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00010602.GIF  Page 15

price-p. 45 cont.

his family did not lead him, as might have been 
expected, to look for employment. The reason 
was that he had an instinctive dislike for manual 
labor, and since he had failed to obtain any 
educational certificates, nothing else was open 
to him.

Politics were the principal diversion of Hitler's 
youth. He would sit in a cheap coffee-house 
devouring the various party organs which hung in 
rows, each on its wicker holder, from pegs on the 
wall. He developed, too, a taste for attending political 
meetings, especially those likely to be noisy or to 
attract the attention of the Austrian police by seditious 
speeches. Frau Hitler's devotion to her only surviving 
son made her uneasy lest these interests should get 
him into trouble. She would implore him to keep away 
from such gatherings and Adolf would promise to do 
so--only to find the temptation too strong to resist.

On one occasion, when a German Nationalist speaker 
was denouncing the Hapsburg dynasty and its alleged 
betrayal of the interests of the Austro-Germans, a 
police inspector stepped onto the platform and stopped 
the proceedings. The audience made a rush for the 
doors. They ran into the arms of a strong detachment 
of gendarmes and were ordered to form up to be 
marched to the nearest police station.

Adolf was in a fright. It might be that the prisoners 
would be rleased [sic] after names and addresses had 
been taken, but it was also possible that they would 
be locked up for attending an illegal political 
demonstration. What would his mother say after 
he had pledged himself to keep out of such scrapes? 
He cast anxious eyes around as he stood herded with 
the others under a police-guard. They fell on one of 
those circular advertisement-kiosks that stand in 
Austrian streets. Each time the nearest policeman 
turned his back he sidled stealthily closer to it. When 
the constable's attention was distracted for a moment 
by an order from the inspector, Adolf darted behind the 
kiosk. Before the policeman had noticed his 
disappearance, he was running at top speed for home.

Five years were thus dawdled away. Young Hitler 
had a natural ability for sketching, and till he was 
eighteen, kept up his mother's hopes with the assurance 
that as soon as he was old enough he would get into 
the Art Academy at Vienna and complete his studies there.

Price-p. 45-46-47

00010603.GIF  Page 16

Price-p.47 cont.

In 1907, with four years of indolence already 
behind him, he accordingly made his first journey 
to Vienna to apply for admission to the Painting 
School of the State Academy, where free instruction 
and a small living-allowance were given to students.

To his dismay his application was refused, the 
Rector of the Academy deciding that his sketches 
did not show sufficient talent.

Hitler's taste in drawing was mainly for 
architectural subjects, and he followed up this 
failure by a similar application to the School of 
Architecture. There he came nearer to success. 
In his book, Mein Kampf (published in England as 
My Struggle and in America as My Battle), he relates 
that the Director showed some interest in the 
specimens of his work, but on learning that he 
had never passed his school-leaving examination, 
declared that he was ineligible for admission.

In despair, the young would-be artist took the 
train back to Linz. His long-indulged dream of a 
career as a painter had been shattered. The 
future must have seemed dark indeed. Even today, 
Hitler, talking of those times, holds out his shapely 
hands and says, "Look at these! You can see they 
were never made to use a spade."

But it was soon to be a choice between that and 
starvation. In the following year his mother died, 
and with her death ceased the little pension upon 
which she had hitherto provided her now nineteen-
year-old son with bed and board.

A small sum was realized by the sale of the 
cottage which had been his father's property. 
Hitler gave up his share of this small inheritance 
to his younger sister, Paula, and set out with hardly 
anything but the clothes he stood up in to earn his 
living in Vienna.

From that time all connection between Hitler and 
his family ceased for many years. It is characteristic 
of the man that he has kept himself free from 
domestic ties. From the first his mind was more 
occupied with public questions than with personal 
affairs of any kind.

Price-p. 45-46-47-48

00010604.GIF  Page 17

"If my relatives had deserved better conditions, 
they would have got on as I did," is a remark 
attributed to Hitler.

In his autobiography his brother and sisters are 
not mentioned. The only one of them for whom he 
seems to have any attachment is his step-sister, 
Angela. He got into touch with her again when he 
revisited Vienna after the War. She was then the 
widow of a man named Raubal, and in domestic 
service as a cook. Frau Raubal and her daughter, 
Grete, came to see Hitler while he was a political 
prisoner at Landsberg in 1924. When the Party was 
refounded in the following year and Hitler's 
finances began to improve, they moved to Munich 
to keep house for him.

