The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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From Thu Sep 12 14:30:30 PDT 1996
Article: 64761 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: CAMPS Facts v Lies
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:19:33 +0100
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The 'Liberation of the Camps': Facts vs. Lies
by Theodore J. O'Keefe

Nothing has been more effective in establishing the authenticity of the
Holocaust in the minds of Americans than the terrible scenes U.S. GIs
discovered when they entered the German concentration camps at the close
of World War II.
At Dachau, Buchenwald, Dora, Mauthausen, and other work and detention
camps, horrified American infantrymen encountered heaps of dead and
dying inmates, emaciated and diseased. Survivors told them hair-raising
stories of torture and slaughter, and backed up their claims by showing
the GI's crematory ovens, alleged gas chambers, supposed implements of
torture, even shrunken heads and lampshades, gloves, and handbags
purportedly made from skin flayed from dead inmates.
U.S. government authorities, mindful that most Americans, who remembered
the atrocity stories fed them during World War I, still doubted the
Allied propaganda directed against the Hitler regime, resolved to
"document" what the GI's had found in the camps. Prominent newsmen and
politicians were flown in to see the harrowing evidence, while the U.S.
Army Signal Corps filmed and photographed the scenes for posterity. The
famous journalist Edward R. Murrow reported, in tones of horror, but no
longer of disbelief, what he had been told and shown, and Dachau and
Buchenwald were branded on the hearts and minds of the American populace
as names of infamy unmatched in the sad and bloody history of this
For Americans, what was "discovered" at the camps -- the dead and the
diseased, the terrible stories of the inmates, all the props of torture
and terror -- became the basis not simply of a transitory propaganda
campaign but of the conviction that yes, it was true: the Germans did
exterminate six million Jews, most of them in lethal gas chambers. What
the GI's found was used, by way of films which were mandatory viewing
for the vanquished populace of Germany, to "re-educate" the German
people by destroying their national pride and their will to a united,
independent national state, imposing in their place overwhelming
feelings of collective guilt and political impotence. And when the
testimony, and the verdict, at Nuremberg incorporated most, if not all,
of the horror stories Americans were told about Dachau, Buchenwald, and
other places captured by the U.S. Army, the Holocaust could pass for one
of the most documented, one of the most authenticated, one of the most
proven historical episodes in the human record.
A different reality
But it is known today that, very soon after the liberation of the camps,
American authorities were aware that the real story of the camps was
quite different from the one in which they were coaching military public
information officers, government spokesmen, politicians, journalists,
and other mouthpieces.
When American and British forces overran western and central Germany in
the spring of 1945, they were followed by troops charged with
discovering and securing any evidence of German war crimes. Among them
was Dr. Charles Larson, one of America's leading forensic pathologists,
who was assigned to the Judge Advocate General's Department. Dr. Larson
performed autopsies at Dachau and some twenty other German camps,
examining on some days more than 100 corpses. After his grim work at
Dachau, he was questioned for three days by U.S. Army prosecutors. (note
Dr. Larson's findings? According to an interview he gave to an American
journalist in 1980, "What we've heard is that six million Jews were
exterminated. Part of that is a hoax." (note 2) And what part was the
hoax? Dr. Larson, who told his biographer that to his knowledge he "was
the only forensic pathologist on duty in the entire European Theater,"
(note 3) informed Wichita Eagle reporter Jan Floerchinger that "never
was a case of poison gas uncovered." (note 4) Neither Dr. Larson nor any
other forensic specialist has ever been cited by any Holocaust historian
to substantiate a single case of death by poison gas, whether Zyklon-B
or any other variety.
Typhus, not poison gas
If not by gassing, how did the unfortunate victims at Dachau,
Buchenwald, and Bergen-Belsen perish? Were they tortured to death?
Deliberately starved? The answers to these questions are known as well.
As Dr. Larson and other Allied medical men discovered, the chief cause
of death at Dachau, Belsen, and the other camps was disease, above all
typhus, an old and terrible scourge of mankind which until recently
flourished in places where populations were crowded together in
circumstances where public health measures were unknown or had broken
down. Such was the case in the overcrowded internment camps in Germany
at war's end, where, despite such measures as systematic delousing,
quarantine of the sick, and cremation of the dead, the virtual collapse
of Germany's food, transport, and public health systems led to
Perhaps the most authoritative statement of the facts as to typhus and
mortality in the camps has been made by Dr. John E. Gordon, M.D., Ph.D.,
a professor of preventive medicine and epidemiology at the Harvard
University School of Public Health, who was with U.S. forces in Germany
in 1945. Dr. Gordon reported in 1948 that "The outbreaks in
concentration camps and prisons made up the great bulk of typhus
infection encountered in Germany." Dr. Gordon summarized the causes for
the outbreaks as follows:
Germany was in chaos. The destruction of whole cities and the path left
by advancing armies produced a disruption of living conditions
contributing to the spread of the disease. Sanitation was low grade,
public utilities were seriously disrupted, food supply and food
distribution was poor, housing was inadequate and order and discipline
were everywhere lacking. Still more important, a shifting of populations
was occurring such as few countries and few times have experienced.
(note 5) 
Dr. Gordon's findings are corroborated by Dr. Russell Barton, today a
psychiatrist of international repute, who entered Bergen-Belsen with
British forces as a young medical student in 1945. Barton, who
volunteered to care for the diseased survivors, testified under sworn
oath in a Toronto courtroom in 1985 that "Thousands of prisoners who
died at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp during World War II weren't
deliberately starved to death but died from a rash of diseases." (note
6) Dr. Barton further testified that on entering the camp he had
credited stories of deliberate starvations but had decided such stories
were untrue after inspecting the well-equipped kitchens and the
meticulously maintained ledgers, dating back to 1942, of food cooked and
dispensed each day. Despite noisily publicized claims and widespread
popular notions to the contrary, no researcher has been able to document
a German policy of extermination through starvation in the German camps.
No lampshades, no handbags, etc.
What of the ghoulish stories of concentration camp inmates skinned for
their tattoos, flayed to make lampshades and handbags, or other
artifacts? What of the innumerable "torture racks," "meathooks,"
whipping posts, gallows, and other tools of torment and death that are
reported to have abounded at every German camp? These allegations, and
even more grotesque ones profferred by Soviet prosecutors, found their
way into the record at Nuremberg.
The lampshade and tattooed-skin charges were made against Ilse Koch,
dubbed by journalists the "Bitch of Buchenwald," who was reported to
have furnished her house with objects manufactured from the tanned hides
of luckless inmates. But General Lucius Clay, military governor of the
U.S. zone of occupied Germany, who reviewed her case in 1948, told his
superiors in Washington: "There is no convincing evidence that she [Ilse
Koch] selected inmates for extermination in order to secure tattooed
skins or that she possessed any articles made of human skin." (note 7)
In an interview General Clay gave years later, he stated about the
material for the infamous lampshades: "Well, it turned out actually that
is was goat flesh. But at the trial it was still human flesh. It was
almost impossible for her to have gotten a fair trial." (note 8) Ilse
Koch hanged herself in a West German jail in 1967.
It would be tedious to itemize and refute the thousands of bizarre
claims as to Nazi atrocities. That there were instances of German
cruelty, however, is clear from the testimony of Dr. Konrad Morgen, a
legal investigator attached to the Reich Criminal Police, whose
statements on the witness stand at Nuremberg have never been challenged
by believers in the Jewish Holocaust. Dr. Morgen informed the court that
he had been given full authority by Heinrich Himmler, commander of
Hitler's SS and the dread Gestapo, to enter any German concentration
camp and investigate instances of cruelty and corruption on the part of
the camp staffs. According to Dr. Morgen's sworn testimony at Nuremberg,
he investigated 800 such cases, in which over 200 convictions resulted.
(note 9) Punishments included the death penalty for the worst offenders,
including Hermann Florstedt, commandant of Lublin (Majdanek), and Karl
Koch, Ilse's husband, commandant of Buchenwald.
In reality, while camp commandants in certain cases did inflict physical
punishment, such acts had to be approved by authorities in Berlin, and
it was required that a camp physician first certify the good health of
the prisoner to be disciplined, and then be on hand at the actual
beating. (note 10) After all, the camps were throughout most of the war
important centers of industrial activity. The good health and morale of
the prisoners was critical to the German war effort, as is evidenced by
a 1942 order issued by SS-Brigadefuehrer Richard Gluecks, chief of the
office which controlled the concentration camps, which held camp
commanders "personally responsible for exhausting every possibility to
preserve the physical strength of the detainees." (note 11)
Concentration camp survivors merely victims?
U.S. Army investigators, working at Buchenwald and other camps, quickly
