help. I think from there, if your Lordship will turn now to Page 71, you can see what this Freikorps did under this SA guidance.

The last paragraph, my Lord, is:

"The force carried out more than 200 minor undertakings, in which they lost nearly 100 dead and more than 50 wounded, and captured more than 2,000 prisoners and a great deal of booty of all kinds" - see Appendix I - "so that the task which the Fuehrer had demanded as a foundation for his foreign political negotiations may be considered as having been completed."
Now, my Lord, in Appendix I your Lordship will see a list of the casualties and the prisoners and the guns and equipment that were captured. Of course, the Tribunal will remember that all this happened in a time of peace, when all the defendants have been so anxious to point out to us that no war ever started - that is, before Munich.

Your Lordship will remember that I asked the witness yesterday whether the training of the SA in the middle of the war, in 1941, differed from the training that was given in peace. I only want to give your Lordships the different documents in which the training is found. I am not going to take them in detail, but I will indicate what they contain in a moment.

My Lord, the first is a memorandum on training dated 23rd February, 1934. That is 1849-PS, and your Lordship will find it on Page 82 of the document book; that becomes GB 610. On Pages 89 to 104 of the book your Lordship will find the training course.

Now, my Lord, the next document in order of date is 2354-PS, which is Exhibit U.S.A. 430, and is in the old SA Document Book. That is the organization book for 1938, which contains the training of the SA, including the military training, throwing hand grenades and so on.

My Lord, what I proposed to do was to summarize the points of similarity at the end, and if your Lordship will check, you can see if my summary is right.

[Page 192]

The next document is D-925, which will become GB 611, which your Lordships will find on Page 32 of Document Book 16B. My Lord, that is a list of the contents of the handbook of the SA, and it must be after 1937 because there is a reference to the people's gas mask of 1937 on Page 36. I have not got the exact date. If your Lordship would merely like to note the sections, they are 8, 9, and 10 under the letter "E." No. 8 is musketry; 9 is training in terrain; and "E" is the training for the attack.

Then there is a lecture of Lutze, which was given in 1938, and that is Document 3050-PS, which is a large bundle of extracts from the SA Mann. My Lord, this is in a special bundle from which we have had translated certain articles, and it is No. K - 3050-K. As I say, my Lord, it is a lecture of Lutze, of whom this witness has talked so much, given on 14th May, 1938.

Then, my Lord, the next is a document that Major Barrington put in yesterday. It is D-918, which is Page 1 of Document Book 16B. These are the training directives for 1939; they go from Page 1 to Page 21.

My Lord, apart from the training - which is dealt with at length and which, as I say, I will summarize - there is one point on Page 21 which I would be grateful if the Tribunal would note. This is apart from training, but I do not want to go back to the document.

On Page 21 your Lordship will see, under the letter "H": "Aids to the preparation and carrying out of the training," and under No. 4, the SA Mann. Just a point on that, my Lord.

The last document of this series is on Page 108 of Document Book 16B, and that is 3993-PS, which will become 612. It is a letter from Lutze to the defendant Rosenberg, dated 30th January, 1939:

"Please accept my thanks for your congratulations relating to the Fuehrer's decree which assigns all pre- military and post-military training to the SA."
Now, my Lord, the common factors of these documents are, as can be seen first of all, that they deal with musketry, the general handling of arms, and all the concomitant matters. Secondly, the use of terrain, including -

THE PRESIDENT (interposing): Sir David, the Tribunal would like you to put that last document that you have been dealing with, 3993-PS, to the witness.

SIR DAVID MAXWELL FYFE: My Lord, I will certainly do that.

(A document was submitted to the witness.)

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