His other sister, Paula, seven years younger than 
himself, lives in humble circumstances in Vienna. 
Hitler sends her an allowance, but it is limited to 
the maximum amount that the currency regulations 
permit to be sent out of Germany within a given 

His elder half-brother, Alois, born in 1882, worked 
for many years as a waiter in Germany and England. 
His fate is uncertain. Some say that he is dead; 
others that he is the proprietor of a modest restaurant, 
known by his Christian name, recently opened on the 
Wittenbergplatz in the West End of Berlin.

Price - p. 48-49

It was his sense of frustration that filled him 
with antagonism towards the existing order of 
society, and prepared him to interpret and inflame 
the exasperation which defeat and the pressure of 
the Peace Treaty kindled among the German people. 
The animosities formed by Hitler in Vienna have 
become the prejudices with which he has inspired 
the whole German nation.

Seeking for an outlet of this resentment against 
his fate, his instinct fastened upon two grievances--
the activities of the Jews and the futility of parliaments.

In his boyhood days Hitler had been unaware of 
the very existence of the Jewish question.

"Linz possessed only very few Jews," he writes in 
Mein Kampf.  "In the course of centuries their outward 
appearance had been Europeanized and become human.  
I even regarded them as Germans. The folly of this 
conception was not apparent to me because I regarded 
them as differentiated only by a foreign faith. That for 
this reason they should be persecuted, as it seemed to 
me, sometimes intensified into disgust my disapproval 
of unfavorable comments on them."

Price-p. 51

00010605.GIF  Page  18

Adolf Hitler's vindictive hatred of his wretched and 
apparently hopeless condition thus found an outlet 
on which it could be concentrated. The German 
Nationalist instincts of his boyhood had set him 
against the Hapsburgs because they gave the other 
races of the Empire equal standing with its German 
stock. But here was a more flagrant abuse to arouse 
his indignation. Investigation of Jewish activities in 
the press, art, literature, and the theater convinced 
him that they amounted to "a pestilence, a spiritual 
pestilence, worse than the Black Death of former 
times, which was affecting the whole nation." The 
street-life of Vienna showed him the part  played in 
prostitution and the white-slave traffic by the race 
which had become the object of his abhorrence. He 
learnt that the Socialist press was largely conducted 
by Jews. He found, in fact, that the controlling spirit 
and hand behind the things he most hated were almost 
invariably Jewish.

Price-p. 52-53

"I gradually began to hate them," he says. He 
transferred to the Jews the hostility that he 
had formerly felt for the Socialist workmen with 
whom his brief experience as a builder's laborer 
had brought him into touch. These he now perceived 
were more to be pitied than blamed. They had been 
corrupted by the Jewish gospel of Marxism, which 
"denied the aristocratic principle of Nature and 
substituted for the eternal pre-eminence of strength 
and might the deadweight of numbers."


The other obsession with which his four years' 
stay in Vienna imbued the mind of this discontented 
and critical young man was that of the futility and 
peril of parliamentary institutions.

Hitler admits that his youthful newspaper-reading 
had inspired him with unconscious admiration for 
the British Parliament, which he had some difficulty 
in shaking off. He was impressed by the dignity with 
which the House of Commons fulfilled its task, but 
for a state made up of such a mosaic of peoples as 
Austria he found the parliamentary system totally 

Price-p. 54

00010606.GIF  Page 19

Price-p. 54 cont.

It aroused his indignation that the fate of the German 
element,which he regarded as the elite of the country, 
should be dependent on a parliament where other national 
elements were in the majority. He watched debates 
from the galleries and was disgusted to see with what 
indifference and lack of discipline they were conducted. 
It shocked him that some speakers should address the 
house, not in German, but in their native Slav dialects.

He conceived contempt both for parliamentary 
institutions and their members. The main defect 
of a parliament, as he. saw it, was that no one could 
be held personally responsible for any measure. He 
was disgusted that a statesman's artfulness in 
controlling a more or less corruptly compounded 
majority should be rated as high as his ability to 
plan a large-scale policy or take great decisions.

"Majorities can never replace men," was his conclusion. 
"They represent not only stupidity but timidity. And 
just as a hundred boneheads are incapable of wisdom, 
so a hundred cowards will never make a heroic resolve."

