The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Fifty-First Day: Tuesday, 5th February, 1946
(Part 11 of 14)

Now I come to Exhibit RF 1222, of which I shall also read only the title, "Conference with the Specialists for Jewish Questions of the Security Police, Command of the Section IV- J on 30th June, 1942. Deportation to Auschwitz of Jews from the Occupied Territories."

In this memorandum Dannecker again refers to the conference which took place at the R.S.H.A., according to which 50,000 Jews were to be transferred. There follows a list of trains, the stations in which they were to be assembled, and a requests for report.

I next submit Exhibit RF 1223. It is a memorandum dated 1st July, 1942, summing up a conference between Dannecker and Eichmann, who, as we already know, was in Berlin, but had to come to Paris on that occasion. Purpose: "Departmental Conference with S.S. Hauptsturmfuehrer Dannecker Concerning the Impending Evacuation from France."

It still deals with the preparation of the great operation envisaged.

I submit Exhibit RF 1224, of which I read only the title and the date, 4th July, 1942: "Directives for a Major Round-up of Jews in Paris."

Next I submit Exhibit RF 1225, which is a memorandum by Dannecker dated 6th July, 1942. Object: "Deportation of Jews from France." It concerns a conference held with representatives of French authorities. We see in the document the expression "Judenmaterial," which was translated in a roundabout way by the words "Jewish livestock."

I now submit Exhibit RF 1226. I should like to read, if the Tribunal pleases, the first paragraph of this document, which is very revealing, as regards both the collaboration with the transport services and the horrifying mentality of the Nazi authorities. The memorandum is the sequel to a telephone conversation between the signatory Roethke and the S.S. Obersturmfuehrer Eichmann at Berlin:

"S.S. Obersturmfuehrer Eichmann in Berlin telephoned on 14th July, 1942, about 19.00 hours. He wished to know why the train provided for the transport of 15th July, 1942, had been cancelled. I replied that at first those who wore stars were to be arrested in the provinces too, but that in conformity with a recent agreement with the French Government, only Jews who had lost their nationality were to be arrested to begin with.

The train leaving on 15th July, 1942, had to be cancelled because, according to information received by the S.D. Kommando at Bordeaux, there were only 150 Stateless Jews in Bordeaux. There was no time to find `Ersatz' Jews. S.S. Obersturmfuehrer Eichmann replied that it was a question of prestige. They had to conduct lengthy negotiations about trains with the Reichsminister of Transportation; these had eventually been crowned by success; then Paris cancels the train! Such a thing had never happened to him before. The matter was highly regrettable. He did not wish to report it to S.S. Gruppenfuehrer Mueller, for the blame would fall on his own shoulders. He wondered if it would not be necessary to drop France generally as an evacuation country."

I next submit Exhibit RF 1227, which gives statistics indicating that up to 2nd September, 1942, 27,069 Jews were evacuated and that by the end of October a total figure of 52,069 might be reached. They are anxious to accelerate the pace and to attack also the Jews in unoccupied France.

Next is Exhibit RF 1228. It is also an account of a conference where there were invited representatives of the French authorities. I should like to read only the last paragraph:

[Page 92]

"On the occasion of the meeting which took place on 28th August, 1942, at Berlin, it was observed that most of the European countries were closer -- much closer -- to a permanent solution of the Jewish problem than France. In fact, these countries began much earlier. We, then, must catch up in many matters between now and 31st October, 1942."
I submit Exhibit RF 1229 without reading it. It is a memorandum by Dr. Knochen on this same subject of deportation dated 31st December, 1942.

I submit Exhibit RF 1230, which is a memorandum dated 6th March, 1943, headed: "Ref: Present State of the Jewish Question in France." In the first part of this document the deportations are stated to have reached a total of 49,000 Jews as on 6th March, 1943. This is followed by a statement of the nationalities, which are very varied, of a certain number of Jews who were deported in addition to the French Jews.

