The Nizkor Project

Twenty-Fourth Day: Thursday, 20th December, 1945
(Part 8 of 8)

[COLONEL STOREY continues]

This document contains a letter from the branch office of the S.D. at Kochem to the S.D. at Koblenz. The letter is dated 7th May, 1938, and refers to the plebiscite of 10th April, 1938. It refers to a letter previously received from the Koblenz office and apparently is a reply to a request for

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information concerning the way in which people voted in the supposedly secret plebiscite. It is on Page 1 of Document R-142.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, I am told that that has been read before.

COLONEL STOREY: I did not know it had, if your Honour pleases. We will then just offer it without reading it.

With reference to National Socialism and the contribution of the Sipo and the S.D., I refer to an article of 7th September, 1942, which is shown in Document 3344-PS. It is the first paragraph, Volume 2. It is the official journal. Quoting:

"Even before the taking over of power, the S.D. had added its part to the success of the National Socialist Revolution. After the taking over of power, the Security Police and the S.D. have borne the responsibility for the inner security of the Reich, and have paved the way for a powerful fulfilment of National Socialism against all resistance."
In connection with the criminal responsibility of the S.D. and the Gestapo, it will be considered with respect to certain War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, which were in the principal part committed by the centralised political police system. The development, organisation and tasks have been considered before. In some instances the crimes were committed in co-operation or in conjunction with other groups or organisations.

Now, in order to look into the strength of these various organisations, I have some figures here that I would like to quote to your Honour. The Sipo and S.D. were composed of the Gestapo, Kripo and S.D. The Gestapo was the largest, and it had a membership of about 40,000 to 50,000 in 1934 and 1935. That is an error; it is 1943 to 1945. It was the political force of the Reich.

THE PRESIDENT: Did you say the date was wrong ?

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, it is '43 to '45.


THE TRIBUNAL: (MR. BIDDLE): Where are you reading from?

COLONEL STOREY: Document 3033-PS, and it is an affidavit of Walter Schellenberg, one of the former officials I referred to a moment ago.

I think, if your Honour pleases, in order to get it in the record, I will read the whole affidavit. Document 3033-PS, Exhibit USA 488:

"The Sipo and S.D. were composed of the Gestapo, Kripo and S.D. In 1943-45 the Gestapo had a membership of about 40,000 to 50,000 ; the Kripo had a membership of about 15,000 and the S.D. had a membership of about 3,000. In common usage, and even in orders and decrees, the term 'S.D.' was used as an abbreviation for the term 'Sipo' and 'S.D.' In most cases actual executive action was carried out by personnel of the Gestapo rather than of the S.D. or the Kripo. In occupied territories, members of the Gestapo frequently wore S.S. uniforms with S.D. insignia. New members of the Gestapo and the S.D. were taken on a voluntary basis. This has been stated and sworn to by me today the 21st November, 1945." And then, " Subscribed and sworn to before Lt. Harris, 21st November, 1945."
I think I ought to say here, if your Honour pleases, that it is our information that a great many of the members of the Gestapo were also members

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of the S.S. We have heard various estimates of the numbers, but have no direct authority. oome autnorities say as much as 75 per cent., but still we have no direct evidence on that.

I now offer in evidence Document 2751-PS, which is Exhibit USA 482. It is an affidavit of Alfred Helmut Naujocks, dated 20th November, 1945. This affidavit particularly refers to the actual occurrences in connection with the Polish Border incident. I believe it was referred to by the witness Lahousen when he was on the stand.

"I, Alfred Helmut Naujocks, being first duly sworn, depose and state as follows:

1. I was a member of the S.S. from 1931 to igth October, 1944, and a member of the S.D. from its creation in 1934 to January, 1941. I served as a member of the 'Waffen S.S.' from February, 1941, until the middle of 1942. Thereafter, I served in the Economic Department of the Military Administration of Belgium from September, 1942 to September, 1944. 1 surrendered to the Allies on igth October, 1944,

2. On or about 10th August, 1939, the Chief of the Sipo and S.D. Heydrich, personally ordered me to simulate an attack on the radio station near Gleiwitz, near the Polish border, and to make it appear that the attacking force consisted of Poles. Heydrich said, ' Practical proof is needed for these attacks of the Poles for the foreign Press, as well as for German propaganda purposes.' I was directed to go to Gleiwitz with five or six other S.D. men and wait there until I received a code word from Heydrich indicating that the attack should take place. My instructions were to seize the radio station and to hold it long enough to permit a Polish-speaking German, who would be put at my disposal, to broadcast a speech in Polish. Heydrich told me that this speech should state that the time had come for the conflict between Germans and Poles, and that the Poles should get together and smash down any Germans from whom they met resistance. Heydrich also told me at this time that he expected an attack on Poland by Germany in a few days.