ascertained what was common knowledge among veteran inmates: that the
worst offenders, the cruelest denizens of the camps were not the guards
but the prisoners themselves. Common criminals of the same stripe as
those who populate U.S. prisons today committed many villainies,
particularly when they held positions of authority, and fanatical
Communists, highly organized to combat their many political enemies
among the inmates, eliminated their foes with Stalinist ruthlessness.
Two U.S. Army investigators at Buchenwald, Egon W. Fleck and Edward A.
Tenenbaum, carefully investigated circumstances in the camp before its
liberation. In a detailed report submitted to their superiors, they
revealed, in the words of Alfred Toombs, their commander, who wrote a
preface to the report, "how the prisoners themselves organized a deadly
terror within the Nazi terror." (note 12)
Fleck and Tenenbaum described the power exercised by criminals and
Communists as follows:
. . . The trusties, who in time became almost exclusively Communist
Germans, had the power of life and death over all other inmates. They
could sentence a man or a group to almost certain death . . . The
Communist trusties were directly responsible for a large part of the
brutalities at Buchenwald. 
Colonel Donald B. Robinson, chief historian of the American military
government in Germany, summarized the Fleck-Tenenbaum report in an
article which appeared in The American Mercury shortly after the war.
Colonel Robinson wrote succinctly of the American investigators'
findings: "It appeared that the prisoners who agreed with the Communists
ate; those who didn't starved to death." (note 13)
Additional corroboration of inmate brutality has been provided by Ellis
E. Spackman, who, as Chief of Counter-Intelligence Arrests and
Detentions for the Seventh U.S. Army, was involved in the liberation of
Dachau. Spackman, later a professor of history at San Bernardino Valley
College in California, wrote in 1966 that at Dachau "the prisoners were
the actual instruments that inflicted the barbarities on their fellow
prisoners." (note 14)
'Gas chambers'
On December 9, 1944 Col. Paul Kirk and Lt. Col. Edward J. Gully
inspected the German concentration camp at Natzweiler in Alsace. They
reported their findings to their superiors at the headquarters of the
U.S. 6th Army Group, which subsequently forwarded Kirk and Gully's
report to the War Crimes Division. While, significantly, the full text
of their report has never been published, it has been revealed, by an
author supportive of Holocaust claims, that the two investigators were
careful to characterize equipment exhibited to them by French informants
as a "so-called lethal gas chamber," and claim it was "allegedly used as
a lethal gas chamber". (note 15)
Both the careful phraseology of the Natzweiler report, and its effective
suppression, stand in stark contrast to the credulity, the confusion,
and the blaring publicity which accompanied official reports of alleged
gas chambers at Dachau. At first, a U.S. Army photo depicting a GI
gazing mournfully at a steel door marked with a skull and crossbones and
the German words for: "Caution! Gas! Mortal danger! Don't open!" was
identified as showing the murder weapon. Later, however, it was
evidently decided that the apparatus in question was merely a standard
delousing chamber for clothing, and another alleged gas chamber, this
one cunningly disguised as a shower room, was exhibited to American
congressmen and journalists as the site where thousands breathed their
last. While there exist numerous reports in the press as to the
operation of this second "gas chamber," no official report by trained
Army investigators has yet surfaced to reconcile such problems as the
function of the shower heads: Were they "dummies," or did lethal cyanide
gas stream through them? (Each theory has appreciable support in
journalistic and historiographical literature.)
As with Dachau, so with Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen, and the other camps
captured by the Allies. There was no end of propaganda about "gas
chambers," "gas ovens," and the like, but so far not a single detailed
description of the murder weapon and its function, not a single report
of the kind that is mandatory for the successful prosecution of any
assault or murder case in America at that time and today, has come to
Furthermore, a number of Holocaust authorities have now publicly decreed
that there were no gassings, no extermination camps in Germany after
all! All these things, we are told, were located in what is now Poland,
in areas captured by the Soviet Red Army and off-limits to Western
investigators. In 1960 Dr. Martin Broszat, who is now director of the
Munich-based Institute for Contemporary History, which is funded by the
West German government to support the Holocaust story, wrote a letter to
the German weekly Die Zeit in which he stated categorically: "Neither in
Dachau nor in Bergen-Belsen nor in Buchenwald were Jews or other
prisoners gassed." (note 16) Professional Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal
wrote in 1975 that "there were no extermination camps on German soil."
(note 17) And Dachau "gas chamber" No. 2, which was once presented to a
stunned and grieving world as a weapon which claimed hundreds of
thousands of lives, is now described in the brochure issued to tourists
at the modern Dachau "memorial site" in these words: "This gas chamber,
camouflaged as a shower room, was not used." (note 18)
The propaganda intensifies
More than forty years after American troops entered Dachau, Buchenwald,
and the other German camps, and trained American investigators
established the facts as to what had gone on in them, the government in
Washington, the entertainment media in Hollywood, and the print media in
New York continue to churn out millions of words and images annually on
the horrors of the camps and the infamy of the Holocaust. Despite the
fact that, with the exception of the defeated Confederacy, no enemy of
America has ever so suffered so complete and devastating defeat as did
Germany in 1945, the mass media and the politicians and bureaucrats
behave as if Hitler, his troops, and his concentration camps continue to
exist in an eternal present, and our opinion makers continue to distort,
through ignorance or malice, the facts about the camps.
Time for the truth
It is time that the government and the professional historians revealed
the facts about Dachau, Buchenwald, and the other camps. It is time that
they let the American public know how the inmates died, and how they
didn't die. It is time that the claims as to mass murder by gassing were
clarified and investigated in the same manner as any other claims of
murder are dealt with. It is time that the free ride certain groups have
enjoyed as the result of unchallenged Holocaust claims be terminated,
just as it is time that other groups, including Germans, eastern
Europeans, the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and the wartime leadership of
America and Britain stop being scapegoated, either for their alleged
role in the Holocaust or their supposed failure to stop it.
Above all, it is time that the citizens of this great democratic
Republic have the facts about the camps, facts which they possess a
right to know, a right that is fundamental to the exercise of their
authority and their will in the governance of their country. As citizens
and as taxpayers, Americans of all ethnic backgrounds, of all faiths,
have a basic right and an overriding interest in determining the facts
of incidents which are deemed by those in positions of power to be
determinative in America's foreign policy, in its educational policy, in
its selection of past events to be memorialized in our civic life. The
alleged facts of the Holocaust are today at issue all over the civilized
world: in Germany, in France, in Italy, in Britain, in the Low Countries
and Scandinavia, in Japan, across our border in Canada and in the United
States of America itself. The truth will be decided only by recourse to
the facts, in the public forum: not by concealing the facts, denying the
truth, stonewalling reality. The truth will out, and it is time the
government of this country, and governments and international bodies
throughout the world, made public and patent the evidence of what
actually transpired in the German concentration camps in the years 1933-
1945, so that we may put paid to the lies, without fear or favor, and
carry out the work of reconciliation and renewal that is and must be the
granite foundation of mutual tolerance between peoples and of a peace
based on justice, rather than on guns, barbed wire, prisons, and lies.
The conclusions of the early U.S. Army investigations as to the truth
about the wartime German concentration camps have since been
corroborated by all subsequent investigators and can be summarized:
The harrowing scenes of dead and dying inmates were not the result of a
German policy of "extermination," but rather the result of epidemics of
typhus and other disease brought about largely by the effects of Allied
aerial attacks.
Stories of Nazi supercriminals and sadists who turned Jews and others
into handbags and lampshades for their private profit or amusement were
sick lies or diseased fantasies; indeed, the German authorities
consistently punished corruption and cruelty on the part of camp
commanders and guards.
On the other hand, the representations of the newly liberated inmates to
have been saints and martyrs of Hitlerism were quite often very far from
the truth; indeed, most of the brutalities inflicted on camp detainees
were the work of their fellow prisoners, in contravention of German
policy and German orders.
The alleged homicidal showers and gas chambers had been used either for
bathing camp inmates or delousing their clothes; the claim that they had
been used to murder Jews or other human beings is a contemptible
fabrication. Orthodox, Establishment historians and professional "Natzi-
hunters" have quietly dropped claims that inmates were gassed at Dachau,
Buchenwald, and other camps in Germany. They continue, however, to keep
silent regarding the lies about Dachau and Buchenwald, as well as to
evade an open discussion of the evidence for homicidal gassing at
Auschwitz and the other camps captured by the Soviets.

