Nuremberg, war crimes, crimes against humanity

The Trial of German Major War Criminals

Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany
29th July to 8th August 1946

One Hundred and Eighty-Ninth Day: Monday, 29th July, 1946
(Part 10 of 12)

[GENERAL RUDENKO continues.]

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The defendant Ernst Kaltenbrunner was considered by Himmler as the most deserving successor to that henchman, Heidrich [Heydrich], executed by Czech patriots.

On 30th January, 1943, he was appointed Head of the Reich Main Security Office and Chief of the SD.

Numerous documents, and especially directives signed by Kaltenbrunner, for the mass deportation of people to the concentration camps, the testimonies of his subordinates, including the depositions of Walter Schellenberg, former Chief of Security (Amt VI), and of Otto Ohlendorf, Chief of the Security Service of the Interior, fully convict Kaltenbrunner of the most heinous crimes.

At the session of 12th April, 1946, in the course of Kaltenbrunner's examination, the testimonies of Johann Kandutor, ex-prisoner of Mauthausen, were read into the record. In his depositions, Kandutor described as follows the manner in which Kaltenbrunner passed his time on one of his visits to the camp:

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"Laughing, Kaltenbrunner entered the gas chamber; then the prisoners were led from the barracks to execution and all three methods of execution were demonstrated - hanging, shooting in the nape of the neck and asphyxiation by gas."
I shall not dwell upon the numerous proofs available, since they have been sufficiently clarified before the Tribunal. There is only one point of the accusation against Kaltenbrunner on which I consider it necessary to dwell.

Together with other RSHA organizations, Kaltenbrunner took over from Heidrich five "Einsatzgruppen." The citizens of the Soviet Union well remember these criminal organizations of German Fascism, headed by Kaltenbrunner.

"Einsatzgruppe A" reached the approaches to Leningrad. It created the "Fort of Death No. 9" near Kaunas and the secret centre for the mass extermination of human beings in Panarai; it carried out executions by shooting in the woods of Salaspilsk and Bikerneksk near Riga; it erected gallows in the parks of one of Leningrad's suburbs - the Pushkino.

"Einsatzgruppe B" settled down in the vicinity of Smolensk.

It burnt alive the peasants of Byelorussia; it shot down the victims of the awful Pinsk "action"; it drowned thousands of Byelorussian women and children in the Mosyr marshes; it operated with "murder vans" in Minsk; it liquidated the ghetto in the "Verchni Sadkov" district of Smolensk.

"Einsatzgruppe C" was billeted in Kiev. This group carried out the mass "action" in Baby-Yar near Kiev, an execution unmatched in cruelty, when 100,000 Soviet citizens perished on a single day.

"Einsatzgruppe D" operated in the southern regions of the temporarily occupied territories of the Soviet Union. This group was the first to experiment with the "murder vans" on Soviet citizens in the district of Stavropol and in Krasnodar.

And when Kaltenbrunner's fate will be decided, all the victims asphyxiated in the " murder vans " near Stavropol, buried alive in the graves near Kiev and Riga, burnt alive in the Byelorussian villages, must never be forgotten.

All these innocent victims are on his unclean conscience.

Successor to a hangman, and himself a hangman, Kaltenbrunner carried out the most revolting function in the common criminal plan of the Hitlerite clique.


I shall now summarize the evidence relevant to the guilt and responsibility of the defendant Rosenberg.

In spite of Rosenberg's efforts to minimize both his role and his importance, in spite of his efforts to juggle with historical facts and events - he cannot deny that he was the official ideologist of the Nazi Party, that as long as a quarter of a century ago he had laid the "theoretical" foundations of the Fascist Hitlerite State, and that during this whole period he morally corrupted millions of Germans, preparing them "ideologically" for the monstrous crimes committed by the Hitlerites - crimes unprecedented in history, and which are the subject of this trial.

When, at the trial, Rosenberg was asked: "Were you not one of Hitler's closest collaborators? " he did not even speak - he shouted in reply: "That is not true. I never was." But however hard Rosenberg tried to deny his "Fuehrer," he has not succeeded in washing away the stigma of being "one of the oldest and the most faithful of Hitler's comrades-in-arms." For twenty-five years Rosenberg, first acting as Hitler's collaborator and afterwards under his direction, worked out and assisted in the realization of the fantastic plan for world supremacy, having chosen, for the justification of this criminal plan, the man- hating theory of racialism.

The fact that Rosenberg utilized for his purposes garbage of science and borrowed some of his theories from Karl Luger and Paul Lagarde, Count Gobino and

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Liapouch, Oswald Spengler and Arthur Meller, cannot affect the question of Rosenberg's guilt and responsibility.

The important fact is that Rosenberg, having assembled all these scientific excreta, raised the racial theories to a degree of racial fanaticism and educated, in this spirit, the members of the Nazi Party and the youth of Germany. And when the representatives of the "master race" elaborated and committed acts of aggression, when the German oppressors enslaved and exterminated nations and peoples, when the factories of death were created at Maidanek and Auschwitz, Rosenberg's share in all these crimes was not insignificant.