3. I went to Gleiwitz and waited there 14 days. Then I requested permission from Heydrich to return to Berlin, but was told to stay in Gleiwitz. Between 25th and 31st August, I went to see Heinrich Mueller, head of the Gestapo, who was then nearby at Oppeln. In my presence Mueller discussed with a man named Mohlhorn plans for another border incident, in which it should be made to appear that Polish soldiers were attacking German troops. Germans in the approximate strength of a company were to be used. Mueller stated that he had 12 or 13 condemned criminals who were to be dressed in Polish uniforms and left dead on the ground of the scene of the incident, to show that they had been killed while attacking. For this purpose they were to be given fatal injections by a doctor employed by Heydrich. Then they were also to be given gunshot wounds. After the incident, members of the Press and other persons were to be taken to the scene of the incident. A police report was subsequently to be prepared.

4. Mueller told me that he had an order from Heydrich to make one of those criminals available to me for the action at Gleiwitz. The code name by which he referred to these criminals was 'Canned goods '.

5. The incident at Gleiwitz in which I participated was carried out on the evening preceeding the German attack on Poland. As I recall, war broke out on 1st September, 1939. At noon on 31st August, I received by telephone from Heydrich the code word for the attack which was to take place at 8 o'clock that evening. Heydrich said, 'In order to carry out this attack, report to Mueller for Canned Goods.' I did this and gave Mueller instructions to deliver the man near the radio station. I received this man and had him laid down at the entrance to the station. He was alive but he was completely unconscious. I tried to open his eyes. I could not recognise by his eyes that he was alive, only by his breathing. I did not see the shot wounds but a lot of blood was smeared across his face. He was in civilian clothes.

6. We seized the radio station as ordered, broadcast a speech of three to four minutes over an emergency transmitter, fired some pistol shots and left."

And that was sworn to and subscribed before Lt. Martin.

The Gestapo and the S.D. carried out mass murders of hundreds of thousands of civilians of occupied countries as a part of the Nazi programme to exterminate political and racial undesirables, by the so-called Einsatz Groups. Your Honour will recall evidence concerning the activity of these Einsatz Groups ' or Einsatzkommandos. I now refer to Document R-102.

If your Honour pleases, I understand Major Farr introduced this document this morning, but I want to refer to just one brief statement which he did not include, concerning the S.D. and the Einsatz Groups and Security Police. It is on Page 4 of R-102.: Quoting:

"During the period covered by this report the stations of the Einsatz Groups of the Security Police and the S.D. have changed only in the Northern Sector."
THE PRESIDENT: What was the document ?

COLONEL STOREY: R-102, which is already introduced in evidence by Major Farr, and it is in Volume 2 toward the end of the book.

THE PRESIDENT: I have a document here. Page 4, is it?

C0L0NEL ST0REY: Page 4, Yes, Sir. There are two reports submitted by the Chief of the Einsatz Group A available. The first report is Document L-180, which has already been received as Exhibit USA 276.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, will you not pass quite so fast from one document to another ?

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir, pardon me, Sir. L-180, and I want to quote from Page 13. It is on Page 5 of the English translation. It is the beginning of the first paragraph, near the bottom of the page. Quoting:

"In view of the extension of the area of operations and of the great number of duties which had to be performed by the Security Police, it was intended from the very beginning to obtain the co-operation of the reliable population for the fight against vermin ; that is, mainly the Jews and Communists."
And also in that same document, Page 30 of the original, Page 8 of the English translation. Quoting:
"From the beginning it was to be expected that the Jewish problem could not be solved by pogroms alone."
THE PRESIDENT: I am told that that has been read already.

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COLONEL STOREY: I had it checked, and we did not find that it had, your Honour. I will pass on them.

Now, if your Honour pleases, we will pass to Document 2273-PS next. I offer in evidence now just portions of Document 2273-PS, which is Exhibit USA 487. This document was captured by the U.S.S.R. and will be offered in detail by our Soviet colleagues later. But with their consent, I want to introduce in evidence a chart which is identified by that document, and we have an enlargement which we would like to put on the board, and we will pass to the Tribunal photostatic copies.