Crime Doctor, a biography of Larson by John D. McCallum, Mercer,
Washington & Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1979, p. 69.
Wichita Eagle, April 1, 1980, p. 4C.
Crime Doctor, p. 46.
Wichita Eagle, April 1, 1980, 4G.
John E. Gordon, "Louse-Borne Typhus Fever in the European Theater of
Operations, U.S. Army, 1945," in Forest Ray Moulton, Ed., Rickettsial
Diseases of Man, Am. Acad. for the Advancement of Science, Washington
D.C. 1948.
Toronto Star, February 8, 1985, p. A2.
New York Times, 24 September 1948, p. 3.
Interview with Lucius Clay, Official Proceeding of the George C.
Marshall Research Foundation, cited in "Buchenwald: Legend and Reality,"
Mark Weber, The Journal of Historical Review, Vol. 7, no. 4.
International Military Tribunal, Vol. XVII, p. 556; IMT, Vol. XX, pp.
489, 438.
Cited in The Theory and Practice of Hell, Eugen Kogon, Berkley Books,
New York, pp. 108-109.
Nuremberg document NO-1523.
Buchenwald: A Preliminary Report, Egon W. Fleck and Edward A. Tenenbaum,
U.S. Army, 12th Army Group, 24 April 1945. National Archives, Record
Group 331, SHAEF, G-5, 17.11, Jacket 10, Box 151 (8929/163-8929/180).
"Communist Atrocities at Buchenwald," Donald B. Robinson, in American
Mercury, October 1946.
San Bernardino Sun-Telegram, March 13, 1966 (cited in The Man Who
Invented 'Genocide,' James J. Martin, Institute for Historical Review,
IHR, 1984, pp. 110-111.
"Concentration Camp at Natzwiller [sic]," RG 331, Records of Allied
Operations and Occupation, Army Headquarters WW2, SHAEF/G-5/2717, Modern
Military, National Archives, Washington, D.C., cited in Robert H. Abzug,
Inside the Vicious Heart, Oxford University Press, New York, 1985, p.
10, p. 181.
Die Zeit, Hamburg, Germany, August 26, 1960.
Books & Bookmen, April 1975, Vol. 7, p. 5.
Leaflet, Memorial Site Concentration Camp Dachau, The International
Dachau-Committee, Dachau, Germany, n.d.

Theodore J. O'Keefe is an editor with the Institute for Historical
Review. He has published numerous articles on historical and political

The IHR publishes numerous revisionist books, tapes and other materials,
as well as the bimonthly Journal of Historical Review. For a current
catalog, with a complete listing of books and audio and video tapes,
send one dollar to:

Post Office Box 2739 
Newport Beach, California 92659 


Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:30:32 PDT 1996
Article: 64762 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:26:48 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
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Two more trains, carrying 5,000 people again left for Auschwitz, where
the same mystery was repeated. Two thousand were selected for the labour
commandos; the rest were admitted to quarantine. They are clearly
indicated in the Birkenau employment list of May 11th 1944. 1,452
Theresienstadt Jews were still on the Quarantine Section, IIb, but 1,575
were described as in 'readiness for transport' [Vorbereitung zum
Transport] and this in the officialese of Auschwitz, had only one
meaning, which was 'waiting for the gas chamber'. 

[The Final Solution (1968) by G.Reitlinger p183]

Look through any 'holocaust' book and you will find numerous examples of
the Germans using 'camouflage' terms or codewords, getting the Jews to
send off fake postcards, showerheads to disguise a gas chamber, gas
chambers described on plans of Crematoria as Lichenkeller [morgue] and
so on..... 

Try going through Reitlingers book and counting the examples of
deliberate German deception.    

You will be amazed.

[example: First Sentence. 'The Final Solution of the Jewish Problem was
a code-name for Hitler's plans to exterminate the jews of Europe , etc
Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:49:00 PDT 1996
Article: 64768 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: That has not been in existance since 1866
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:06:11 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
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18 April 1946

...... Academy for German Law, of which you [Hans Frank, himself a
lawyer, and later in charge of occupied Poland]  were president. The
document has the heading "Legal Formation of Germany's Polish Policy on
Racial-Political Lines"; the legal part serves as a text for the
Committee on the Law of Nationalities in the Academy for German Law. I'm
having this document submitted to you. Please, will you tell me whether
you've ever had this document in your hands before?
FRANK: From whom does it come?
DR. SEIDL: That is the extraordinary part; it has the Exhibit Number
FBANK: Does it state anywhere who drew it up or something of the sort?
DR. SEIDL: The document has no author; nor does it show on whose order
it was compiled.
FRANK, I can say merely,  that I've never seen the document; that I
never gave an order for it to be drawn up: So I can say really nothing
about it.
DR, SEIDL: It states here that it was found in the Ministry of  Justice
in Kassel. Was there a Ministry of Justice in Kassel in 1940?.
FRANK: A Ministy of Justice in Kassel?
FRANK: That has not been in existence since 1866.

[From Holocaust -made in Russia by Carlos Porter]
Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:49:01 PDT 1996
Article: 64770 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: AND then vanished from History
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:04:17 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
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"On April 26th 1945, an American Intelligence team discovered a German
Civilian living in a hotel at Rottweil in the Black forest. He was Kurt
Gerstein, a 34 year old mining assessor and former director of the
Dusseldorf firm, Lihmon-Fuime. Gerstein handed the Americans a statement
of seven pages, typed in French, together with those gas bills that were
to appear at nuremberg, and then vanished from history." 

Well thats lucky. Prevents awkward questions.
[like his on estimate of 40 million gassed]

"It was alleged at the Peters Trial that Gerstein was arrested by the
French and that he hanged himself in his cell at Fresnes prison in July
1945. But Gerstein's widow was informed by the Red Cross four years
later that the circumstances of his death in the prison had not been
established. During the International Nuremberg Trial, Gerstein was
considered to be alive, and the defence had the right to demand that he
be produced in court. His unsworn statement could not therefore be
produced in evidence. At several subsequent trials it was successfully
challanged by the defence, but a small portion of it was nevertheless,
printed in the official selection od documents from the doctors trial
published in Washington." 

