The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Fourth Day: Friday, 23rd November, 1945
(Part 2 of 7)

During this period one of the strongest weapons of the conspirators was propaganda. From the outset they appreciated the urgency of the task of inculcating the German masses with the National Socialist principles and ideology. The early utterances of Hitler and his fellow conspirators evidenced full recognition of the fact that their power could endure only if it rested on general acceptance of their political and social views.

Immediately following their accession to power, the Nazi conspirators instituted a determined programme for wholesale Organisation of the masses by seizing control of all vehicles of public expression. The widespread use of propaganda by the political machine thus created became a key device in establishing control over all phases of the German economy, public and private. They conceived that the proper function of propaganda was:-

"To prepare the ground psychologically for political action and military aggression, and to guarantee popular support of a system which was based on a permanent and steadily intensified application of terror and aggression, both in the sphere of domestic politics and foreign relations."
To attain these objectives, propaganda was used to create a specific thought pattern designed to make the people amenable to the aims and programme of the

[Page 122]

Nazis and to foster their active participation therein to the greatest extent possible. The nature of this propaganda is within the judicial purview of the Court. As Goebbels put it, it was aimed at "the conquest of the masses." Its intended effect was the elimination of all serious resistance in the masses. To achieve this result, as will be shown later in the evidence, the Nazi conspirators were utterly unscrupulous in their choice of means, a total disregard of veracity that presented their case purely from the standpoint of political expediency and their conception of national self-interest. Inasmuch as propaganda was the means to an end, "the conquest of the masses," it required different strategy at different times, depending on the objectives issued and pursued by the Nazi conspirators at any given moment. According to Hitler: "the first task of propaganda is gaining of people for the future organisation."

The recruiting of people for enlistment in the Party and supervised organisations was the primary objective in the years preceding and immediately following the seizure of power. After the rise to power, this task was broadened to include the enlistment of the people as a whole for the active support of the regime and its policies. As the Reich Propaganda Leader of the Party and Reich Minister for Propaganda, Goebbels stated:-

"Propaganda, the strongest weapon in the conquest of the State, remains the strongest weapon in the consolidation and building up of the State."
The methods which they used to control this strongest weapon in the power of the State are set forth in a chart which I would like to call to the Court's attention at this time, and would like to introduce in evidence as exhibit USA 21.

As you will note from the charts, there were three separate levels of control within the German Reich. The first level was the Party Controls, which are represented on the chart by the top block. And you will see that the Party through its Examining Commission controlled the books and magazines, and issues of books and magazines setting forth the ideology of the Party.

The second block, the Press Leader Division, supervised all publishers, and headed the Party newspapers and book publishers.

The third block, Press Chief - this office controlled the Press Political Office, the Press Personnel Office, and supervised the Party treatment of the Press and treatment of Party affairs in the Press.

The centre block, the Office of Propaganda Leader, had under its control not only the Press, but Exhibits, Affairs, Speaker's Bureau, Films, Radio, Culture, and other means of expression, and dissemination of the ideology of the Party and its purposes.

The next block, Ideology, was devoted exclusively to the ideology of the Party headed by the defendant Rosenberg. It supplied all the training periodicals, prepared for the schools, and the indoctrination of the people into the ideology of the Party. On that same level is Youth Education, presided over by the defendant Schirach, who had under his control the Hitler Jugend; and then there were the University Students and Teachers Division of the Party Control.

On the next level you have the controls that were exercised by the State, and reading from left to right you have the Propaganda Co-ordination, Foreign Co-ordination, and Co- operation.

Radio, which was under the control of the defendant Fritzsche, Film, Literature, the German Press, Periodicals, Theatre, Arts, Other Cultural Things, and the Ministry for Education.

Then, in the last, there is what is known as the Corporate Controls. These were under a semi-official control of both the Party and the State. These are the so-called Cultural Chambers. Their purpose was to have full control over the personnel engaged in the various arts and cultures, and engaged in the preparation and dissemination of news. First the Press. All reporters and writers belonged to that section. The next section was Fine Arts, Music, Theatre, Film, Literature, Radio, and then going over into the Educational Branch the organisation which the

[Page 123]

University Teachers, the Students, the former Corps Members of the University had to belong to.