If your Honour pleases, this chart is identified by the photostatic copy attached to the original report which will be dealt with in detail later. I want to quote just one statement from Page 2 of the English translation of that document. It is the third paragraph from the bottom on Page 2 of the English translation:

"The Esthonian self-protection movement formed as the Germans advanced and began to arrest Jews, but there were no spontaneous pogroms. Only by the Security Police and the S.D. were the Jews gradually executed as they became no longer required for work. Today there are no longer any Jews in Estonia."
That document is a top secret document by Einsatz Group A, which was a speciai projects group. This chart, of which the photostatic copy is attached to the original in the German translation on the wall, shows the progress of the extermination of the Jews in the area in which this Einsatz Kormnando Group operated.

If your Honour will refer to the top, next to St. Petersburg, or Leningrad as we know it, you will see down below the picture of a coffin, and that is described in the report as 3,600 having been killed.

Next over, at the left, is another coffin in one of the small Baltic States, showing that 963 in that area have been put in the coffin.

Then next, down near Riga, you will note that 35,238 were put away in the coffins, and it refers to the ghetto there as still having 2,500.

You come down to the next square or the next State showing 136,421 were put in their coffins, and then in the next area near Minsk, and just above it there were 41,828 put in their coffins.

THE PRESIDENT: Are you sure that they were executed, the 136,000, because there is no coffin there.

COLONEL STOREY: Here are the totals from the documents.

THE PRESIDENT: These photostatic copies are different from what you have there. In the area which is marked 136,421 there is no coffin.

COLONEL STOREY: Well, I am sorry. The one that I have is a true and correct copy.

THE PRESIDENT: Mine has not got it and Mr. Biddle's has not got it.

COLONEL STOREY: Will you hand this to the President, please ?

THE PRESIDENT: 1 suppose the document itself will show it.

COLONEL STOREY: I will turn to the original and verify it. Apparently there is a typographical error. If your Honour pleases, here it is, 136,421, with the coffin.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Parker points out it is in the document itself too.

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, sir, it is in the document itself. There is an error on that.

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The 128,000 at the bottom shows that at that time there were 128,000 on hand; and the literal translation of the statement, as I understand, means "Still on hand in the Minsk area."

I next refer to Document 1104-PS, Volume 2, Exhibit USA 483, which I now offer in evidence.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, did you tell us what the document was ? There is nothing on the translation to show what the document is.

COLONEL STOREY: If your Honour pleases, it is a report of the special purpose Group A, or the Einsatz Group A, a top secret report, in other words, making a record of their activities in these areas, and this chart was attached showing the areas covered.

THE PRESIDENT: Special group of the Gestapo?

COLONEL STOREY: The special group that was organised of the Gestapo and the S.D. in that area. In other words, a Commando Group.

As I mentioned, your Honour, they organised these special commando groups to work with and behind the armies as they consolidated their gains in occupied territories, and your Honour will hear from other reports of these "Einsatz " groups as we go along in this presentation. In other words, "Einsatz " means special action or action groups, and they were organised to cover certain geographical areas behind the immediate front lines.

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, but they were groups, were they, of the Gestapo ?

COLONEL STOREY: The Gestapo and the S.D.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, that is part of the Gestapo.

COLONEL STOREY: There were some of the Kripo in it, too.

Now, the next document is 1104-PS, dated 30th October, 1941. This document shows on that date the Commissioner of the territory of Sluzk wrote a report to the Commissioner of Minsk, in which he severely criticised the actions of the Einsatz Commandos of the Sipo and the S.D. operating in his area for the murder of the Jewish population of that area, and I quote the English translation, on Page 4 of that document beginning at the first paragraph:

"On 27th October in the morning, at about 8 o'clock a first lieutenant of the Police Battalion No. 11, from Kauen (Lithuania) appeared and introduced himself as the adjutant of the Battalion Commander of the Security Police. The first lieutenant explained that the Police Battalion had received the assignment to effect the liquidation of all Jews here in the town of Sluzk within two days. The Battalion Commander, with his battalion in strength of four companies, two of which were made up of Lithuanian partisans, was on the march here and the action would have to begin instantly. I replied to the first lieutenant that 1 had to discuss the action in any case first with the Commander. About half an hour later the Police Battalion arrived in Sluzk. Immediately after the arrival, a conference with the Battalion Commander took place according to my request. I first explained to the Commander that it would not very well be possible to effect the action without previous preparation, because everybody had been sent to work and it would lead to a terrible confusion. At least it would have been his duty to inform me a day ahead of time. Then I requested him to postpone the action one day. However, he rejected this with the remark that he had to carry out this action everywhere and in all

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two days, the town of Sluzk had to be cleared of Jews by all means."
That report was made to the Reich Commissioner for the Eastern Territories through Gauleiter Heinrich Lusch at Riga. Your Honour will recall that he was referred to in another presentation.