"in Gersteins second confession, written not in french, but in German,
and discovered by his widow a whole year after his arrest, the after
dinner speech at treblinka is ommitted, but there is a queer passage in
which Gerstein declares that he had thought of entering the gas chamber
himself in the uniform of a SS officer." 

(Extracts from The Final Solution (1968) by G.Reitlinger p161-164)

Check out

The confessions of Kurt Gerstein by Henri Rogues

available from:-
The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:49:02 PDT 1996
Article: 64771 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:38:41 +0100
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the Soviet archive documents reveal that the total coke consumption of
the crematories in the Auschwitz camp from start to finish was 2,188


Nov. 1,  1940 - Feb 28, 1941:    41.6

Mar. 1,  1941 - Oct 31, 1941:   166.4

Nov. 1,  1941 - Jan 31, 1942:    93.6

Feb. 16, 1942 - Feb 28, 1943:   395.5

Mar 15 - Oct. 31,1943:          568

Crematoria II-III
Jan 1, 1943-Nov 27, 1944        923

    total       2,188 tons

Even if we reduce the amount of fuel needed per cadaver to thirty-five
kilo-grammes, this still yields a maximum figure of around 62,500
cadavers handled by the Auschwitz crematories, which is remarkably close
to the figure already calculated by those of Pressac's former
revisionist buddies who were able to do the simple sums needed to
establish the maximum number of bodies that the known number of
crematory ovens could have handled during the three years they were in

The new death-roll figures fall some way short of the four million
originally commemorated by a plaque at the site, or even the 11 million
figure recently adopted in its place (Pressac prefers to suggest a
figure of 800,000 dead at Auschwitz.)

>from  David Irvings ACTION REPORT Dec 1993 
Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:49:03 PDT 1996
Article: 64772 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: Jew says that the Germans are defamed.
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:18:31 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
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In the autumn of 1945, said Burg, curosity had taken him to Auschwitz.
Subsequently, he had spoken with hundreds of people who were there
during the war.
Christie [defence counsel for Zundel]: In your books and correspondence,
do you indicate whether there was gas chambers at Auschwitz, Maidenek or
other German extermination camps?
Burg corrected Christie's terminology: "There were no 'extermination'
camps at all."
During the war, Burg had lived in a district under Romanian control
which was reserved for Jews of the region. They had been collectively
"banned" because many had "greeted the Red army". 
"It was a lot worse for us than in a concentration camp," Burg insisted.
"The German authorities looked after the inmates in the camps....we were
left to our own devices."
Christie: When you visited Auschwitz in the fall of 1945, did you
specifically look for gas chambers?
Yes, said Burg, "although at that time gassings were not in fashion. Not
yet. But I did look for them. I searched for them and I didn't find
Christie: And did you find any evidence of gas chambers in 1945 at
Burg: Yes.
Christie: And what were these gas chambers in Maidanek?
Burg They were to liquidate lice, fleas, et cetera. Bugs which caused
The Germans were super-bureaucrats, said Burg. "It can't be that after
all these years not a document can be found."
"I talked to hundreds of people who serviced and operated the
crematoria," he continued, but the people who operated gas chambers were
impossible to find " The literature was all completely contradictory.
Why? Because it's all made up."
Christie: Does [Zundel] appear to be sincere in his inquiries about that
Burg He told me that he saw it as his life's work to defend his people
because they are defamed.
Christie: And do you agree that his people are defamed.
Burg: Yes.
Christie: And have you expressed these views in your books?
Burg: Again and again.

The testimony of Joseph  G Burg [Joseph Ginsburg]  a Jew.

[Page 236 From the "The Holocaust on Trial ,The case of Ernst Zundel by
Robert Lenski.

The 'Holocaust on Trial' is available from:-
The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:49:04 PDT 1996
Article: 64773 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: Edited out of the IMT volumes
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:02:36 +0100
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> You wrote "Kurt Gerstein said it was 25 million, and he must have
known, he 
> delivered all the Zyclon B."  

Well, you wouldn't have seen it. It never appears in Holocaust books.
[Nor does 
Wolsec/or Wolsek.] But it appears in Butz [Hoax of the 20th century p
It appears in his statement of 26th April 1945, which from I cite 
"Actually,  about 25,000,000 persons were killed; not only Jews,
however, but especially 
Poles and Czechoslovaks...." but is edited out of the NMT volumes. The
NO is 1553-PS. It also states that 7-800 people went in a Gas chamber of
square meters. (About the size of your bedroom, 5  x 5 metres!) and says
Hitler was at Lublin, 2 days before a date he is talking about. Hitler
went to Lublin.   

In other words, the supposed Statement of SS officer Kurt Gerstein is
completely weird.

And what happened to him?
Was he kicked to death?

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:49:04 PDT 1996
Article: 64774 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
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Burg hoped to show by his example that not all Jews consider the Germans
a guilty nation. He admired Zundel's courage. "If there were another two
or three  Zundels'' he proclaimed, "it would be better for us Jews as
Burg mentioned the case of  Dr. Benedikt Kautsky, a  prominent socialist
Jew who spent three years in Birkenau. His mother was there as well. She
was about 80, became ill, and got "special treatment"—which in her case
meant especially good food and care. She died nonetheless. After the
war, Kautsky returned to Vienna, said Burg, to publish a "workers
newspaper"  which "brought out the truth".  He also published a book,
Teufel and Verdammte (1946) which told the truth about the alleged
extermination of the Jews. "'The whole edition was burned. One and a
half years later, he published another edition. Yeah,  he made a few
The story of the gassings, said Burg, "comes from a sick Mind".

The testimony of Joseph Burg, a Jew.

[Pages 238-239 From the "The Holocaust on Trial ,The case of Ernst
Zundel by Robert Lenski.]

The 'Holocaust on Trial' is available from:-

The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 14:49:05 PDT 1996
Article: 64775 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
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The story of the gassings, said Burg,  "comes from a sick mind."
Christie [defence counsel for Zundel] asked the witness [Burg] what he
had told Zundel about your interviews with Jewish 'Sonderkommando'
workers in the camp crematories."
Obviously, said Burg, every large camp had crematoria. The work there
was heavy and difficult and the internees who worked
there—voluntarily—were among the healthiest. Later, "it was invented
that every crematorium was a gas chamber." 
Some claimed that "living Jews were pushed in to be burned. I would like
to see a Jew who has given such statements during trial. One should
force him to take an oath under the [rabbinical] rites with the skull
cap, without pictures of Christ [present], with the Hebrew Bible, in the
presence of a rabbi or a pious religious Jew. Then he should swear an
oath that he has seen something like that. Then these false oaths, these
false statements, these sick statements, would go down by 99.5 percent.
Because the superficial oath is not binding, morally binding, for these
Jews. Is that a sufficient answer?"

The testimony of Joseph  [Gins]Burg, a Jew. 

[Page 239 From the "The Holocaust on Trial ,The case of Ernst Zundel by
Robert Lenski.

The 'Holocaust on Trial' is available from:-

The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 15:31:49 PDT 1996
Article: 64780 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
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Auschwitz: Myths and Facts
by Mark Weber

Nearly everyone has heard of Auschwitz, the German wartime concentration
camp where many prisoners -- most of them Jewish -- were reportedly
exterminated, especially in gas chambers. Auschwitz is widely regarded
as the most terrible Nazi extermination center. The camp's horrific
reputation cannot, however, be reconciled with the facts.