Paragraph 3 of this memorandum is headed: "Position of the Italians in Regard to the Jewish Question." I shall read only the first and the last lines of this long paragraph:

"The situation in those departments of France occupied by the Italians must be changed if we wish to solve the Jewish problem. A few terrible cases..."
I break off the quotation here.

These terrible cases were cases in which the Italians opposed the arrest of Jews in the zone occupied by them.

I now read the last paragraph:

"A.A. has been informed by the R.S.H.A.(Eichmann) of the acts of the Italians."
A.A. appears to be the initials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and this is confirmed by the following sentence. I continue the quotation:
"The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Herr von Ribbentrop, meant to discuss in audience with the Duce the attitude taken up by the Italians with regard to the Jewish Question. We do not know the results of these discussions."
I shall not submit 1231 and 1232. I pass, then, to the last documents which I want to present to the Tribunal. These documents relate more specifically to the deportation of children.

I submit Exhibit RF 1233 which is a memorandum by Dannecker dated 21st July, 1942. I shall read paragraph 2:

"The question of deporting children has been examined with S.S. Obersturmbannfuehrer Eichmann. He decided that as soon as deportations to the Government General could be resumed, convoys of children could be sent by rail. S.S. Obersturmfuehrer Nowak promised to arrange about six convoys to the Government General at the end of August or the beginning of September. These were to comprise all classes of Jews, including old people and those unfit for labour."
Now I offer in evidence Exhibit RF 1234. It is a memorandum dated 13th August, 1942. Before pointing out the importance of this document I remind the Tribunal that I have already submitted, as Exhibit RF 1219, a document in which there was a formula which I recall, namely, "The possibility is left open of sending at a later date children under 16, who were left behind." The Nazis wished to give the impression that they deported entire families at the same time, or, at least, that they did not deport whole trainloads of children. To give this impression, they invented a device which is wholly incredible unless you actually see it in black and white: the mingling of children and adults in definite proportions. I read paragraph 4 of this document:

[Page 93]

"The Jews from the unoccupied zone will be mingled at Drancy with Jewish children now at Pithiviers and Beaune La Rolande, so that out of a total of 700 at least 500 Jewish adults 200 to 300 Jewish children. In conformity with the instructions of the R.H.S.A., no trains containing Jewish children only are to leave."
I read the next sentence too:
"At Leguay they were told that thirteen trainloads of Jews would also leave Drancy in September and that Jewish children from the unoccupied zone could be handed over."
I now submit the last document of the series dealing with the Jewish question as Exhibit RF 1235. I am going to read it, as it is very short.

"Received: 7th April, 1944, Lyons, 20.10 hours. Object: The Institution for Jewish Children at Izieu, Ain. The institution for Jewish children -- 'Child Colony' -- at d'Izieu (Ain) was dissolved this morning and a total of forty-one children aged from 3 to 13 taken in charge. Moreover, the arrest of the entire Jewish personnel, numbering ten in all, and including five women, was successfully effected. They were unable to place cash or other goods in security. The convoy for Drancy will leave on 7th April, 1944."
This document also bears a memorandum written by hand and couched in the following terms:
"Matter discussed in the presence of Dr. V. B. and Hauptsturmfuehrer Brunner. Dr. V. B. stated that in cases of this kind, special measures were provided about the lodging of the children by the S.S. Obersturmfuehrer Roethke. The S.S. Hauptsturmfuehrer Brunner stated that he knew of no such instructions or of any such plan and that he did not approve of such special measures. In this case he would also act in conformity with the customary methods of deportation. From that time on he is to take no decision in such cases."
For me what is even more striking and more horrible than the concrete fact of removing these children is the administrative colour given to the proceedings, the report made through official channels, the meetings at which different officials placidly discussed the matter as if it were part of the normal business of the department. All the administrative machinery of the State -- I am speaking of the Nazi State -- was set in motion -- on what an occasion and for what a purpose! It is a perfect illustration of the word used by Dannecker in his report: "La maniere froide. The cold manner."

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