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Date: Sun, 18 Apr 1999 13:38:38 -0700
From: Edith Shaked 
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Dear Ken,

I specified some citations and added the important fact that according
to scholars, there were 400,000 Jews in North Africa on the eve of WWII,
which explained the numbers "700,000" for "France/unocuppied territory"
in the original minutes of the Wannsee Conference. Work citations: from
the added bibliography. I hope, it's OK.

THE HOLOCAUST: Reexamining The Wannsee Conference, Himmler's 
			Appointments Book, and Tunisian Jews 


The Wannsee Conference 
At the Wannsee Conference, German officials gathered on January
1942 to coordinate the final destruction of "the Jews of Europe." What
the Nazis called "the Final Solution" was to be carried by means of
slave labour for all Jews, and mass deportation. At the Wannsee
Conference, the Nazis noted the number of the Jews to be killed. 

   * "France's unoccupied territory 700,000" means French North Africa

The fact is that in all German documents pertinent to "the Final
Solution to the Jewish Question" in "the countries of Europe," there is
only mention of "juden Europas", which translates into "the Jews of
Europe." And Europe at that time included France's territory of North

Most American Holocaust scholars have narrated only what, in the words
of Canadian Holocaust scholar, Michael Marrus, "BECAME the Final
Solution: European-wide deportations and death camps." (Michael R.
Marrus, The Holocaust in History, p. 31).

As a consequence the History of the Holocaust for many American
Holocaust scholars, became the History of European Jews -an expression
never mentioned in German documentation during Hitler's time. Even in
Hebrew, one say Yehudey Europa - the Jews of Europe, the corrrect
expression, as expressed in the historical evidence of that time.

This expression "European Jew" became so popular, but historically
inaccurate, that it led an American scholar to incorrectly translate the
German title of Christian Gerlanch's recently published article in the
Journal of Modern History, dec. 1998. The German title was:
"Die Wannsee-Konferenz, das Schicksal der deutschen Juden und Hitlers
politische Grundsatzenscheidng, alle Juden Europas zu ermorder"
Gerlach's accurate translation is: The Wannsee Conference, the Fate of
German Jews, and Hitler's Decision in Principle to Exterminate All THE
JEWS OF EUROPE. But "Juden Europas" was translated into "the
European Jews, instead the Jews of Europe.

The historical fact recognized by some Holocaust scholars, such as
Yehuda Bauer, Christopher Browning, Marrus Michael, Kaspi Andre, Abitbol
Michel, ... is that North African Jews  were counted, and included in
the numbers written in the minutes of the Jan. 20, 1942 Wannsee
Protocol, under: "France/unoccupied territory 700,000" 
This number for France's "unoccupied territory" indicate that the Jews
of France's territory of North Africa were counted to be killed, since
France had only around 300,000 Jews (See also Martin Gilbert's the Dent
Atlas of the Holocaust, p. 99). According to Michel Abitbol, "On the eve
of World War II there were 400,000 Jews in French North Africa"
(Abitbol, Michel, The Jews of North Africa during the Second World War.
Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989, p.7. Also, according to
Joseph Toledano, there were 465,000 Jews in French North Africa in 1948:
Toledano, Joseph. Les Juifs Maghrebins, Belgique: Editions Brepols,

- the recently published Himmler's
apointment book confirms the above. Peter Witte wrote me an e-mail:

on December 10, 1942 Himmler reported to Hitler on
"Juden in Frankreich   600-700.000   abschaffen"
(Jews in France  600-700.000   to be deported or to finish: the German
word is a bit ambiguous in fact. At any rate the word "abschaffen" is
Hitler's reaction to Himmler's proposal, which is emphasized by the
addition of a hook (about like \/). The meaning is always that Hitler
has agreed to Himmler's proposals.

Immediately after Himmler's report to Hitler he made a note on it:
"Der Fuehrer hat die Anweisung gegeben, dass die Juden und sonstigen
Feinde des Reiches in Frankreich verhaftet und abtransportiert werden.
Dies soll jedoch erst geschehen, wenn er mit Laval darueber gesprochen
(The Fuehrer has given order to arrest and deport the Jews and other
enemies of the Reich in France. But this shall happen only after talks
with Laval about it. 6 to 700.000 Jews are concerned.)

We have commented on this remarkable note that these exaggerated numbers
have already appeared in the protocoll of the Wannsee conference on
January 20, 1942, and that these numbers must include the Jews of the
French  northern African colonies Marocco, Algeria and Tunesia in all
probability, as in France only 290.000 Jews were still alive at the end
of 1942. Our reasoning is in accordance with other scholars, e.g. Goetz
Aly: "Endloesung", p. 300. The printed sources and this information can
be found in:
     Peter Witte u.a. (editors): Der Dienstkalender Heinrich Himmlers"

  * - Tunisian Jews during the Holocaust, in occupied Tunisia
The Jews in Nazi-occupied Tunisia (Nov. 1942-May 1943) suffered during 6
months, under antisemitism Nazi terror by the infamous SS-
Obersturmbannfuhrer Walter Rauff. 

	Peter Witte wrote to me: 
"Walther Rauff was "one of the biggest criminals of this
century"): Born June 19, 1906 in Coethen (Saxonia).
High navy officer (Korvettenkapitaen).
1937 fired by the German navy because of adultery (quite the same with 
Heydrich!)  Rauff and Heydrich became friends.
1941-42 RSHA Berlin under Heydrich.
rank: SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer (lieutenant colonel).
here leader of Group II D (technical matters - including construction
and  distribution of gas vans).
*** 1942-43 Commander of the Security Police in Tunisia.
fall 1943 Commander of the Security Police in Milano (Italy).
June 21, 1944 SS-Standartenfuehrer (colonel) (Simon Wiesenthal)."