Scholars challenge Holocaust story
Astonishing as it may seem, more and more historians and engineers have
been challenging the widely accepted Auschwitz story. These
"revisionist" scholars do not dispute the fact that large numbers of
Jews were deported to the camp, or that many died there, particularly of
typhus and other diseases. But the compelling evidence they present
shows that Auschwitz was not an extermination center and that the story
of mass killings in "gas chambers" is a myth.

The Auschwitz camps
The Auschwitz camp complex was set up in 1940 in what is now south-
central Poland. Large numbers of Jews were deported there between 1942
and mid-1944.
The main camp was known as Auschwitz I. Birkenau, or Auschwitz II, was
supposedly the main extermination center, and Monowitz, or Auschwitz
III, was a large industrial center where gasoline was produced from
coal. In addition there were dozens of smaller satellite camps devoted
to the war economy.

Four million victims?
At the postwar Nuremberg Tribunal, the Allies charged that the Germans
exterminated four million people at Auschwitz. This figure, which was
invented by the Soviets, was uncritically accepted for many years. It
often appeared in major American newspapers and magazines, for example.
(note 1)
Today no reputable historian, not even those who generally accept the
extermination story, believes this figure. Israeli Holocaust historian
Yehuda Bauer said in 1989 that it is time to finally acknowledge the
familiar four million figure is a deliberate myth. In July 1990 the
Auschwitz State Museum in Poland, along with Israel's Yad Vashem
Holocaust Center, suddenly announced that altogether perhaps one million
people (both Jews and non-Jews) died there. Neither institution would
say how many of these people were killed, nor were any estimates given
of the numbers of those supposedly gassed. (note 2) One prominent
Holocaust historian, Gerald Reitlinger, has estimated that perhaps
700,000 or so Jews perished at Auschwitz. More recently, Holocaust
historian Jean-Claude Pressac has estimated that about 800,000 persons -
- of whom 630,000 were Jewish -- perished at Auschwitz. While even such
lower figures are incorrect, they show how the Auschwitz story has
changed drastically over the years. (note 3)
Bizarre tales
At one time it was seriously claimed that Jews were systematically
electrocuted at Auschwitz. American newspapers, citing a Soviet
eyewitness report from liberated Auschwitz, told readers in February
1945 that the methodical Germans had killed Jews there using an
"electric conveyor belt on which hundreds of persons could be
electrocuted simultaneously [and] then moved on into furnaces. They were
burned almost instantly, producing fertilizer for nearby cabbage
fields." (note 4)
And at the Nuremberg Tribunal, chief U.S. prosecutor Robert Jackson
charged that the Germans used a "newly invented" device to
instantaneously "vaporize" 20,000 Jews near Auschwitz "in such a way
that there was no trace left of them." (note 5) No reputable historian
now accepts either of these fanciful tales.

The Hoss 'confession'
A key Holocaust document is the "confession" of former Auschwitz
commandant Rudolf Hoss of April 5, 1946, which was submitted by the U.S.
prosecution at the main Nuremberg trial. (note 6)
Although it is still widely cited as solid proof for the Auschwitz
extermination story, it is actually a false statement that was obtained
by torture.
Many years after the war, British military intelligence sergeant Bernard
Clarke described how he and five other British soldiers tortured the
former commandant to obtain his "confession." Hoss himself privately
explained his ordeal in these words: "Certainly, I signed a statement
that I killed two and half million Jews. I could just as well have said
that it was five million Jews. There are certain methods by which any
confession can be obtained, whether it is true or not." (note 7)
Even historians who generally accept the Holocaust extermination story
now acknowledge that many of the specific statements made in the Hoss
"affidavit" are simply not true. For one thing, no serious scholar now
claims that anything like two and a half or three million people
perished in Auschwitz.
The Hoss "affidavit" further alleges that Jews were already being
exterminated by gas in the summer of 1941 at three other camps: Belzec,
Treblinka and Wolzek. The "Wolzek" camp mentioned by Hoss is a total
invention. No such camp existed, and the name is no longer mentioned in
Holocaust literature. Moreover, the story these days by those who
believe in the Holocaust legend is that gassings of Jews did not begin
at Auschwitz, Treblinka, or Belzec until sometime in 1942.

No documentary evidence
Many thousands of secret German documents dealing with Auschwitz were
confiscated after the war by the Allies. Not a single one refers to a
policy or program of extermination. In fact, the extermination story
cannot be reconciled with the documentary evidence.

Many Jewish inmates unable to work
For example, it is often claimed that all Jews at Auschwitz who were
unable to work were immediately killed. Jews who were too old, young,
sick, or weak were supposedly gassed on arrival, and only those who
could be worked to death were temporarily kept alive.
But the evidence shows that, in fact, a very high percentage of the
Jewish inmates were not able to work, and were nevertheless not killed.
For example, an internal German telex message dated Sept. 4, 1943, from
the chief of the Labor Allocation department of the SS Economic and
Administrative Main Office (WVHA), reported that of 25,000 Jewish
inmates in Auschwitz, only 3,581 were able to work, and that all of the
remaining Jewish inmates -- some 21,500, or about 86 percent -- were
unable to work. (note 8)
This is also confirmed in a secret report dated April 5, 1944, on
"security measures in Auschwitz" by Oswald Pohl, head of the SS
concentration camp system, to SS chief Heinrich Himmler. Pohl reported
that there was a total of 67,000 inmates in the entire Auschwitz camp
complex, of whom 18,000 were hospitalized or disabled. In the Auschwitz
II camp (Birkenau), supposedly the main extermination center, there were
36,000 inmates, mostly female, of whom "approximately 15,000 are unable
to work." (note 9)
These two documents simply cannot be reconciled with the Auschwitz
extermination story.
The evidence shows that Auschwitz-Birkenau was established primarily as
a camp for Jews who were not able to work, including the sick and
elderly, as well as for those who were temporarily awaiting assignment
to other camps. That's the considered view of Dr. Arthur Butz of
Northwestern University, who also says that this was the reason for the
unusually high death rate there. (note 10)
Princeton University history professor Arno Mayer, who is Jewish,
acknowledges in a recent book about the "final solution" that more Jews
perished at Auschwitz as a result of typhus and other "natural" causes
than were executed. (note 11)

Anne Frank
Perhaps the best known Auschwitz inmate was Anne Frank, who is known
around the world for her famous diary. But few people know that
thousands of Jews, including Anne and her father, Otto Frank, "survived"
The 15-year-old girl and her father were deported from the Netherlands
to Auschwitz in September 1944. Several weeks later, in the face of the
advancing Soviet army, Anne was evacuated along with many other Jews to
the Bergen-Belsen camp, where she died of typhus in March 1945.
Her father came down with typhus in Auschwitz and was sent to the camp
hospital to recover. He was one of thousands of sick and feeble Jews who
were left behind when the Germans abandoned the camp in January 1945,
shortly before it was overrun by the Soviets. He died in Switzerland in
If the German policy had been to kill Anne Frank and her father, they
would not have survived Auschwitz. Their fate, tragic though it was,
cannot be reconciled with the extermination story.

