The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

The Trial of German Major War Criminals

Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany
7th January to 19th January, 1946

Thirtieth Day: Wednesday, January 9th, 1946
(Part 8 of 10)

[MR. WALTER W. BRUDNO continues]

[Page 122]

Rosenberg conceived the spread of National Socialism throughout the world, and, as will be subsequently shown, took an active part in promoting the infection of other nations with his creed. In the "Nature, Principles and Aims of the N.S.D.A.P.," he states:
"But National Socialism still believes that its principles and ideology, though suitable methods of fighting will differ according to individual and racial- national conditions - will be directives far beyond the borders of Germany for the inevitable fights for power in other countries of Europe and in America. There, too, a clear line of thought must be drawn, and the racial- nationalistic fight against the loan-capitalistic and Marxist-internationalism, which is the same in every case, must be taken up. National Socialism believes that, once the great world battle is concluded, after the defeat of the present epoch, there will be a time when the swastika will be woven into the different banners of the Germanic peoples as the Aryan symbol of rejuvenation."
This statement was made in 1922. It is thus seen that the defendant Rosenberg gave authoritative expression to the basic tenets upon which National Socialism was founded, and through the exploitation of which the conspiracy was crystallised in action.

Rosenberg's value to the conspiratorial programme found official recognition through his appointment in 1934 as the Fuehrer's delegate for the entire spiritual and philosophical education and supervision of the N.S.D.A.P. His activities in this capacity were vast and varied.

I now offer in evidence the National Socialist Year Book for the year 1938 as Exhibit USA 597. At Page 180 of this book, which is our Document 3531-PS, the functions of Rosenberg's office as the Fuehrer's delegate are described as follows:

"The sphere of activity of the Fuehrer's Commissioner for all spiritual and ideological instruction and education of the movement, its organisation, including the 'Strength through Joy,' extends to the detailed execution of all the educational work of the Party and of the affiliated bodies. The office, set up by Reichsleiter Rosenberg, has the task of preparing the ideological education material, of carrying out the teaching programme, and is responsible for the education of those teachers suited to this educational and instructional work." As the Fuehrer's delegate, Rosenberg thus supervised all ideological education and training within the Party.
It was Rosenberg's personal belief that upon the performance of his new functions as ideological delegate depended the future of National Socialism. I offer Document 3532-PS as Exhibit USA 598. This is an excerpt from an

[Page 123]

article by Rosenberg appearing in the March, 1934, issue of "The Educational Letter." At Page 9 of this publication Rosenberg states:
"The focus of all our educational work from now on is the service for this ideology, and it depends on the result of these efforts whether National Socialism will die with our fighting generation or whether, as we believe, it really represents the beginning of a new era."
In his capacity as the Fuehrer's delegate for the spiritual and ideological training, Rosenberg assisted in the preparation of the curriculum for the Adolf Hitler schools. These schools, it will be recalled, selected the most suitable candidates from the Hitler Jugend and trained them for leadership within the Party. They were the elite schools of National Socialism. This document, entitled "Documents of German Politics," is already in evidence as Exhibit USA 365. Translations of excerpts from this document are found in Document 3529-PS, Page 389, and read as follows:
"As stated by Dr. Ley, Reichsorganisationsleiter, on 23rd November, 1937, at Ordensburg Sonthofen, these Adolf Hitler schools, as the first step of the principle of selecting a special elite, form an important branch in the educational system of the National Socialist training of future leaders.

The curriculum has been laid down by Reichsleiter Rosenberg, together with the Reichsorganisationsleiter and the Reich Youth Leader."

Rosenberg exercised further influence in the education of Party members in the establishment of community schools for all organisations of the Party. Document 3528-PS is a translation of Page 297 of the 1934 edition of "Das Dritte Reich," which I offer as Exhibit USA 599. It reads as follows:
"We support the request of the Fuehrer's Commissioner for the supervision of the whole spiritual and ideological training and instruction of the N.S.D.A.P., Party member Alfred Rosenberg, to organise community schools of all organisations of the N.S.D.A.P. twice a year, in order to show by this common effort the ideological and political unity of the N.S.D.A.P. and the steadfastness of the National Socialist will."
This programme was endorsed by the defendant Schirach as well as by Himmler, Ley and others.

