The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Twenty-Third Day: Wednesday, 19th December, 1945
(Part 4 of 8)


[COLONEL STOREY continues]

[Page 120]

Similarly, secrecy was provided for in the order assigning a Wehrmacht officer to the S.A. in January, 1934, to assist in the S.A. training programme. This Document, 2823-PS, Exhibit USA 429, which is a copy of a memorandum of S.A. Headquarters dated 20th January, 1934, designates an officer of the Wehrmacht to assist the military training of S.A. members. and it goes on to provide, and I quote from paragraph 7 of the English translation of Document 2823-PS:--
"For the purpose of camouflage, Lt. Col. Auleb will wear S.A. uniform with the insignia of rank according to more detailed regulations of the Supreme S.A. Leaders."
The military training programme of the S.A. was for many years conducted under the guise of a sports programme. This plan was created by Hitler as early as 1920 by the founding of what he called the Sports Programme. The fact that the so-called Sports Programme was in reality closely associated with, and, in fact, a means of providing military training for the German youth is shown by the following characterisation it by Lutze, the Chief of Staff of the S.A., in an article written in 1939. I now refer to Document 3215-PS, Exhibit USA 426, and I quote excerpts of the English translation on Page 2:
"This goal was also served by the decrees of the Fuehrer to the S.A. in 1935 regarding the renewing of, in 1936 regarding the charter of, and in 1937 regarding the yearly repetitive exercises required for the S.A. sport badge. Parallel to this decree of the Fuehrer for the betterment and military indoctrination, organisational and training measures were taken within the S.A. Based on the conception that the preservation and intensification of the military power of our people must especially be promoted by military and physical exercises, a systematic training was carried out especially in these schools.

In twenty-five 'group schools' and in three 'Reichsfuehrer' schools of the S.A., 22,000 to 25,000 officers and non-coms have been trained yearly since 1934 in special educational courses until they earned the education and examination certificates. In clearly outlined directives the training goal which had to be achieved yearly was stepped up, and at the same time annual Reich competitive contacts of the S.A. were established. Hand in hand with the training of the Fuehrer Corps and the organisations belonging to it went the training for the front on the broadest basis."

In connection with the military training of the sports programme, I refer to Document 2354, Exhibit USA 430, which demonstrates the tests and standards required for obtaining the sports award, on Page 2 of the English translation. I am not going read all of it, if your Honour pleases, but just refer to a few of them:
"Group II: Military sports; 25-kilometer march with pack;

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firing of small-caliber arms; aimed throwing of hand grenades, 200 meter cross-country race over four obstacles with gas masks; swimming or bicycling; basic knowledge of first aid in case of accidents--"
I will pass the others.

In 1939 the S.A. Sports Programme was formally recognised in a decree issued by Hitler as a military training programme and the S.A. was openly declared to be an agency for pre-and post-military training, that is, for military training prior to and following service in the Wehrmacht. I have Document 2383-PS----

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, you have just drawn our attention to a Document 3215-PS, which shows that from 1934 onwards, 25,000 officers and non-commissioned officers were trained by the S.A.

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir.

THE PRESIDENT: Isn't that sufficient to show the military nature of the organisation?

COLONEL STOREY: I think so. This was just the decree of Hitler. May I just refer to it by reference for the record? I will not read the decree.

THE PRESIDENT: Go on; what are you referring to?

COLONEL STOREY: Document 2383-PS, Page 11 of the English translation contains a copy of the decree legalising the training programme for pre-and post-military training.

It would have been one thing for the S.A. to conduct a military training programme for its members, but the S.A. programme was not confined to its members. The entire youth of Germany was enlisted into a feverish programme of military training.