Allied propaganda
The Auschwitz gassing story is based in large part on the hearsay
statements of former Jewish inmates who did not personally see any
evidence of extermination. Their beliefs are understandable, because
rumors about gassings at Auschwitz were widespread.
Allied planes dropped large numbers of leaflets, written in Polish and
German, on Auschwitz and the surrounding areas which claimed that people
were being gassed in the camp. The Auschwitz gassing story, which was an
important part of the Allied wartime propaganda effort, was also
broadcast to Europe by Allied radio stations. (note 12)

Survivor testimony
Former inmates have confirmed that they saw no evidence of extermination
at Auschwitz.
An Austrian woman, Maria Vanherwaarden, testified about her camp
experiences in a Toronto District Court in March 1988. She was interned
in Auschwitz-Birkenau in 1942 for having sexual relations with a Polish
forced laborer. On the train trip to the camp, a Gypsy woman told her
and the others that they would all be gassed at Auschwitz.
Upon arrival, Maria and the other women were ordered to undress and go
into a large concrete room without windows to take a shower. The
terrified women were sure that they were about to die. But then, instead
of gas, water came out of the shower heads.
Auschwitz was no vacation center, Maria confirmed. She witnessed the
death of many fellow inmates by disease, particularly typhus, and quite
a few committed suicide. But she saw no evidence at all of mass
killings, gassings, or of any extermination program. (note 13)
A Jewish woman named Marika Frank arrived at Auschwitz-Birkenau from
Hungary in July 1944, when 25,000 Jews were supposedly gassed and
cremated daily. She likewise testified after the war that she heard and
saw nothing of "gas chambers" during the time she was interned there.
She heard the gassing stories 
only later. (note 14)

Inmates released
Auschwitz internees who had served their sentences were released and
returned to their home countries. If Auschwitz had actually been a top
secret extermination center, the Germans would certainly not have
released inmates who "knew" what was happening in the camp. (note 15)
Himmler orders death rate reduced
In response to the deaths of many inmates due to disease, especially
typhus, the German authorities responsible for the camps ordered firm
The head of the SS camp administration office sent a directive dated
Dec. 28, 1942, to Auschwitz and the other concentration camps. It
sharply criticized the high death rate of inmates due to disease, and
ordered that "camp physicians must use all means at their disposal to
significantly reduce the death rate in the various camps." Furthermore,
it ordered:
The camp doctors must supervise more often than in the past the
nutrition of the prisoners and, in cooperation with the administration,
submit improvement recommendations to the camp commandants . . . The
camp doctors are to see to it that the working conditions at the various
labor places are improved as much as possible.
Finally, the directive stressed that "the ReichsfŸhrer SS [Heinrich
Himmler] has ordered that the death rate absolutely must be reduced."
(note 16)
German camp regulations
Official German camp regulations make clear that Auschwitz was not an
extermination center. They ordered: (note 17)
New arrivals in the camp are to be given a thorough medical examination,
and if there is any doubt [about their health], they must be sent to
quarantine for observation.
Prisoners who report sick must be examined that same day by the camp
physician. If necessary, the physician must transfer the prisoners to a
hospital for professional treatment.
The camp physician must regularly inspect the kitchen regarding the
preparation of the food and the quality of the food supply. Any
deficiencies that may arise must be reported to the camp commandant.
Special care should be given in the treatment of accidents, in order not
to impair the full productivity of the prisoners.
Prisoners who are to be released or transfered must first be brought
before the camp physician for medical examination.

Telltale aerial photos
Detailed aerial reconnaissance photographs taken of Auschwitz-Birkenau
on several random days in 1944 (during the height of the alleged
extermination period there) were made public by the CIA in 1979. These
photos show no trace of piles of corpses, smoking crematory chimneys or
masses of Jews awaiting death, things that have been repeatedly alleged,
and all of which would have been clearly visible if Auschwitz had been
the extermination center it is said to have been. (note 18)

Absurd cremation claims
Cremation specialists have confirmed that thousands of corpses could not
possibly have been cremated every day throughout the spring and summer
of 1944 at Auschwitz, as commonly alleged.
For example, Mr. Ivan Lagace, manager of a large crematory in Calgary,
Canada, testified in court in April 1988 that the Auschwitz cremation
story is technically impossible. The allegation that 10,000 or even
20,000 corpses were burned every day at Auschwitz in the summer of 1944
in crematories and open pits is simply "preposterous" and "beyond the
realm of reality," he declared under oath. (note 19)
Gassing expert refutes extermination story
America's leading gas chamber expert, Boston engineer Fred A. Leuchter,
carefully examined the supposed "gas chambers" in Poland and concluded
that the Auschwitz gassing story is absurd and technically impossible.
Leuchter is the foremost specialist on the design and installation of
gas chambers used in the United States to execute convicted criminals.
For example, he designed a gas chamber facility for the Missouri state
In February 1988 he carried out a detailed onsite examination of the
"gas chambers" at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek in Poland, which are
either still standing or only partially in ruins. In sworn testimony to
a Toronto court and in a technical report, Leuchter described every
aspect of his investigation.
He concluded by emphatically declaring that the alleged gassing
facilities could not possibly have been used to kill people. Among other
things, he pointed out that the so-called "gas chambers" were not
properly sealed or vented to kill human beings without also killing
German camp personnel. (note 20)
Dr. William B. Lindsey, a research chemist employed for 33 years by the
Dupont Corporation, likewise testified in a 1985 court case that the
Auschwitz gassing story is technically impossible. Based on a careful
on-site examination of the "gas chambers" at Auschwitz, Birkenau and
Majdanek, and on his years of experience, he declared: "I have come to
the conclusion that no one was willfully or purposefully killed with
Zyklon B [hydrocyanic acid gas] in this manner. I consider it absolutely
impossible." (note 21)

1 Nuremberg document 008-USSR. IMT blue series, Vol. 39, pp. 241, 261.;
NC&A red series, vol. 1, p. 35.; 2 C.L. Sulzberger, "Oswiecim Killings
Placed at 4,000,000," New York Times, May 8, 1945, and, New York Times,
Jan. 31, 1986, p. A4.
3 Y. Bauer, "Fighting the Distortions," Jerusalem Post (Israel), Sept.
22, 1989; "Auschwitz Deaths Reduced to a Million," Daily Telegraph
(London), July 17, 1990; "Poland Reduces Auschwitz Death Toll Estimate
to 1 Million," The Washington Times, July 17, 1990.
4 G. Reitlinger, The Final Solution (1971); J.-C. Pressac, Le
CrŽmatoires d'Auschwitz: La Machinerie du meurtre de mass (Paris: CNRS,
1993). On Pressac's estimates, see: L'Express (France), Sept. 30, 1993,
p. 33.
Washington (DC) Daily News, Feb. 2, 1945, pp. 2, 35. (United Press
dispatch from Moscow).
5 IMT blue series, Vol. 16, p. 529-530. (June 21, 1946).
6 Nuremberg document 3868-PS (USA-819). IMT blue series, Vol. 33, pp.
7 Rupert Butler, Legions of Death (England: 1983), pp. 235; R.
Faurisson, The Journal of Historical Review, Winter 1986-87, pp. 389-
8 Archives of the Jewish Historical Institute of Warsaw, German document
No. 128, in: H. Eschwege, ed., Kennzeichen J (East Berlin: 1966), p.
9 Nuremberg document NO-021. NMT green series, Vol. 5. pp. 384-385.
10 Arthur Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century (Costa Mesa, Calif.),
p. 124.
11 Arno Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?: The 'Final Solution' in
History (Pantheon, 1989), p. 365.
12 Nuremberg document NI-11696. NMT green series, Vol. 8, p. 606.
13 Testimony in Toronto District Court, March 28, 1988. Toronto Star,
March 29, 1988, p. A2.
14 Sylvia Rothchild, ed., Voices from the Holocaust (New York: 1981),
pp. 188-191.
15 Walter Laqueur, The Terrible Secret (Boston: 1981), p. 169.
16 Nuremberg document PS-2171, Annex 2. NC&A red series, Vol. 4, pp.
17 "Rules and Regulations for the Concentration Camps." Anthology,
Inhuman Medicine, Vol. 1, Part 1 (Warsaw: International Auschwitz
Committee, 1970), pp. 149-151.; S. Paskuly, ed., Death Dealer: the
Memoirs of the SS Kommandant at Auschwitz (Buffalo: 1992), pp. 216-217.
18 Dino A. Brugioni and Robert C. Poirier, The Holocaust Revisited
(Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 1979).
19 Canadian Jewish News (Toronto), April 14, 1988, p. 6.
20 The Leuchter Report: An Engineering Report on the Alleged Execution
Gas Chambers at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek (Toronto: 1988).
Available for $17.00, postpaid, from the IHR.
21 The Globe and Mail (Toronto), Feb. 12, 1985, p. M3

The Auschwitz extermination story originated as wartime propaganda. Now,
more than 40 years after the end of the Second World War, it is time to
take another, more objective look at this highly polemicized chapter of
history. The Auschwitz legend is the core of the Holocaust story. If
hundreds of thousands of Jews were not systematically killed there, as
alleged, one of the great myths of our time collapses.
Artificially maintaining the hatreds and passions of the past prevents
genuine reconciliation and lasting peace. Revisionism promotes
historical awareness and international understanding. That is why the
work of the Institute for Historical Review is so important and deserves
your support. 