All this was the outcome of the Fascist racial ideology, the essence of which consists in the idea that the "Aryan," "North Germanic" race is a "master race," and that all other races and nations belong to "lower strata."

Rosenberg's counsel said: "The Tribunal must judge crimes and not theories." In Rosenberg's case, such an argument is clearly unconvincing. For Rosenberg not only confessed the Fascist racial theory, but knowingly propagated it and instilled it into the conscience of the German people, this very theory which became a direct menace to the existence of the democratic European States. The person who carries microbes must be isolated, but the person who willingly disseminates microbes must be tried.

Rosenberg's criminal activities were not limited to the ideological preparation for aggression and to the propagation of man-hating theories. His activities had many facets.

The criminal activities of the foreign policy department of the NSDAP have already been sufficiently elucidated at this trial; this department, which for many years was subordinated to the defendant Rosenberg, was in charge of the semi-legal Nazi agencies abroad. The participation of this organization in the measures of foreign policy undertaken by Hitlerite Germany and in the initiation of aggressive wars is very great indeed.

One of the documents submitted by Neurath's counsel and accepted by the Tribunal reads as follows:

"... there existed at one time in Berlin three sorts of ministries for foreign affairs: Rosenberg's ministry, Ribbentrop's ministry, and the official ministry on the Wilhelmstrasse."
And finally, Rosenberg's letter to Hitler of 6th February, 1938, stressed his real influence on the foreign policy of Hitlerite Germany and his "merits" in this field, When he applied for membership in the Secret Council of the Cabinet.

I see no necessity to give an analysis of all Rosenberg's criminal activities and I only intend to dwell, very briefly, on his activities as "Fuehrer's Plenipotentiary" and, later, as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories. In these functions he exercised his talents, as a participant in the criminal conspiracy, with much activity.

Rosenberg declares that he was against war with the USSR and that he learned from Hitler about the preparations for an attack against the USSR only when all the orders to military channels had already been issued, and that he never really had any influence on the foreign policy of Hitlerite Germany. I affirm, your Honours, that all these declarations of Rosenberg are false.

It is a well-known fact that the plan for a German crusade against Soviet Russia was actually the starting-point of the National Socialist foreign policy, as set out in the 192 1 New Year publication of the Volkischer Beobachter, and that the author of this policy was Alfred Rosenberg. It was Rosenberg who, inspired by Ludendorf and Rechberg, propagated - together with Hitler - a foreign policy directed towards the creation of an anti-Semitic, anti-Bolshevik and anti-British continent of Europe.

Rosenberg's speeches, setting out plans for the "exchange" of the Polish Corridor against the Ukraine, his "diplomatic" journeys into certain countries after the seizure of power by the Fascists, his clumsy efforts to realize the foreign policy programme of the Fascist Party - were disclosed in detail in the Press.

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The documents submitted give a clear picture of Rosenberg's feverish activities in April, 1941, during the period immediately preceding the attack by Germany on the USSR - when he was nominated "Fuehrer's Plenipotentiary for the supreme control of the questions connected with the Eastern European territories."

On 7th April, 1941, two weeks prior to his nomination, Rosenberg sent his proposals to Hitler for the division of the Soviet Union into Reich Commissariats and for the appointment of Fascist governors for the occupied territories. Byelorussia and the Ukraine, Minsk and Kiev, Rostov and Tbilisi, Leningrad and Moscow, were all enumerated in Rosenberg's proposals. For the post of Reich Commissar of Moscow, Rosenberg recommended the notorious Erich Koch.

We have heard about Rosenberg's meetings with Brauchitsch and Raeder and of his conferences with Funk, General Thomas, Secretary of State Backe and others, on the question of economic exploitation of the Eastern territories, and about his negotiations with Ribbentrop, the SS Chief of Staff and the Chief of the German Intelligence Service, Admiral Canaris. Already six weeks prior to the attack on the USSR, he drafted directives for all the Reich Commissars of the occupied Eastern territories, in which he provided for a "Reich Commissariat `Russia'" and a "Reich Commissariat 'Caucasus,'" whilst the Byelorussian Republic was to form a part of the "Reich Commissariat 'Ostland.'"

Rosenberg attempted to affirm that he did not share in the aggressive and predatory aims of the war against the USSR, and that, in his capacity of Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, he all but loaded with benefits the population of these territories. And this he dares to affirm when the directive to the Reich Commissar of the Baltic States and Byelorussia described his aims as follows:

" . . . the creation of a German protectorate for the purpose of subsequent inclusion of these regions in the Greater German Reich, by the Germanization of elements suitable from the racial point of view, by the colonization by representatives of the German race and by the extermination of all undesirable elements."
And the following was said in addition to recommendations made in another of Rosenberg's directives on the subject of the civil administration in the Eastern occupied territories:
"Our main task . is the furtherance of the interests of the Reich. The regulations of the Hague Convention regarding land warfare are not valid, since we can consider that the USSR has been destroyed.... For this reason, all measures which the German administration may consider necessary or convenient are admissible."
Rosenberg was too hasty in his assertion that the USSR was destroyed; lie let the cat out of the bag and gave away his secret plans. But this document is also an irrefutable proof, invalidating all the attempts of the defendant to cast the burden of responsibility for the monstrous Crimes perpetrated by the German Fascist aggressors throughout the occupied territories of the USSR from his own shoulders to those of individual officials and policemen, of Koch and Himmler. It was Rosenberg who permitted the repudiation of the Hague Convention and the utilization of all measures which might seem "convenient." When Koch for his "convenience" exterminated the population of the entire Zuman district, he was merely acting in the spirit of this directive.