By means of this vast network of propaganda machinery, the Nazi conspirators had full control over the expression and dissemination of all thought, cultural activities, and dissemination of news within the Reich. Nothing was or could be published in Germany that did not have the approval, express or implied of the Party and State. The defendant Schacht in his personal notes explains the effect of the killing of a piece of news in a totalitarian dictatorship. As he states it, it has never become publicly known that there have been thousands of martyrs in the Hitler regime. They have all disappeared in the cells or graves of the concentration camps, without ever having been heard of again; and he goes on to say, "what is the use of martyrdom in the fight against terror if it has no chance of becoming known and thus serving as an example for others."

I would . . .

THE PRESIDENT: What were you reading from then? From what document were you reading when you quoted Schacht?

MAJOR WALLIS: I am afraid . . .

THE PRESIDENT: You can tell us later on.

MAJOR WALLIS: I will tell you later on, Sir. I would now like to turn your attention . . .

THE PRESIDENT: Before you pass from this subject, there is a note on the documents which shows that certain documents are missing. What does that mean?

MAJOR WALLIS: Those documents are in the process of being reproduced and will be furnished to the Court, I hope, before the close of the day, Sir. They have been added to that book and, as yet, have not been completed in their process of reproduction.

THE PRESIDENT: Thank you. Have they been translated ?

MAJOR WALLIS: Yes, Sir, they have been translated, and the translations are in the process of being reproduced.

THE PRESIDENT: Are the documents in their original form in German?

MAJOR WALLIS: Yes, I believe they are, Sir.


MAJOR WALLIS: I would now like to direct the Court's attention to the militarisation of Nazi-dominated organisations during this pre-war period, and for that purpose I offer Exhibit USA J, which consists of a document book with English translations, and I present to the Court also a brief which accompanies this portion of the case.

Throughout this pre-war period, and while the Nazi conspirators were achieving and consolidating their totalitarian control of Germany, they did not lose sight of their main objective-aggressive war. Accordingly, they placed a considerable number of their dominated organisations on a progressively militarised footing, with a view to the rapid transformation of these organisations whenever necessary, as instruments of war. These organisations were the SS, the SA, the Hitler Jugend, the NSKK or National Socialist Motor Corps, the NSFK (the National Socialist Aviation Corps), the RAD (Reich Labour Service), and the OT, the Todt Organisation.

The manner in which the militarisation was accomplished is detailed in part in the documents, which have been presented to us, and will be detailed further when the particular organisations are taken up and discussed and their criminality established at subsequent stages in the case. At this time, I would like to call the Court's attention to a chart, and while the chart is physically being placed on the board, I would offer exhibits USA 22 and 23, I beg your pardon--exhibit 22, which is document 2899-PS, and is a reproduction of Page 15 of the book entitled, "History of the Nazi Party". You will note that on the left lower corner of the chart placed oil the board, there are some papers attached. The top paper is an affidavit which reads as follows: "I certify that the above enlargement is a true

[Page 124]

and correct copy prepared under my direct supervision, of document Number 2833-PS, Page 15 of the book entitled "History of the Nazi Part," and you will note underneath is a second paper and this affidavit states it is a correct photographic copy, and which appears in the left-hand corner of the panel. This affidavit is signed by David Zablodowsky, sworn to and subscribed 23rd November, 1945, at Nuremburg, Germany, before James H. Johnston, 1st Lt., Office of U.S. Chief of Counsel.

This chart visualises, as vividly as possible, just how this militarisation took place in Germany. The chart is entitled, "The Organic Incorporation of German Nationals into the National Socialist System, and the Way to Political Leadership".

Starting at the bottom of the chart, you see the young folk, between the ages of 10 and 14. The arrows point both right and left. The arrow to the right is the Adolf Hitler School, for youth between the ages of 12 and 18. Both from the School and from the young folk, they proceed to the Hitler Jugend. At 18 years of age, they graduate from the Hitler Jugend into the various party formations, the SA, SS, the NSKK, and the NSFK. At the age of 20 they continue from these party formations into the Labour Service, and from the Labour Service, after they have served their period of time there, back again to the party formations, of the SA, the SS, NSKK, and NSFK, until they reach the age of 21. Then they proceed into the Army, serve in the Army from the ages of 21 to 23, and then back again into the party formations of SA, SS, etc.

And from that group, the select move to be Political Leaders (Leiter) of the Nazi Party, and from that group are selected the cream of the crop who go to the Nazi Party Special Schools and from these schools, as is represented on the top of the chart, graduate the political Fuehrers of the People.

I would emphasise again to the Court that this chart is not anything that was prepared by counsel in this case. It was prepared by the Nazi Party people and it comes from their own history.