	A Judenrat was created. Tunisian Jews were subject to acts of
violence and terror: arrest of hostages, confiscation of property,
ill-treatment -indiscriminate snatching of Jews from street corners and
private homes, storming into the synagogue, hitting worshipers-,
execution, deportation, and forced labour. Around 5,000 of them had been
sent to labor camps near the front lines. It has been estimated that
about 100 Jews perished during the period of recruitment: some were
murdered in cold bllod by their German guards; others died from
ill-treatment, disease, and others were killed in aerial bombardments.

        The Tunisian Jews were very much concerned with the threat for
their existence. And indeed the Germans were planning to exterminate
them. An SS unit was preparing gas chambers near Kairouan. Plans were
not completed because of lack of time.  Tunis was liberated May 7, 1943.

Tunisian Jewish victims:

Mr. Tibi, in the resistance of Sousse,  deported to Europe, dead
Mr. Assous, in resistance of hodjeb El Ayoun, deported to Europe, dead
Mr. Mounier, in resistance, died during mission
Joseph Chemla   deported to Buchenwald, died in Torgau
Gilbert Chemla  deported to Buchenwald, died in Torgau
Jean Chemla             deported to Buchenwald, died in Torgau
Rousseau Ruhlmann       deported, dead
Cohen-Hadria    died in Auschwitz
Raymond Samama  died in Oranienbourg
Victor Nataf    shot by the Nazi, as a spy for the Allies
Serge Moatti    deported to Auschwitz,came back
Victor Silvera  deported to Auschwitz,came back

Andre Assuied   in Djebibina, died in forced labor camp
Emile Hababou   shot by a German guard, 1/23/1943, Bizerte camp
Alfred Hababou  shot by German guard, nicknamed "Grandma," Bizerte
Elie Saadoun    shot by German guard, nicknamed "Grandma," 2/9/43
Victor Lellouche        killed by soldier Walter, nicknamed "the killer"

Simon Allali,   Jacques Attal,  Ed. Bellaiche,  Albert Boccara,
Gilbert Cohen,  Joseph Cohen,   Moise Cohen,    Felix Ghidalia,
G. M. Guedj,    Joseph Haddad,  Maurice Haddad	Joseph Hassan,
Lucien Naccache Roger Ktorza,   Sauveur Saada,  J. Saffar,
Ab. Sitbon,     Alfred Smadja,  Elie Taieb,     Zerah
Andre Haddad    Maurice Kalfon  Asher Gino Uzan
Albert Slama    Edmond Azria 2/16/43    		Chalom Guez 2/24/43
Robert Amram 1.43  Jacques Cohen 4.43  Joseph Chelly    Mazouz

This is only a partial list of victims of the Holocaust, in Tunisia

Members of the Tunisian Jewish Resistance:

Alfred Rossi            Croix de Guerre, Legion d'Honneur
Victor Attias           Croix de Guerre, Legion d'Honneur
Lucien Lumbroso         Croix de Guerre
Francoise Grumbach      - decoration of "Croix de Guerre"
Maurice Taib    	 deported to Sachsenhausen, and Buchenwald, came back
                                - decoration of "Croix de Guerre"
Henry Smadja    Croix de la Liberation, Legion d'Honneur
Louise Hannon,  deported to Germany, came back
                                - decoration of "Croix de Guerre"
Sylvain Karoubi prisoner, survived the tortures

Raoul Benattar  Samuel Benattar         Maurice Nizard  Georges Attal
Andre Bessis    Sylvain Lumbroso        Andre Nataf     Raoul Sitruk
Emile Barron    Jules Cohen-Solal       Dr. Albert Benattar
Raymond Uzan


Abitbol, Michel. The Jews of North Africa during the Second World War.
        Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989

Bauer, Yehuda.

Borgel, R. Etoile Jaune et Croix Gammee. Tunis, 1944

Browning, Christopher, R. "A Final Hitler Decision for the 'Final 
	Solution.' The Reigner Telegram Reconsidered." Holocaust and 
	Genocide Studies 10, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 3-11

Chouraqui, Andre. Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North 
Africa. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America,

Epstein, Eric Joseph, and Rosen Philip. Dictionary of the Holocaust.
	Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1997 

Ghez, Paul. Six mois sous la Botte. Tunis 1943

Gilbert, Martin. The Dent Atlas of the Holocust. London: JM Dent Ltd, 

Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: the Jewish Tragedy. London: Collins, 

Gutman, Yisrael, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. 4 vols. New York: 
	Macmillan, 1990 

Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. New York: 
	New Viewpoints, 1973

Hirschberg, H.Z. (J.W.) A History of the Jews in North Africa, vol. II

Kaspi, Andre. Les Juifs pendant L'occupation, Paris: Le Seuil, 1998 

Laskier, Michael M. North African Jewry in the Twentieth century. New 
	York and London: New York University Press, 1994

Marrus, Michael R. The Holocaust in History.

Pinkas Kehilot, The Jews of North Africa during the Holocaust, 
        Yad-vashem, in Hebrew

Sabille, Jacques. Les Juifs de Tunisie sous Vichy et l'Occupation.
        Paris: Edition du Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine, 


Mott, Jim. Moderator. H-NET List for History of the Holocaust

Prepared by Edith Shaked, e-mail:

Thank you again 
Edith Shaked

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