Rosenberg described here his dissensions with Koch; he alleged that he has followed a humanitarian policy and even imported agricultural machinery.

Even if Rosenberg did indeed, from time to time, object to Koch's actions, it was only because he was afraid of premature publicity, because he was afraid that Koch's unparalleled ill-treatment of the Ukrainian people would only strengthen the resistance movement. Rosenberg was influenced by fear and not by any humanitarian considerations. Rosenberg's true policy is set out in numerous documents which have now become known to the public opinion of the world and which are in the files of the Tribunal.

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In an "Official Note for Fuehrer," dated 16th March, 1942, Rosenberg set out the aims of the German policy in the occupied territories of the USSR and, primarily, in the Ukraine:
"... the utilization of minerals, the creation of a German colony in certain regions, noartificial intellectual development of the population, but its preservation as a source of manpower."
In his report on the reorganization of the Caucasus, Rosenberg wrote that:
"The problem of the East consists in the transplanting of the Baltic nations to the soil of German culture and in the preparation for the large-scale expansion of German frontiers. The task of the Ukraine is to secure necessar food supplies for Germany and Europe, and raw materials for the continent. The problem of the Caucasus is primarily a political problem and it will lead to the expansion of continental Europe, headed by Germany, from the isthmus of the Caucasus to the Near East."
And finally, I would like to point out that it was Rosenberg who had made the following statement, at a conference of the German Labour Front, on the policy adopted in the occupied USSR territories:
"It is obvious that if we are to subjugate these peoples, arbitrary justice and tyranny will be the most suitable form of government."
The defence affirms that Rosenberg and his " Einsatzstab " were not concerned with the plunder of cultural treasures, but with their preservation. This statement is also entirely false. Numerous documents read into the record at this trial have proved that as early as April, 1941, i.e., more than two months prior to the attack on the USSR, Rosenberg was organizing special units and staffs and was elaborating plans for the removal of the cultural treasures of the Soviet Union.

On 16th October, 1941, Rosenberg wrote to Hitler as follows:

"I have now issued an order to a similar operative staff of my organization to carry out in the Eastern occupied territories the work already accomplished in the West.

... Having the whole picture before our eyes, we can satisfy all the just wishes and demands of the Greater German Reich. On this basis I would also be willing personally to guarantee that all the art treasures from the Linz and other museums which can be utilized for your own plans were factually used for this purpose."

On 17th October, 1944, Rosenberg wrote to Lammers that for the transport of goods "listed" by his organization it was necessary to use 1,418,000 railroad cars, whilst 427,000 further tons were shipped by water. In this same letter Rosenberg mentioned that amongst the confiscated goods removed to Germany there were 9,000 cars with agricultural and other machinery.

And after this, he dares to speak about some machines which he has allegedly imported into the Ukraine!

And finally, I shall speak about the ridiculous theory of the so-called Rosenberg's "noble anti-Semitism." It is absurd to argue with Rosenberg's counsel, who affirms that such a thing as a "noble anti- Semitism " really exists, and it is all the more absurd to argue with Rosenberg. In my statement to the Tribunal, I threw some light on the Fascist propaganda contained in the speeches of the defence. I would now like to recall to the Tribunal the text of two of Rosenberg's documents In his directive of 29th April, 1941, he wrote:

"The general solution of the Jewish problem must, at the present moment, be carried out by methods of a temporary nature. Slave labour for Jews, the creation of the ghetto, etc., must be the solution of this problem."
Even more cynical and frank is the statement made by Rosenberg in November, 1942, when he, in his capacity of Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, addressed a conference of the German Labour Front:
"We must not be satisfied," said Rosenberg, "with the deportation of Jews to another country and with the creation, here or there, of a large Jewish

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ghetto; no, our object must always remain the same. The Jewish problem in Europe and in Germany will be solved only when there are no more Jews left on the European continent."
And the operations "Kotbus," the extermination of Jews in the Baltic towns, in the Ukraine and Byelorussia-all these were carried out in conformity with Rosenberg's theories and with his agreement.

In 1937, Rosenberg received the German national prize. Commenting on this event, the Fascist Press wrote as follows:

"Alfred Rosenberg has brilliantly succeeded with his books in building up the scientific and spiritual foundations and in consolidating and strengthening the philosophy of National Socialism.

Only future generations will be able fully to appreciate the profound influence of this man on the philosophical foundations of the National Socialist State."

But the future has now become the present. And I am sure that the Tribunal will be able duly to appreciate not only the influence exercised by Rosenberg on the " philosophical foundations of the National Socialist State," but also his active participation in all the crimes against peace and humanity perpetrated by the Hitlerites.

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