Thus, by the end of the pre-war period, the Nazi conspirators had achieved one of the first major steps in their grand conspiracy. All phases of German life were dominated by Nazi doctrine and practice and mobilised for the accomplishment of their militant aims. The extent to which this was accomplished can be no better expressed than by the words of Hitler when he spoke to the Reichstag on 20th February, 1938. I refer to document 2715-PS. He said:

"Only now have we succeeded in setting before us the great tasks and in possessing the material things which are the prerequisites for the realisation of great creative plans in all fields of our national existence. Thus, National Socialism has made up with a few years for what centuries before it had omitted. . . . National Socialism has given the German people that leadership which as Party not only mobilises the nation but also organises it, so that on the basis of the natural principle of selection, the continuance of a stable political leadership is safeguarded forever . . . National Socialism . . .possesses Germany entirely and completely since the day when, five years ago, I left the house in Wilhelmsplatz as Reich Chancellor. There is no institution in this State which is not National Socialist. Above all, however, the National Socialist Party in these five years not only has made the nation National Socialist, but has given itself the perfect organisational structure which guarantees its permanence for all future. The greatest guarantee of the National Socialist revolution lies in the complete domination of the Reich and all its institutions and organisations, internally and externally, by the National Socialist Party. Its protection against the world abroad, however, lies in its New National Socialist armed forces. . . .

In this Reich, anybody who has a responsible position is a National Socialist. . . . Every institution of this Reich is under the orders of the supreme political leadership. . . . The Party leads the Reich politically, the armed

[Page 125]

forces defend it militarily. . . . There is nobody in any responsible position in this State who doubts that I am the authorised leader of this Reich." Thus spoke Adolf Hitler at the end of this period on the 2oth February, 1938.

COLONEL STOREY: If the Tribunal please ...

DR. SEIDL (Counsel for defendant Frank): Mr. President, may I make a few short remarks in this connection? The defendants were given, along with the Indictment, a list of the documents, which is introduced as follows:

"Every one of the defendants is hereby being informed that the prosecution will use several or all the documents listed in the enclosure..."
THE PRESIDENT (interposing): You must speak more slowly.

DR. SEIDL (continuing):

" order to implement the points enumerated in the Indictment."
Now, the Chief Prosecutor introduced in Court this morning about twelve documents and a check of that list revealed that not a single one of the documents is mentioned. Thus, already now, at the very beginning of the trial, we are confronted with the fact that documents are presented to the Court with the contents of which the defendant is unacquainted and, further, that documents which are not even listed are being used as documentary evidence. Not a single one of these documents is mentioned in the list, and I must confess that an adequate defence is altogether impossible under these circumstances. I therefore move:
(1) That the Tribunal supply the prosecution with a list of all documents available, which are to be placed before the Court as evidence.
(2) To instruct the prosecution to make available to the defence and their counsel - at the latest on the day when documents are being presented to the Court - a copy of the German text; and
(3) That the main proceedings be suspended until the prosecution will be in a position to comply with these requests. Otherwise I, at least, will not be able to proceed with the defence.
THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, or counsel for the prosecution, will you say what answer you have to make to this objection?

COLONEL STOREY: If the Tribunal please, in the first place practically every document referred to by Major Wallis is a document of which the Court would take judicial knowledge. Secondly, a list of documents was filed in the Defendants' Information Centre on 1st November. I am not sure as to whether all of these or a part of them were included. Each attorney presenting each segment of the case sends down to the Defendants' Information Centre a list of the documents which he proposes to offer in evidence Upon his presentation. Thirdly, I wonder if the Tribunal and defence counsel realise the physical problems that are imposed? I am informed that copies of these documents in English as well as copies of the briefs, were delivered either last night or this morning in Defendants' Information Centre. Lastly, other presentations that follow, we will abide by the Tribunal's request, namely, that, prior to the presentation the Court will be furnished with these documents books, with these briefs, and defence counsel will also be furnished with them in advance. The week-end will permit us to do that.

THE PRESIDENT: The Tribunal thinks that the trial must now continue without any adjournment, but that in future as soon as possible the defendants' counsel will be furnished with copies of the documents which are to be put in evidence.

DR. SERVATIUS (Counsel for defendant Sauckel): I should like to present the following: The documents are presented to the Court also in an English translation. An examination of these translations should be made available to the defence. I point out particularly that the translation of technical terms could possibly lead to misunderstandings. Moreover, the documents are provided with an introductory remark and a table of contents. The defence should also have opportunity to read through this table of contents and examine it.

[Page 126]

I make the motion that these English translations and their preliminary remarks be made available to the defence.

[ Previous | Index | Next ]

Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

© The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.