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Shofar FTP Archive File: holocaust/germany/warnings/schulte.001


Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: Holocaust Almanac: Eduard Schulte

Archive/File: holocaust/germany/warnings schulte.001
Last-Modified: 1994/07/01

   "A third informant was Eduard Schulte, who was an industrialist in
   Breslau, where he headed a large mining concern,
   Bergwerksgesellschaft Georg von Giesche's Erben.  His connections
   in Germany included a German colonel and a Giesche manager who was
   close to Gauleiter Karl Hanke of Lower Silesia.  Like Sommer,
   Schulte had previously been in Switzerland on business and had
   given information to various people about German policies and
   plans.  This time, his visit was prompted by something he had heard
   about the Jews: they were going to be annihilated.  On July 30,
   1942, he talked to a business associate, Isidor Koppelmann, who
   contacted the press officer of the Swiss Jewish community, Benjamin
   Sagalowitz.  Schulte wanted his message to be transmitted to
   America and Britain, and Sagalowitz turned to Riegner in Geneva.
   Riegner consulted Professor Guggenheim.  The choices are few.  One
   could not simply fly to London or New York and deliver the message
   personally.  Communication through the mail or telegrams risked
   Swiss censorship.  An approach to Allied representatives in
   Switzerland, however, offered the possibility of speed and
   security, as well as help in gathering additional information.  On
   the morning of August 8, Riegner set out to meet with the British
   and American consuls in Geneva.<34> Riegner, who had not met
   Schulte and had not been given his name, drafted a notice
   containing the substance of Schulte's statement.  It was addressed
   to Sydney Silverman, a member of the World Jewish Congree in London
   and Member of Parliament, and to Wise in New York.  Its text is as
   follows:

      RECEIVED ALARMING REPORT STATING THAT IN FUEHRERS HEADQUARTERS A
      PLAN HAS BEEN DISCUSSED AND BEING UNDER CONSIDERATION ACCORDING
      TO WHICH TOTAL OF JEWS IN COUNTRIES OCCUPIED CONTROLLED BY
      GERMANY NUMBERING THREEANDHALF TO FOUR MILLIONS SHOULD AFTER
      DEPORTATION AND CONCENTRATION IN EAST BE AT ONE BLOW
      EXTERMINATED IN ORDER TO RESOLVE ONCE AND FOR ALL JEWISH
      QUESTION IN EUROPE STOP ACTION IS REPORTED TO BE PLANNED FOR
      AUTUMN WAYS OF EXECUTION STILL DISCUSSED STOP IT HAS BEEN SPOKEN
      OF PRUSSIC ACID STOP IN TRANSMITTING INFORMATION WITH ALL
      NECESSARY RESERVATION AS EXACTITUDE CANNOT BE CONTROLLED BY US
      BEG TO STATE THAT INFORMER IS REPORTED HAVE CLOSE CONNECTIONS
      WITH HIGHEST BGERMAN AUTHORITIES AND HIS REPORTS TO BE GENERALLY
      RELIABLE

					WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS
					GERHARD RIEGNER<35>

   The words 'all necessary reservation' were suggested by
   Guggenheim.<36>

   By the end of July, gassings were already under way in Kulmhof,
   Auschwitz, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Maydanek (Lublin).  Only
   Treblinka had just begun its operations.  The subject was no longer
   under discussion and the Jews were not going to be killed 'at one
   blow.' The message, however, contained not only the overwhelming
   truth of annihilation, but some telling details.  Thus there _was_
   a stockpiling of deportees from Germany and Slovakia in a number of
   eastern ghettos, pending organized shootings or gassings, and
   prussic acid, the active ingredient in Zyklon, _was_ the gas
   already introduced in Auschwitz, the death camp in Upper Silesia,
   next door to Lower Silesia.

   When Vice Consul Howard Elting met with Riegner in the American
   consulate, he found the World Jewish Congress representative in
   great agitation.  Riegner brought up the prussic acid and Elting
   interjected that the report seemed fantastic to him.  Riegner
   replied that it had struck him the same way, but that he had to
   consider the recent mass deportations from Paris, Holland, Berlin,
   Vienna, and Prague.  The report was so serious and alarming that he
   felt it his duty to request that the Allied governments and Rabbi
   Wise be informed and the governments 'try by every means to obtain
   confirmaiton or denial.'<37>

   For Riegner the pieces were already falling into place.  They were
   not so convincing to the Allied governments.  The Department of
   State decided that, pending corroboration of the information, the
   message should not be delivered to Rabbi Wise.<38> In the British
   Foreign office, the telegram was considered for seven days before
   it was passed on to Sydney Silverman.<39> Wise received the message
   from Silverman on August 24.<40>" (Hilberg, 239-240)

<34> A portion of this story was first uncovered by Arthur Morse,
   'While Six Million Died' (New York, 1967), pp.  3-7.  Schulte's
   identity was discovered years after his death by Monty Penkower
   and, independently, by Richard Breitman and Alan Kraut.  See
   Penkower, 'The Jews Were Expendable,' pp.  62, 317-18; Breitman and
   Kraut, 'Who Was the _Mysterious Messenger_?', 'Commentary,' October
   1983, pp.  44-47; Laqueur and Breitman, 'Breaking the Silence' (New
   York, 1988); and Breitman in Breitman and Kraut, 'American Refugee
   Policy and European Jewry 1933-1945 (Bloomington, Ind., 1987), pp.
   148-57, 279-81.  See also the correspondence by Penkower, Breitman,
   and others in 'Commentary,' January 1984, pp.  4-10.  The books
   co-authored by Breitman are more detailed about Schulte's
   background and the transmission of the message.  There are some
   small discrepancies among the various accounts.

<35> Memorandum by U.S.  Vice-Consul Howard Elting in Geneva, August
   8, 1942, with attacvhed draft of a telegram prepared by Riegner
   'giving in his own words a telegraphic summary of his statement to
   me'; National Archives of the United States, Record Group 84,
   American Legation Bern, Confidential File 1942, Box 7, 840.1J.
   Riegner's first name was misspelled.

<36> Laqueur and Breitman, 'Breaking the Silence,' pp. 146-47.
   Penkower, 'The Jews Were Expendable,' pp. 63-64. Laqueur and
   Breitman state that Guggenheim also advised the deletion of a
   reference to a crematorium: 'Breaking the Silence,' p. 146

<37> Memoradum by Elting, August 8, 1942, National Archives Record
   Group 84, American Legation Bern, Confidential File 1942, Box 7,
   810.1J.

<38> J. Klehr Huddle (Counselor of the U.S. Legation in Bern) to
   Elting, August 21, 1942, ibid.

<39> Bernard Wasserstein, 'Britain and the Jews of Europe,' (London
   and Oxford, 1979), p. 168. Gilbert, 'Auschwitz and the Allies,' pp.
   59-60.

<40> Telegram from Silverman to Wise, August 24, 1942. American Jewish
   Archives, World Jewish Congress Collection/Alphabetical Files -
   Switzerland, 184 A, Box 1.

                           Work Cited

Hilberg, Raul. Perpetrators, Victims, Bystanders: The Jewish
   Catastrophe, 1933-1945. New York: Harper-Collins Publishers, 1992.

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