Now, skipping over to Page 5. The first paragraph, I would like to quote it:

"For the rest, as regards the execution of the action, I must point out to my deepest regret that the matter bordered on sadism. The town itself offered a picture of horror during the action. With indescribable brutality on the part of both the German Police officers, and particularly the Lithuanian partisans, not only the Jewish people, but also White Ruthenians, were taken out of their dwellings and herded together. Everywhere in the town shots were to be heard, and in different streets the corpses of shot Jews accumulated. The White Ruthenians were in the greatest distress to free themselves from the encirclement. Regardless of the fact that the Jewish people, among whom were also tradesmen were mistreated in a terribly barbarous way, in front of the White Ruthenian people, the White Ruthenians themselves were also worked over with rubber clubs and rifle butts. There was no question of an action against the Jews any more. It rather looked like a revolution."
And then I skip down to the next to the last paragraph on that same page; quoting:
"In conclusion, I find myself obliged to point out that the Police Battalion has looted in an unheard of manner during the action, and that not only in Jewish houses but just the same in those of the White Ruthenians, anything of use such as boots, leather, cloth, gold and other valuables, has been taken away. On the basis of statements of members of the Armed Forces, watches were torn off the arms of Jews in public, on the street, and rings were pulled off the fingers in the most brutal manner. A major of the Finance Department reported that a Jewish girl was asked by the police to obtain immediately 5,000 roubles to have her father released. This girl is said to have actually gone everywhere in order to obtain the money."
There is another paragraph with reference to the number of copies -- on the third page of the translation -- to which I would like to call your Honour's attention. The last paragraph on Page 3 of the translation, quoting:
"I am submitting this report in duplicate so that one copy may be forwarded to the Reich Minister. Peace and order cannot be maintained in White Ruthenia with methods of that sort. To bury seriously wounded people alive who worked their way out of their graves again, is such a base and filthy act that the incident as such, should be reported to the Fuehrer and Reich Marshal.

The civil administration of White Ruthenia makes very strenuous efforts to win the population over to Germany, in accordance with the instructions of the Fuehrer. These efforts cannot be brought in harmony with the methods described herein."

Signed by the Commissioner General for White Ruthenia.

And then on 11th November, 1941, he forwarded it on to the Reich Minister for Occupied Countries, in Berlin.

THE PRESIDENT: Who was that at that time?

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COLONEL STOREY: The Reich Commissionere (I believe it was shown for the Easter occupied country) was the defendent Rosenberg. I think that is correct. On the same date by separate letter the Commissioner General of White Ruthenia reported to the Reich Commissioner for the Eastern Territories that he had received money, valuables, and other objects taken by the police in the action at Sluzk, and other regions, all of which had been deposited with the Reich Credit Institute, for the disposal of the Reich Commissioner.

On 21st November, 1941, a report on the Sluzk incident was sent to the personal reviewer of the permanent deputy of the Minister of the Reich with a copy to Heydrich, who was the Chief of the Security Police and the S.D. That is shown on the first page of Document 1104.

The activities of the Einsatz Groups continued throughout 1943 and 1944 under Kaltenbrunner as Chief of the Security Police and S.D. Under adverse war conditions, however, the programme of extermination was to a large extent changed to one of rounding up slave labour for Germany.

I next refer to Document 3012-PS, which has heretofore been introduced as Exhibit USA igo. This is a letter from the headquarters of one of the Commando Groups, a section known as Einsatz Group C, dated 19th March, 1943. This letter summarises the real activities and methods of the Gestapo and S.D., and I should like to refer to additional portions of the letter, to those previously quoted on Page 2, of Document 30I2- PS, and I think I will read the first page beginning with the first paragraph:

"It is the task of the Security Police and of the Security Service (S.D.) to discover all enemies of the Reich, and to fight them in the interest of security and, in the zone of operations, especially to guarantee the security of the Army. Besides the annihilation of active opponents all other elements who by virtue of their convictions or their past may prove to be active enemies, favourable circumstances provided, are to be eliminated through preventive measures. The Security Police carries out this task according to the general directives of the Fuehrer, with all of the required toughness. Energetic measures are especially necessary in territories endangered by the activity of hostile gangs.

The competence of the Security Police within the zone of operations is based on the 'Barbarossa ' decrees."