THE PRESIDENT: Are you not dealing with this rather in a cumulative way? Is it not possible to summarise this evidence against Rosenberg more than you are doing?

MR. BRUDNO: I will try to, your Honour. However, although the Indictment charges, and there is already substantial proof to show that the defendant conspirators used ideological training as an implement in achieving their rise to power and in consolidating their control, there seems to be little evidence as to Rosenberg's position, and I am introducing this evidence in order to show that he played a dominant role in this connection. However, I will try to summarise these documents if I can.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, I have taken down about twenty documents that you have alluded to, all of which deal with Rosenberg's ideological theories.

MR. BRUDNO: Yes, your Honour. I was merely trying to show the scope of his activities.


MR. BRUDNO: Your Honour will recall that it was in his capacity as Fuehrer's delegate that Rosenberg established the Institute for the Exploitation of the Jewish Question in Frankfort. This institute, commonly known as the "Hohe Schule," has been referred to in connection with the exposition of art plunder. Into its library there flowed books, documents and manuscripts which were looted from virtually every country of occupied Europe. Further evidence on this score will be introduced by the Prosecutor of the Republic of France.

[Page 124]

Your Honour will also recall, and the record shows (Pages 64 to 73, Part 3) that it was as ideological delegate that Rosenberg conducted the fabulous art looting activities of the Einsatzstab Rosenberg, activities which extended to virtually every country occupied by the Germans. I will not attempt to summarise the extent of the plunder, but merely refer the Tribunal to Document 1015 B-PS, which has already been introduced as Exhibit USA 385 and Document L-188, which has been introduced as Exhibit USA 386. Document 1015 B-PS details the looting of 21,000 artistic treasures, Document L- 188, the looting of the contents of over 71,000 Jewish homes in the West. This subject, too, will be further developed by the French Prosecutor.

The importance of Rosenberg's activities as official ideologist of the Nazi Party was not overlooked. In Document 3559-PS, which I wish to introduce as Exhibit USA 600 - this document, incidentally, is the Hart biography of Rosenberg, entitled "The Man and His Work" - it is stated that Rosenberg won the German National Prize in 1937. The creation of this prize, your Honour will recall, was the Nazis' petulant reply to the award of the Nobel Prize to Karl von Ossietzki, an inmate of a German concentration camp. The citation which accompanied the award to Rosenberg read as follows:

"Alfred Rosenberg has helped with his publications to lay the scientific and intuitive foundation and to strengthen the philosophy of the National Socialist in the most excellent way. The National Socialist movement, and beyond that, the entire German people, will be deeply gratified that the Fuehrer has distinguished Alfred Rosenberg as one of his oldest and most faithful fighting comrades, by awarding him the German National Prize."
The contribution which Rosenberg's book, "The Myth of the Twentieth Century," the foundation of all his ideological propaganda, made to the development of National Socialism was appraised in a publication "Bucher Kunde" in 1942. This publication is our Document 3554-PS, dated November, 1942. I offer it as Exhibit USA 601. The first page sets forth an appraisal of the "Myth of the Twentieth Century."

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Brudno, you referred us to the "Myth of the Twentieth Century" on several occasions.

MR. BRUDNO: Yes, your Honour.

THE PRESIDENT: We really do not want to hear any more about it.

MR. BRUDNO: I wish to show that this book is regarded as being one of the pillars of the movement and I wish to show also, sir, that it had a circulation of over a million copies.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, I think it is absolutely clear from the evidence which has already been given that Rosenberg was enunciating doctrines of the ideology of the Nazi Party, and I do not think that it is necessary to go any further into details about it.

MR. BRUDNO: Very well. If the Tribunal is satisfied that Rosenberg's ideas formed the foundation for the National Socialist ideological movement, I will pass on.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, you have already brought out the fact that he was appointed the Fuehrer's deputy for that purpose; was he not?

MR. BRUDNO: Yes, your Honour. I shall pass on from that point. I would merely like to make reference, however, to Document 789-PS, which has already been introduced as Exhibit USA 23. This document records a meeting between Hitter and his Supreme Commanders, on which occasion Hitler said: "The building up of our armed forces was only possible in connection with the ideological education of the German people by the Party."