Price-p. 54

Disgust with the cosmopolitan capital of Austria 
led Hitler in the spring of 1912 to move to the more 
congenial German atmosphere of Munich. In those 
days frontiers were only Customs-barriers and 
could be crossed without passport or police permission. 
As an Austrian subject Hitler remained liable to 
military service, and during his early days in Munich 
he returned to Austrian territory at Salzburg to 
present himself for enrollment. The doctor rejected 
him as unfit. It is not surprising that the privations 
he had endured in Vienna should have lowered his 
physical condition.

He could still be clled [sic] up for service on 
mobilization. By joining [sic] the Bavarian Army 
as a volunteer at the outbreak of the War, Hitler 
lost his Austrian nationality. Until he became a 
German citizen in 1932, he was officially 
classified In Germany as _Staatenlos,_ or 
"without allegiance."

Price-p. 55

00010607.GIF  Page 20

The desire to confirm his pro-German sentiments 
by deeds had long been urgent in his mind. Though 
his own native land was involved in the struggle 
now beginning, he felt no call to fight for the 
Hapsburgs. Instead, on August 3, 1914, he applied 
to be enrolled as a volunteer in the Bavarian Army. 
He was immediately accepted and attached to the 
16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment.

Price-p. 57

Of his military career, as of his life in Vienna 
and Munich, Hitler himself has furnished a shadowy 
record lacking in detail. He was attached as an 
orderly to regimental headquarters and showed, 
throughout his long war-service, a grim and moody 
courage. In October, 1916, he was wounded by a 
shell-splinter, and in the hospital to which he was 
sent at Beelitz, near Potsdam, he had his first contact 
with the demoralization which had already begun in 

Hitler was disgusted to hear his neighbor in 
hospital boast of a self-inflicted wound, and 
to hear expressions of admiration for the artfulness 
of soldiers who managed to avoid the front.

When his wound was healed he went on leave to 
Berlin and Munich. Everywhere discontent and 
grumbling prevailed. Hitler applied for immediate 
return to his regiment. He had no friends or family. 
His war-comrades say that he never received a parcel 
and hardly ever a letter. The regiment was his only 
home. "I do not want to be in Munich when my 
comrades are at the front," he wrote in asking 
to rejoin at once.

The story of Hitler's war-service, as pieced 
together from the recollections of men who 
served in the List Regiment, shows him to have 
been reserved and distant with his comrades, 
but enthusiastic in the discharge of his duty.

The regimental history records that under heavy 
artillery fire he jumped in front of his commanding 
officer to shield him with his body, and pushed 
him into the shelter of a shell-hole. This devotion 
to his officers even aroused the jealousy of his 
fellow-soldiers. He was always on the alert to do 
them service by looking after their clothes or meals 
in the trenches. Yet they do not seem to have 
detected in him the qualities of leadership. His 
various company-commanders gave him no promotion, 
despite his experience at the front, beyond the 
rank of lance-corporal.


00010608.GIF  Page  21

Price-p: 58 cont.

It was probably his lack of popularity with the 
men that barred Hitler from advancement. He 
took no part in the jokes and grumbles of the 
trenches. His sullen silence was broken only by 
violent diatribes on topics of little interest to 
the ordinary soldier. He would contrast the 
effectiveness of British war-propaganda with 
the failure of the German Government to employ 
similar methods. He observed how, in the Allied 
countries, the day of popular leaders like Lloyd 
George, Clemenceau, and Wilson had come. During 
all those years on the Western Front he was 
steadily developing a sense of his own superiority 
to the mass of mankind.

When his companions jeered at his political 
lectures, Hitler used to assure them that "you 
will hear a lot of me yet." Nor were his propaganda 
activities confined to words alone. He is said to 
have used his fists in beating up a telephonist 
who declared that it was all the same to him 
whether Germany won the war or not.

The merits of Hitler' s military service were 
proved by the fact that towards the end of the 
War, on August 4, 1918, he was given the Iron 
Cross of the First Class.

There is a picturesque story, told by Hitler's former 
comrades, that this was conferred upon him for an 
action demanding both courage and decision. They 
say that during the fighting round the Montdidier 
bridge-head, Hitler and another orderly, while 
acting as dispatch-runners, stumbled upon a dozen 
French soldiers cut off in a trench. Hitler, according 
to this version, covered them with his rifle, made 
them lay down their arms, and marched them back 
to regimental headquarters.