Mark Weber is editor of The Journal of Historical Review, published six
times yearly by the Institute for Historical Review. He studied history
at the University of Illinois (Chicago), the University of Munich,
Portland State University, and Indiana University (M.A., 1977). For five
days in March 1988, he testified as a recognized expert witness on the
"final solution" and the Holocaust issue in a Toronto District Court
case. He is the author of many published articles, reviews and essays on
various aspects of modern European history. Weber has appeared as a
guest on numerous radio talk shows, and on the nationally-syndicated
"Montel Williams" television show.
Last modified: 10/93 

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Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 

Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 15:31:50 PDT 1996
Article: 64785 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:06:23 +0100
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Abraham Bomba, Barber of Treblinka 

by Bradley R. Smith

[Chapter 11 from Confessions of a Holocaust Revisionist]

I HAVE NOW SEEN the complete nine and one half hour documentary Shoah,
which purports to be "An Oral History of the Holocaust." It was
produced, directed, narrated and is now being promoted by Claude
Lanzmann. From the newspapers I gather that Lanzmann is an assimilated
French Jew who speaks neither Hebrew nor Yiddish. He is presently 60
years old. He worked as a journalist for many years in association with
Jean Paul Sartre and Les Temps Modernes until 1970, when he turned his
attention to making movies. 

That is, Claude Lanzmann worked for twenty-five years in the eye of the
intellectual storms that swept across France following the end of World
War II. As a journalist he certainly learned during those twenty-five
years how to conduct professional interviews. He certainly learned,
through his associations with Sartre, de Beauvior, Camus and those who
criticized the great triad, how to pursue a train of thought,
considering the high-powered company he kept. It's a real eye-opener
then to watch Lanzmann reveal his intellectual corruption in scene after
scene of this shoddy movie, which he claims took ten years to complete. 

My favorite interview in Shoah is the one with Abraham Bomba, the Barber
of Treblinka. I'm not alone in my fondness for Bomba either. Many
critics have commented on his performance. They gave him rave reviews.
George Will of ABC Television, for example, wrote in the Washington Post
that Bomb's narrative was "the most stunning episode in this shattering

Some eyewitnesses to alleged gas chamber horrors recount stories that
are so lacking in credibility that they can be dismissed out of hand.
Others repeat stories that cannot easily be shown to be false but reveal
the characters of the tale-bearers to be so sniveling and shameless that
one feels compromised by even listening to them. Bomba is becoming an
important character in the Holocaust-survivor-eyewitness scenario in
that he embodies much of both of these characteristics. 

The way Bomba tells the story, he had been interned in Treblinka about
four weeks when the Germans announced that they wanted some barbers for
a special detail. Bomba volunteered, of course, then helped the SS
identify 16 other Jewish barber among the internees. They were all taken
to the second part of the camp where the alleged gas chamber was. They
were led inside the gas chambers where a Kapo (almost certainly a Jew; )
explained that the 17 barbers were to shear the hair from the woman who
would arrive to be gassed. Lanzmann asked Bomba about the greatest
murder weapon of all time, the German homicidal poison gas chamber.
Lanzmann: How did it look, the gas chamber? 
Bomba: It was not a big room, around twelve feet by twelve feet. ()
And there you have it. Claude Lanzmann is finished with his in-depth
investigation of how the Treblinka gas chamber looked. It takes all
kinds. If I had been in Lanzamann's shoes I could have thought of a few
more questions to ask about "how it looked." Particularly if I had some
feelings about the stories that maybe a million of my kinsmen had been
exterminated in it. Maybe I would have wanted to know what Bomba could
tell me about what material the walls of the gas chamber were made of -
what the roof was made of. How would Bomba describe the ventilation
system? Where and how, exactly, did the "gas" enter the room? Maybe
Bomba would have remembered if the room had been illuminated or not. If
it had been, how? What were the doors made of? How did they seal so that
the "gas" could not escape? As historians have not bothered to ask these
simple questions, Lanzmann could have done their work for them and
helped uncover one of the great mysteries of the 20th century -- how the
fabled Nazi gas chambers really looked. 

As to whether Bomba is being honest about having seen a gas chamber at
Treblinka consider Rachel Auerbach's description of that gas chamber in
her The Death Camp Treblinka (). Auerbach is given a place of honor in
this, the most comprehensive book published on the camp. As she was (she
died in 1976) a permanent research staff member of the Yad Vashem
Holocaust Memorial museum in Jerusalem, her description of the gas
chamber should not be dismissed out of hand.
... The floor of the gas chamber was sloping and slippery. The first
ones in would slip and fall, never to rise again. Those who followed
would topple over them ... About 25 to 45 minutes later -- [after the
"gassing" began, that is] -- the chutes on the other side could be
opened and the corpses tumbled out." 
It would seem that while he was being interviewed for Shoah Mr. Bomba
forgot about how slippery the floor is supposed to have been in his
little gas chamber. It seems he forgot how it slanted steeply in the
direction of the chutes. As a matter of fact, Mr. Bomba forgot to
mention the chutes. If Lanzmann had read the literature even
superficially he would have been aware that Bomba was leaving a few
things out of his story. As Lanzmann claims he worked for ten years on
Shoah, I'm going to guess that Lanzmann is aware of Auerbach's
description of the Treblinka gas chamber and chooses to ignore it. 

In any event, once Lanzmann's curiosity was satisfied about how the gas
chamber looked (not big), he wanted to know happened next.
Lanzmann: Can you describe precisely?
Bomba: Describe precisely ... We were waiting there ... inside the gas
chamber ... until the transport came in. Women with children pushed into
that place ... They were undressed, naked, without clothes, without
anything else -- completely naked -- because they come from the
undressing barrack ... where they had undressed themselves.
Lanzmann: What did you feel the first time you saw all those naked
Bomba: I felt that accordingly I got to do what they ... [Germans] ...
told me, to cut their hair ...
There you have in a nut shell how eye witnesses to the gas chamber
atrocities typically describe their behavior. They did whatever the
Germans or anyone else requested of them. When they received a request
to help prepare their kinsmen -- and even their own families as well as
shall soon see -- to be exterminated, or genocided or whatever, these
fellows say they hopped right to it. I don't believe them, but that's
the persona that they have chosen to project to the world at large. In
the neighborhood where I grew up men who behaved like Bomba claims he
behaved would have been spit on. In the upside-down world of Holocaust
survivordom, however , the Abraham Bombas are seen as martyrs and even
heroes. It's a peculiar psychological slant on manly behavior. 

