The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Last-Modified: 1997/11/09

The O.K.W., the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, and the
Gestapo were interwoven into one sole entity. This is also
borne out by the next document.

General Nedic, ex-Prime Minister of the Quisling Yugoslav
Government, in his depositions gives some interesting
information on this question.

Before reading into the record a few excerpts from his
depositions, I must say a few words concerning four Germans,
whom Nedic mentions by name. He speaks of Kraus, Turner,
Kiesel, and Kronholz.

Dr. Kraus was chief of the Gestapo "South-east," with
central offices in Belgrade. Dr. Turner was chief of staff
of the civil administration department attached to the
German Military Command in Serbia. Dr. Kiesel was Dr.
Turner's deputy. Kronholz held no official post. He had
lived in Yugoslavia even before the war and was director of
the German transport firm "Schenker AG." (Schenker
Aktiongesellschaft). Subsequently he turned out to be an
important German intelligence agent. This information is
certified by the Yugoslav Extraordinary Commission for the
Investigation of German Atrocities (Exhibit USSR 331). After
this explanation, I shall read into the record a short
excerpt from the evidence of the Serbian Quisling, General
Nedic. A true copy of the interrogation, or rather excerpts
from his minutes, are submitted as Exhibit USSR 288. I am
able to submit to you now, for your perusal, the original of
these minutes with Nedic's signature. Unfortunately I am not
in a position to leave it with you in its entirety because
it refers to a case concerning Yugoslavia which has not yet
been finished, but I can hand it to you for perusal by the
Tribunal, while the certified excerpts remain with us as

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Pokrovsky, the Tribunal understand
that you wish to put this document in as evidence and then
to withdraw it for the purpose of its being used in some
other cases; is that right?

COL. POKROVSKY: I should like to submit to you as evidence
in this case the excerpts from the minutes, duly certified
by the Yugoslav Extraordinary Commission, in order that the
minutes now in your hands, i.e., the original minutes -- may
be returned to Belgrade where they will be presented as a
document needed in another case which is still under
investigation. I would, therefore, request you to keep a
copy for the Tribunal after you have satisfied yourselves
that this copy tallies with the original.

THE PRESIDENT: Well then, if that is so, we must ask you to
deposit with this Tribunal a photostatic copy of this
document, because, of course, all the documents or
photostatic copies which are put in evidence must de
deposited with the General Secretary of this Tribunal. So,
if you will undertake to have a photostatic copy made of
this document and left with the General Secretary, I think
the Tribunal is agreed that you may do so, that you may use
this document.

COL. POKROVSKY: Will the Tribunal be satisfied with the
certified photostatic copy, in addition to the certified
excerpts and a photostatic copy of the part which I am about
to quote?

                                                  [Page 232]

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, certainly.

COL. POKROVSKY: Thank you.

     "I came to know Kronholz during the occupation period,
     before I became Prime Minister. As far as I can
     remember he was brought to me by the Chief of the
     Gestapo, Dr. Kraus... Then Kronholz insisted that I
     should accept the proposed post. Turner received me in
     the presence of Dr. Kiesel and said that he authorised
     me, through General Dankelmann, the German military
     commander in Serbia, to form an authoritarian
I omit a few sentences.
     "Almost simultaneously with the creation of my
     Government, the Germans established contact with a
     group of Chetniks under the command of Petschanaz, who
     had until then been hiding in the forests. The contact
     was also established through the Chief of the Gestapo,
     Dr. Kraus. Shortly after this, Petschanaz arrived in
     Belgrade, called to see me, and offered his services.
     That is how my Government came to form its first armed
A little farther on, in the same minutes, we find the
following record of Nedic's testimonies:

     "As soon as the formation of my Government had been
     proclaimed at the beginning of September, 1941, a
     delegation with authority from Drazha Michailovic
     called on me to start negotiations."
Nedic enumerates the terms, which are of no interest to us,
and then says:

     "I, for my part, accepted all these terms and offers.
     Drazha received money and the Germans permitted this."
This is the end of the quotation.

Still another part of this record seems of importance to me;
it concerns Nedic's visit to Hitler and the defendant
Ribbentrop. Nedic stated:

     "I noticed that at the meeting with the defendant
     Ribbentrop, a demand was made that I should place all
     the spiritual and material resources of Serbia at the
     disposal of the German Reich for the prosecution of the
Speaking of this meeting with Hitler, Nedic stated:

     "He shouted at me, emphasising that the order
     concerning one hundred for one was too lenient; that it
     should have been increased to one thousand for one. He
     added also that he was prepared to exterminate the
     entire population if the Serbians continued to act like
The head of Fascist Germany wished to control the Slav
countries as if they were his own patrimony. Here he was
gladly helped by generals, diplomats, industrialists and
intelligence officers. All the acts of aggression were
prepared and realized with their direct participation.

I repeat: The German generals as a body were not merely an
obedient tool in Hitler's hands. The defendants Keitel, Jodl
and Goering personally participated in the planning,
preparation and realisation of crimes against peoples and

Document 1195-PS adds yet another proof in the establishment
of this fact. The above named defendants, together with
Neurath, Frick, Schirach, Frank, Seyss-Inquart and
Ribbentrop, are directly guilty of the very grave crimes
which I have enumerated to the Tribunal.

National Socialism cannot be separated from the idea of war.
This is acknowledged by the Hitlerites themselves.

In other words, Hitlerism and aggressive war are one and the
same thing.

                                                  [Page 233]
And if wars are not always planned by military leaders only,
it is always they who conduct them. The responsibility for
aggression, for aggressive war, for the death of millions,
for atrocities, for the destruction of cultural treasures
and material wealth, must be borne by all the major war
criminals now sitting in the dock.

THE PRESIDENT: We will adjourn now.

(A recess was taken.)

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