There seems to be no official record of this action, 
but even without it the recommendation of Hitler for 
the Iron Cross of the First Class, drafted by his 
commanding officer, Baron von Godin, is a high tribute 
to his soldierly qualities. It reads as follows:

Lance-Corporal (Volunteer) Hitler, Third Company.       

Hitler has been with the regiment since the beginning 
of the War, and has given a splendid account of himself 
in all the engagements in which he has taken part.
As company-runner, he displayed, both in open 
and trench warfare, exemplary coolness and spirit, 
and he was always ready to volunteer to carry 
through messages in the most difficult positions 
and at great risk to his life.

Price-p. 59

00010609.GIF  Page 22

Price-p. 59 cont.

After the cutting of all communications in a critical 
situation, it was due to Hitler's indefatigable and 
self-sacrificing activity that important messages 
got through despite all difficulties.
Hitler received the Iron Cross (second class) for 
gallant conduct in the Battle of Wytschaete on 
December 2, 1914. I regard him as fully worthy 
to be decorated with the Iron Cross (first class).

In October, 1918, on the same sector near Ypres where 
Hitler had received his baptism of fire four years before, 
his battalion came under a night-long bombardment of 
"Yellow Gas" shells. At seven o'clock on the morning of 
October 14 his eyes were so badly affected that he had 
to be sent down the line, carrying with him, as he says, 
his last dispatch.

Price-p. 57-60

Hitler burst into tears. All the sacrifices and suffering 
that he had witnessed and shared had been in vain. 
Germany, his youthful idol and adopted fatherland, 
lay in ruins.

Gradually his grief gave way to bitter hatred of 
those Jews and Socialists whom he held responsible 
for the collapse of the German nation. It was to 
avenge this betrayal that he determined to take up 

Price-p. 60

The political dreams and discussions which seemed 
so unprofitable in Hitler's early career had given him 
a self-assurance that now stood him in good stead. All 
doubts and difficulties in his own mind were disposed 
of. He was so thoroughly convinced himself that he 
carried conviction to the puzzled and despairing 
multitude. He realized that in times of confusion and 
catastrophe men crave to be led rather than persuaded.

Price-p. 62

After the suppression of the Reds, Hitler joined the 
Military Intelligence Service, and was attached to an 
organization for giving civilian training to the troops 
after their long army service.
Price-p. 63

00010610.GIF  Page 23

Price-p. 63 cont.    

It was here that the idea of forming a political 
party arose in his mind. He discussed it with his 
comrades and decided that the best name would be 
"The Social Revolutionary Party," because the 
reconstruction of which they dreamed would amount 
to a revolution.

Price-p. 62-63

He hesitated because, he says, he has always had an 
instinctive dislike for people who start things without 
carrying them through.

Price-p. 65

When Hitler gave up his pay and rations as a 
soldier to work for the Party, he condemned 
himself for several years to extreme poverty. 
He used frequently to pass the night in the public 
waiting-rooms at the Munich railway station, 
unable to afford a bed. Members of the Party who 
were in employment used to take turns in asking 
him to share their meals. Even as late as 1923 a 
friend who gave Hitler an overcoat saw tears 
come into his eyes.

Price-p. 71

In Hitler's eyes discipline was of greater 
importance than intelligence.

Price-p. 73

Hitler was against this project of making his 
young men into plain-clothes soldiers. It may be 
that he realized that the practical effect of the 
proposal would be to transfer them from his 
authority to that of the army chiefs. He opposed 
their militarization with the argument that 
week-end training on a voluntary basis and 
without military penalties for slackness was 
not enough to make an efficient soldier.

Price-p. 75

00010611.GIF  Page 24

Price-p. 75 cont.

As for the other plan of using the Storm Troops 
for a political coup d'etat, Hitler maintained that 
power in Germany could be won only by peaceful 
means. The Kapp Putsch had shown, he declared, 
that armed revolution was doomed to failure.

Political agitation, therefore, was the only 
effective instrument. Overruling the stubborn 
opposition to Rohm, he insisted that the Storm 
Troopers should be used for no other purpose.