I refer to a quotation in Document 2354-PS, from the same organisation book, which is at Page 2 of the English translation, in which the Chief of Staff Lutze said, and I quote briefly:

"In order to give expression to the fostering of a valiant spirit in all classes of the German people, I further decree that this S.A. Sports Insignia can also be earned by persons who are not members of the movement, provided they comply racially and ideologically with the National Socialist requirements."
Document 2168-PS shows that responsibility for conducting the nation-wide programme was lodged in the operational main office of the SA. Page 8 of the English translation says, and I quote:
"Prepare the physical military training of all Germans capable of bearing arms, and as a preparation therefor organise physical exercises and sports, so that the widest strata of the population are reached and will be kept in a militarily active condition both physically and spiritually, as well as in respect to character and ideology up until the last years of their lives."
I pass from that phase now.

Document 3215-PS is an excerpt from Das Archiv, and I refer to Pages 2 to 3 of the English translation beginning at the bottom of Page 2, and I quote:

"Next to the companies of the S.A. were the S.A. Sport Badge Associations, in which all the militaristic nationals entered who were prepared to answer the call of the S.A. for the preservation of military proficiency. Up until now about 800,000 nationals outside the S.A.

[Page 122]

could successfully undergo the physical training as well as the political-military training of the S.A. on the basis of the S.A. sport badge."
The military programme of the S.A. was not that of a mere marching and drill society. It embraced every phase of the technique of modern warfare. This is particularly demonstrated by consideration of the articles on military training which appeared publicly throughout the issues of the S.A.-Mann. I should like to refer to only a few of the titles, and they are set out on Pages 8 and 10 of Document 3050. It is a very long list, and I will only refer to five or six.

There is one of them, 17th February, 1934, Page 7, "Pistol Shooting"; 21st April, 1934, Page 13, "What every S.A. man must now about Aviation"; 19th May, 1934, Page 13, "Chemical Warfare"; 2nd June, 1934, Page 14, "Modern Battle Methods in the View of the S.A. Man"; 4th August, 1934, Page 13, "The Significance of Tanks and Motors in the Modern War."

I will omit references to the remainder.

Similarly, the issues of the S.A.-Mann contain many photographs and articles demonstrating and portraying S.A. participation in military exercises, including forced marching, battle maneuvers, obstacle runs, small-caliber firing, and so on. I merely refer these to your Honour, and they are shown on Pages 11 to 13 of Document 3050. Just one or two titles: 24th August, 1935, Page 2, "The S.A. Is and remains the Shock Troop of the Third Reich." Here is one showing the connection with the Wehrmacht: 2nd September, 1938, Page 1, "The S.A. and the Wehrmacht," with pictures of S.A. men on field maneuvers throwing hand grenades.

I will omit the rest of those.

Convincing evidence demonstrating the participation of the S.A. in the conspiracy is found in the fact that care was taken at all times to co-ordinate the military training of the S.A. with the requirements of the Wehrmacht. This is shown by Document 2821-PS, Exhibit USA 431, Page 1 of the English translation, quoting:

"Permanent liaison between the Reich Defence Ministry and the Supreme Commander of the S.A... has been assured."
Another document, 3215-PS, which is an excerpt from Das Archiv, sets forth the co-operation and collaboration with the Wehrmacht, and specialised military training, and it was stated in a speech of the Chief of Staff of the S.A., Document 32l5-PS, Page 2 of the English translation, Exhibit USA 426:
"In the course of this development also special missions for military betterment were set for the S.A. The Fuehrer charged the S.A. with the cavalry and motor training and appointed S.A. Obergruppenfuehrer Litzmann as Reich Inspector with the mission of securing, through the S.A., cavalry recruits for the requirements of the German Wehrmacht. In close co-operation with parts of the Wehrmacht, special certificates were created for the signal, engineer and medical units which, like the cavalry certificate of the S.A., are valued as a statement of preference for employment in these units."
Your Honour, we have two or three more quotations about co- operation with the Wehrmacht, but I believe they would be cumulative, and I will omit them. I will refer only to Document 2383-PS, Exhibit USA 410. I will read a portion of the decree:

[Page 123]

"The Fuehrer: In amplification of my decrees of 15th February, 1935, and of 18th March, 1937 regarding the award of the S.A. Sports Insignia and the yearly repetitive exercises, I raise the S.A. Sports Insignia to the S.A. Military Insignia and make it a basis for pre- and post-military training. I designate the S.A. as the Standard Bearer of this training."
I pass now to Page 48 for the record.