The Tribunal will recall the famous "Barbarossa" code, namely, the decrees that were issued in connection with the invasion of Russia:
"I deem the measures of the Security Police carried out on a considerable scale during recent times necessary for the two following reasons:

1. The situation at the front in my sector had become so serious, with the population partly influenced by Hungarians and Italians who streamed back in chaotic condition and took, openly, positions against us.

2. The strong expeditions by hostile gangs who came especially from the Forest of Bryansk were another reason. Besides that, other partisan groups formed by the population appeared suddenly in all districts. The providing of arms was evidently no difficulty at all. It would have been irresponsible if we had observed this whole activity without acting against it. It is obvious that all such measures necessitate some harshness."

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I want to take up the significant point of the harsh measures.

1. Shooting of Hungarian Jews
2. Shooting of Agronoms.
3. Shooting of children.
4. Total burning down of villages.
5. "Shooting " -- I quote --"while trying to escape ", of Security Service (S.D.) prisoners.

"Chief of Einsatz group C confirmed once more the correctness of the measures taken, and expressed his recognition of the energetic action. With regard to the current political situation, especially in the armament industry in the Fatherland, the measures of the Security Police have to be subordinated to the greatest extent to the recruiting of labour for Germany. In the shortest possible time the Ukraine has to put at the disposal of the armament industry 1,000,000 workers, Some of whom have to be sent from the territory daily."
Your Honour, please, I believe the numbers have been quoted before by Mr. Dodd. I refer on the next page, to the first order in sub-paragraphs 1 and 2:
"1. Special treatment is to be limited to the minimum.

2. Communist functionaries, agitators, and so on, will only be listed for the time being, without being arrested. It is, for instance, no longer feasible to arrest all the close relatives of a member of the Communist Party. Also members of the Konisomolz are to be arrested only if they occupied leading positions."

The next paragraphs have been read into evidence, 3 and 4, in a previous presentation. I will read:
"No. 5. The reporting of hostile gangs, as well as drives against them, is not affected hereby. All drives against those hostile gangs can take place only after my approval has been obtained. The prisons have to be kept empty as a rule, and we have to be aware of the fact that the Slavs will interpret the soft treatment on our part as weakness, and that they will act accordingly right away. If we limit our harsh measures of the Security Police through the above orders for the time being, that is only done for the reason that the most important thing is the recruiting of workers. No check of persons to be sent into the Reich will be made. No written certificates of political reliability check, or similar things, will be issued. Signed by Christensen, S.S. Sturmbannfuehrer and commanding officer."
I understood that your Honour wanted to adjourn at four o'clock, and I believe that I can introduce one more statement. It was the Einsatz Groups of the Security Police and S.D. that operated the infamous death vans. Document 501-PS, which was received as Exhibit USA 288, has previously referred to this operation. The letter from Becker, which is a part of this exhibit, was addressed to Obersturmbannfuehrer Rauff at Berlin. We now refer to Document L-185. I simply refer to Document 501-PS as a reference to the death vans. The Document L-185, Exhibit USA 484, is the one I am now offering in evidence, Page 7 of the English translation, L- 185. It will be observed that the Chief of Amt. II D of the R.S.H.A. in charge of technical matters was Obersturmbahnfuehrer Rauff. Mr. Harris advises me that the only point to be proved by that is that Amt. II of the

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R.S.H.A., who made this report on technical matters, was the Obersturmbahnfuehrer Rauff, and then he refers in the same connection to Document 2348-PS, which is Exhibit USA 485. The previous one was to identify Rauff, and then to offer his affidavit, which is Document 2348-PS, second volume. Reading from the beginning of the affidavit, which was made on 19th October, 1945, in Ancona, Italy,
"I hereby acknowledge the attached letter written by Dr. Becker on 16th May, 1942, and received by me on 29th May, 1942, as a genuine letter. I did, on 18th October, 1945, write on the side of this letter a statement to the effect that it was genuine. I do not know the number of death vans being operated, and cannot give an approximate figure. The vans were built by the Saurer Works, Germany, located, I believe, in Berlin. Some other firms built these vans also. In so far as I am aware these vans operated only in Russia. In so far as I can state these vans were probably operating in 1941, and I personally believe that they were operating up to the termination of the war."
If your Honour pleases, I do not think that we will have time to go into the next exhibit.

THE PRESIDENT: Very well. Then the Tribunal will now adjourn until Wednesday, 2nd January.

(The Tribunal adjourned to 2nd January, 1946, at 1000 hours.)

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