Price-p. 75

Some or his supporters were Monarchists; others 
wanted a dictatorship. He himself favored a 
continuance of the Republican regime. It was not 
so much the form of government as the spirit 
animating it that he wanted to change.

Price-p. 75

"No one leaves this room alive without my orders!" 
were his first words. Armed Storm Troopers took 
up their stand as guards at the entrance. Hitler had 
kept his pistol in his hand, and though he assured 
von Kahr that there was no personal danger for him, 
he propounded his plans with the threatening 
remark, "There are still five bullets in my 
pistol--four for traitors, and one, if things 
go wrong, for myself."

Price-p. 79

Hitler, arrested at the Hanfstangl villa three 
days after the Putsch, was at first plunged in 
black despair. To von Kahr and the others whom 
he had tried to co-opt by force and who deserted 
him, he had declared that if he failed he would 
shoot himself. The idea of suicide was still with 
him when he was brought to Landsberg Prison to 
await his trial. He contemplated a hunger-strike 
like that by which the Lord Mayor of Cork had 
ended his days some twelve months previously.

Price-p. 92

00010612.GIF  Page 25

 ..... Admirers brought him fruit and flowers, sometimes 
with bottles of wine concealed inside, for Hitler was 
not yet a teetotaler. On his birthday in July, his quarters 
were described as "like a conservatory."

This retirement from the world was exactly what 
Hitler needed at that stage of his political development. 
It gave him a chance to revise and reorganize his plans. 
He had time to reflect upon past errors.

Price-p. 93

When he was released at Christmas, 1924, Hitler's 
work lay in ruins. The only money he had in world 
was 700 marks, the proceeds of the sale in pamphlet 
form of his speech at the trial. He felt a mystical 
conviction that to rebuild the Nazi movement he must 
start with nothing. His first act was to distribute the 
700 marks among poor members of his Party. Then, 
penniless, he began his political career again.

Price-p. 94

In the early stages of his campaign Hitler refused 
to be photographed. He believed it added to the 
interest of his propaganda that his name should 
be well known while his appearance remained 
mysterious. When he spoke in public two or three 
of his followers were detailed to prevent 
photographers from getting a picture of him.

Price-p. 95

Hitler's room in the building was simply decorated 
in the modern style. Its only ornaments consisted 
of two portraits of Frederick the Great, together 
with his death-mask hanging on the wall, and a 
bronze bust of Mussolini mounted on a pedestal.

Price-p. 103

The risk of a secession of Strasser's supporters 
in the Party completed the gloom of this darkest 
hour before the dawn

Price-p. 119

00010613.GIF  Page 26

Price-p. 119 cont.

of its triumph, which was so close at hand. 
Goebbels describes how Hitler paced up and 
down his room in the Kaiserhof, exclaiming at 
one moment: "If the Party splits, I will end it 
all inside three minutes with a pistol." A few 
weeks afterwards he said, "There have been two 
miracles in my life. Twice have I been face to 
face with disaster--after the Munich Putsch, 
when I was in jail, isolated, defeated, and made 
to look ridiculous; and on the very eve of becoming 
Chancellor, when I seemed about to founder in sight 
of port, swamped by intrigues, financial difficulties, 
and the dead-weight of twelve million people who 
swung first one way end then another. Both times 
God saved me.
Price-p. 119-120

It is Hitler's usual practice not to interfere in 
differences of opinion about policy among his 
subordinates. He remains as a supreme authority 
above the turmoil, ready to intervene only if such 
divergences of view threaten the efficiency of 
the regime.

Price-p. 142

"For twenty-four hours I was the Supreme Court 
of the German people," he told the Reichstag a 
fortnight later. He showed no more remorse for 
his severity than does a judge who has sentenced 
a criminal to death on evidence. That interpretation 
of his action is the one that prevails in Germany.

Price-p. 144

Hitler has often told his friends that he will retire 
from public life at sixty, an age that he will reach in 1949.
After that, he would like to play for another ten 
years the role of an Elder Statesman, helping his 
successor with advice, but taking no part in the 
administration. "I have seen too much of old men 
in high places" is a remark he sometimes makes, 
doubtless in allusion to the closing years of his 
predecessor, President Hindenburg.

Price-p. 150

00010614.GIF  Page 27

. .The German Chancellor may be a fiery 
speaker but he is cool thinker.

Price-p. 166

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