The specialised training given S.A. members, in accordance with the requirements of the technical branches of the Wehrmacht, is described in Document 2168 by S.A. Sturmfuehrer Bayer, Exhibit USA 411, and it is Page 13 of the English translation:

"On the one hand, the young S.A. man who from his branch in the S.A. enters the Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) already has many abilities which facilitate and speed up technical training; while on the other hand those very soldiers, who, having served their time in the Armed Forces return to the S.A., keep themselves, by constant training, physically and mentally fit, and impart their knowledge to their fellows.

Thus they contribute a considerable portion to the increase of the armed strength and armed spirit of the German people."

And then passing down: "The S.A. each year is able to furnish many thousands of trained young men to our Wehrmacht." I will omit the rest of that.

I simply call attention now to Page 3 of an issue of Der S.A.-Mann dated 3rd February, 1939, which contains a photograph of Chief of Staff Lutze addressing a group of his men. This photograph bears the caption, "We will be the Bridge between the Party and the Wehrmacht."

The second reference shows a photograph of General Brauchitsch and Chief of Staff Lutze reviewing an S.A. unit.

Now, I pass to Document 3214-PS, which is Exhibit USA 432. There is only one page of it. Quoting:

"It was announced that S.A. men and Hitler Youths liable to military service can fulfil their military duty in the S.A. Regiment 'Feldherrnhalle,' the Commander of which is General Field Marshal, S.A. Obergruppenfuehrer Goering. The regiment for the first time was employed in the occupation of the Sudetenland as Regiment of the Luftwaffe, with special tasks under its Fuehrer and Regimental Commander, S.A. Gruppenfuehrer Reimann."
THE PRESIDENT: Up to now you have brought evidence to our notice showing that the S.A. was voluntary. This shows it was conscripted. When did it become conscripted?

COLONEL STOREY: As I understand it, your Honour, if you joined the S.A. you got out of conscription, but once you were in it they could use you as desired. In other words, the S.A. was a voluntary organisation.

THE PRESIDENT: That is the evidence you have given up to date.

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, when did it become liable to conscription or used as a substitute for conscription?

COLONEL STOREY: May I ask Mr. Burdell, who has been working on it, to answer that question?

MR. BURDELL: If your Honour pleases, there never was conscription

[Page 124]

in the S.A. As this document shows, document 3214, service in the Feldherrnhalle Regiment of the S.A. took the place of conscription. This first sentence in Document 3214, which reads, "It was announced that S.A. men and Hitler Youths liable to military service can fulfill their military conscription in the S.A. Regiment 'Feldherrnhalle,'" means, as I understand it, that S.A. men who are conscripted, that is S.A. men who are drafted after they have joined the S.A., may serve their conscription by remaining in the S.A. or by transferring to the Feldherrnhalle Regiment of the S.A.

The next paragraph of Document 3214 designates the requirements that must be fulfilled before the S.A. man can join this Feldherrnhalle Regiment, but if he fulfills those requirements he may join that regiment, and having done so, that serves the purpose or serves the function of conscription in the Wehrmacht.

I hope that answers your Honour's question.

COLONEL STOREY: In view of the above we would accept the S.A. to have been used as a striking force in the first steps of the aggressive war launched by Germany and as a basis for so-called Commando Groups, and such was the case. S.A. units were among the first Nazi military machine to invade Austria in the spring of 1938, as was proudly announced in an article appearing in Der S.A.-Mann, 19th March, 1938, Page 10, the article entitled, "We Were There First."

The S.A. participation in the occupation of the Sudetenland is also shown by Document 3036, Exhibit USA 102, and that is an affidavit by Gottlieb Berger, a former office holder in the S.S., who was assigned to the Sudeten-German Free Corps. I quote paragraphs 1 and 2 of the affidavit.