We submit that the contribution which Rosenberg made through formulation and dissemination of National Socialist ideology was fundamental to the conspiracy. As the apostle of neo- paganism, the exponent of the drive for

[Page 125]

"Lebensraum," and the glorifier of the myth of Nordic superiority, and as one of the oldest and most energetic Nazi proponents of anti-Semitism, he contributed materially to the unification of the German people behind the swastika. He provided the impetus and the inspiration for the National Socialist movement. His doctrines were responsible for the sublimation of morality and the crystallisation of the Nordic dream in the minds of the German people, thereby making them useful tools in the hands of the conspirators and willing collaborators in the prosecution of their criminal plan.

I now pass to the second phase of Rosenberg's criminal activities - his active contribution toward the preparation for aggressive war through the international activities of the A.P.A. - the Foreign Policy Office of the Party.

As previously indicated in my quotation from "Das Deutsche Fuehrer Lexikon" which is Exhibit USA 593, Rosenberg became a Reichsleiter, the highest level of rank in the Leadership Corps, and was made chief of the Foreign Political Office of the Party in April, 1933. The organisation manual of the Party, Document 2319-PS, which I offer as Exhibit USA 602, describes the functions of the A.P.A. as including the influencing of public opinion abroad so as to convince foreign nations that Germany desires peace. The far-flung activities of the A.P.A. are indicated at Page 14 of the translation of this document and are stated as follows:

"1. The A.P.A. is divided into three main offices:
A. Office for Foreign Areas with its Main Sections-
(a) England and Far East;
(b) Near East;
(c) South East;
(d) North;
(e) Old Orient;
(f) Controls, personnel questions, etc.
B. Office of the German Academic Exchange Service.

C. Office of Foreign Commerce.

2. Moreover, there is in the A.P.A. a main office for the Press service and an Educational office."
The Press activities of the A.P.A. were designed to influence world opinion in such a manner as to conceal the conspirators' true purposes and thus facilitate the preparation for waging aggressive war. The activities were carried out on an ambitious scale. I offer into evidence Document 003-PS, which is entitled "A Short Report on the Activities of the A.P.A. of the N.S.D.A.P." It is Exhibit USA 603. The last paragraph on Page 5 of the translation describes the Press activities as follows:
"The Press Division of the A.P.A. is composed of persons who together master all the languages that are in use. Daily they examine approximately 300 newspapers and deliver to the Fuehrer, the deputy Fuehrer and all other interested offices the condensations of the important trends of the entire world Press. The Press Division furthermore conducts exact archives on the attitudes of the most important papers of the world. Many embarrassments during conferences in Germany could have been avoided had one consulted these archives. Further, the Press Division was able to arrange a host of interviews as well as to conduct a great number of friendly foreign journalists to the various official representatives of Germany."
And then:
"Hearst then personally asked me to write often about the position of German foreign policy in his papers. This year five detailed articles have appeared under my name in Hearst papers all over the world. Since these articles, as Hearst personally informed me, presented well-founded arguments, he asked me to write further ones for his paper."

[Page 126]

Thus, Rosenberg used his foreign policy office to influence world opinion on behalf of National Socialism.

It is interesting to note in passing that Rosenberg states, at Page 4 of this document, that the Roumanian anti-Semitic leader, Cuza, followed his suggestions as (in Rosenberg's words) "he had recognised in me an unyielding anti-Semite." We will hear more of this affair shortly.

The nature and extent of the activities of the A.P.A. are amply disclosed in a single document. This is the principal document to which I will refer in this phase of the case against Rosenberg. This document bears our number 007-PS and is entitled "Report on the Activities of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Party from 1933 to 1943." It is signed by Rosenberg. Portions of Annex 1, attached to the report, have already been read into evidence as Exhibit GB 84. The body of the report and Annex 2 have not been referred to heretofore. As will be seen, the document contains a recital of widespread activities in foreign countries. These activities range from the promotion of economic penetration to fomentation of anti-Semitism; from cultural and political infiltration to the instigation of treason. Activities were carried on throughout the world and extended to such widely separated points as the Middle East and Brazil.

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