"1. In the fall of 1938 I held the rank and title of Oberfuehrer in the S.S. In mid-September I was assigned as S.S. Liaison Officer with Konrad Henlein's Sudeten German Free Corps at their headquarters in the castle at Dorndorf outside Bayreuth. In this position I was responsible for all liaison between the Reichsfuehrer S.S. Himmler and Henlein" -- your Honour will recall Henlein was the leader in the Sudetenland -- "and in particular, I was delegated to select from the Sudeten Germans those who appeared to be eligible for membership in the S.S. or V.T. (Verfuegungstruppe). In addition to myself, Liaison Officers stationed with Henlein included an Obergruppenfuehrer from the N.S.K.K., whose name I have forgotten, and S.A. Obergruppenfuehrer Max Juettmer, from the S.A. In addition, Admiral Canaris, who was head of the O.K.W. Abwehr, appeared at Dorndorf nearly every two days and conferred with Henlein."
Your Honours will recall that the "Abwehr" was the Intelligence Organisation.
2. In the course of my official duties at Henlein's Headquarters I became familiar with the composition and activities of the Free Corps. Three groups were being formed under Henlein's direction: One in the Eisenstein area, Bavaria; one in the Bayreuth area; one in the Dresden area; and possibly a fourth in Silesia. These groups were supposedly composed of refugees from the Sudetenland who had crossed the border into Germany, but they contain Germans with previous service in the S.A. and the N.S.K.K. (Nazi Motor Corps) as well. These Germans formed the backbone of the Free Corps.

[Page 125]

On paper the Free Corps had a strength of 40,000 men. Part of the equipment furnished to Henlein, mostly haversacks, cooking utensils and blankets, was supplied by the S.A."
The adaptability of the S.A. to whatever purpose was required of it is demonstrated by its activities subsequent to the outbreak of the war. During the war the S.A. continued to carry out its military training programme, but it also engaged in other functions. Its wartime activities are set out in Document 3219-PS, which is Exhibit USA 433, and Document 3216-PS, Exhibit USA 434, which excerpts from Das Archiv.

I quote first, briefly, from Document 3219, the whole text, exclusive of the heading:

"The Chief of Staff of the S.A., Wilhelm Schepmann, gave further orders to increase the employment of the S.A. in the homeland war areas, because of the requirements of total war employment. This was done in numerous conferences with leaders of the S.A. divisions.

As a result of these conferences, as well as of measures already carried out earlier for the totalisation of the war employment, the S.A. has placed 86 per cent. of its main professional Fuehrer Corps at the disposal of the Front, even though the war missions of the S.A. have increased in the fields of pre- military training, the S.A. penetration into new parts of the Reich, the air war employment, the State and national guard, etc., during wartime.

The S.A. as a whole has given at present 70 per cent. of its some million members to the Wehrmacht."

I call the attention of your Honours to the statement of the membership of 26th August, 1944. I quote briefly from Document 3216, the English translation, just one sentence:
"By order of the Chief of Staff of the S.A., the S.A. unit Government-General was established, the command of which was taken over by Governor General S.A. Obergruppenfuehrer Dr. Frank."
I next offer in evidence an affidavit, being Document 3232- PS, Exhibit USA 435, by Walter Schellenberg:
"From the beginning of 1944 the S.A. also participated in many of the functions which had previously been entrusted only to the S.S., the Sipo and Army; for instance, the guarding of concentration camps and of prisoner-of-war camps, the supervision of forced laborers in Germany and occupied territories. This co- operation of the S.A. was planned and arranged for by high officials in Berlin as early as the middle of 1943."
This concludes my presentation of the principal points of evidence concerning the participation of the S.A. in the conspiracy, but before I leave the subject, I should like to present to the Tribunal a few facts which establish the participation in the conspiracy by defendant Goering, in his capacity as an S.A. member or leader.


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