Lanzmann expresses a little more curiosity about how Bomba cut his ( for
hasn't Bomba according to his own story become a working partner in the
alleged genocide of his people?) victims hair than he did about how the
gas chamber looked. He asked if Bomba had shaved them, if he had used
scissors, and if there had not been mirrors available inside the gas
chamber. Bomba said that he did not shave the women, and that the
Germans had not provided the barbers with mirrors.
Lanzmann: "There were no mirrors?" 
Bomba: "No, there were no mirrors. There were just benches - not chairs,
just benches . . . . 
There's an interesting note. According to Bomba the Germans had provided
benches inside the little gas chamber for the ladies and their children
to sit on. We're not told how many benches. There could have been 17
individual ones, but more likely Bomba would have said -- if Lanzmann
had thought to ask him -- that there were maybe four or five, half a
dozen perhaps. Two or more ladies with their kids could have sat on each
bench. No matter how you slice it, traffic is picking up. Seventeen
barbers, the benches for 17, and now the 17 women and their kids are all
there together inside the gas chamber, which is about the size of a
small bedroom in the rear of an ordinary tract house -- and the hair is
flying. But we re not finished yet:
Lanzmann: "You said there were about sixteen . . . [Lanzmann has
forgotten that Bomba makes the seventeenth] . . . barbers? You cut the
hair of how many women in a one batch?" 
Bomba: "In one day there was about, I would say, going into that place
between sixty and seventy women in the same room at one time." 
You might think that Claude Lanzmann is about to express some doubt
about how Bomba is blocking out this scene for him. Sixty to seventy
naked women in the 12-square-foot room. Lanzmann isn't going to express
doubt, however, about anything told to him by a survivor. Lanzmann is a
Holocaust fundamentalist. The role of the fundamentalist in any cult is
to accept absolutely the testimony of those who claim to have been
eyewitnesses to the original sacred event. Once the original story is
made to fly, the most elegant minds can elaborate on it endlessly in
good faith. 

Two thousand years ago there were Jews who believed utterly that the son
of their God had been nailed to a pole and executed and that he rose
>from  his tomb to sail off the planet into the heavens. That tale was a
runaway hit. Now we have Jews everywhere committed to the proposition
that millions of them were exterminated in itty-bitty gas chambers, were
cremated, and rose up toward the heavens in smoke. This one has all the
signs of becoming a real blockbuster too. We Gentiles used to be made of
sterner stuff. It took the Jesus story more than three hundred years to
be accepted as Truth by the State. In our own time the State bought the
Holocaust story at the first screening. 

What was the rush, one wonders? 

Lanzmann urged Bomba to say something more about how he felt as he went
about preparing the women and their children to be exterminated.
Something more perhaps than the homely: "I felt that accordingly I got
to do what they told me, to cut their hair . . . ."
Bomba: "I tell you something. To have a feeling about that . . . It was
very hard to feel anything . . . your feelings disappeared, you were
dead. You had no feeling at all.
This is a universal response by eyewitnesses to the alleged gas chamber
murders. The claim Bomba makes that his feelings were "dead," that he
had "no feeling at all," resembles the "temporary insanity" claim
murderers use to diminish their responsibility for their behavior in the
eye of the State. The ordinary murderer claims that his mental process
was so diminished at the time he murdered that he was not responsible
for his act. The eyewitness to the alleged gas chamber murders claims
that his sensibilities were so diminished while he worked as a link in
the murder process that he was not responsible for his behavior. The
murderer was out of his "mind," while gas-chamber eyewitnesses ran out
of "feeling." When Bomba describes himself as being inwardly "dead' he
is saying that he cannot be judged guilty of being an accomplice to mass
murder. He can accuse Germans of whatever he likes -- participate in the
crimes he accuses them of -- yet remain forever innocent while Germans
remain forever guilty. It's a nice set-up. 

In the film Bomba goes on to illustrate how dead he was inwardly while
working for the SS at Treblinka. He describes how he shared the hair
>from  women he knew personally from his home town, from his own street:
". . . and some of them were my close friends." They would ask Abe:
"What's going to happen to us?" But Abe would hold his tongue. With Abe
it was just snip, snip, snip. "What could you tell them?," he asks
Lanzmann. "What could you tell?" 

Snip, snip, snip. 

Now Bomba relate to Lanzmann the story that reviewers have remarked on
more than any other in Shoah. ()
Bomba A friend of mine worked as a barber -- he was good barber in my
hometown -- when his wife and his sister came into the gas chamber . . .
. I can't. It's too horrible. Please. 
Lanzmann: "We have to do it. You know it." 
Bomba: (holding back tears) "I won't be able to do it." 
Lanzmann: (very quietly) "You have to do it. I know it's very hard. I
know and I apologize." 
Bomba : (struggling) "Don't make me go on, please." 
Lanzmann: "Please. We must go on." 
Bomba: (unable to control tears, leaving the frame for a moment,
returning) "I told you it's going to be very hard. They were taking that
. . . [hair] . . . in bags and transporting it to Germany." 
Lanzmann: "Okay, go ahead. What was his answer when his wife and sister
Bomba: "They tried to talk to him and the husband of his sister. They
could not tell him this was the last time they stay alive, because
behind them was the German Nazis, SS, and they knew that if they said a
word, not only the wife and the woman, who were dead already, but also
they would share the same thing with them. In a way, they tried to do
the best for them, with a second longer, a minute longer, just to hug
them and kiss them, because they knew they would never see them again." 
To tell the truth, this is my kind of story, simple and lurid. There is
also some new information in it. In addition to the 60 to 70 women and
their kids, and the barbers and the benches, there were also "SS men"
inside the 12-foot by 12-foot gas chamber. We don't know how many, but
as Bomba speaks in the plural he must mean that there were at least two.
If Lanzmann had thought to ask him about it, Bomba might have said that
there were 10 or 15 SS men in there. And then there is the welcome news
that the SS would allow the Barbers to hug and kiss certain of the naked
women inside the gas chamber. Bomba speaks only of married couples.
Lanzmann might have asked perhaps how the SS were able to identify which
of the naked women were married to which of the barbers. It must be
doubtful that the naked women entered the gas chamber carrying their
marriage certificates. Maybe the barbers had previously petitioned the
SS to keep their own copies of their marriage certificates on the chance
that just such a reunion as Bomba claims he witnessed would take place.
On the other hand, maybe the SS men took the barber's word for who was
married and who wasn't. If they did, it would betray a generosity of
spirit that is not usually ascribed to the SS by Jewish survivors. 

Imagine trying to visualize this scene from the wife's point of view.
Try imagining what might have gone through her mind at the moment she
spied her husband. The hope that must have jumped in her heart. Then
what her thoughts were as her husband sheared off her heir without
speaking to her. Imagine what she must have felt as he held her silently
for a minute or so, his cheek pressed lovingly against her scalp, then
turned with scissors and comb to the next patient lady waiting her turn.
Did his wife run her fingers over her skull and think: 

"Ah, I've always known what kind of man you are. A schmuck when I
married you and a schmuck today." 

There are a number of observations that can be made about my
presentation of Lanzmann's presentation of Bomba's testimony. It could
be observed that while Rachel Auerbach's research suggests that Bomba is
inventing his gas chamber story out of whole cloth, it can still be
claimed that we are left with Auerbach's scholarly outline of the
alleged Treblinka gas chambers. Therefore, while Bomba's investigations
may destroy his own credibility as a witness, the Treblinka gas chamber
story itself remains as it was, an extensively documented story of a
weapon used to annihilate about a million Jews. To give you a quick fix
on Ms. Auerbach's scholarly instincts and her even-handed objectivity, I
will quote from her famous essay "In the Fields of Treblinka." 

As I read such passages in Rachel Auerbach's essay I take the trouble to
remind myself that after the war was she was "one of the first active
members of the Jewish Historical Committee in Poland;" that after
emigrating to Israel she became a "permanent research staff member of
the Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial Museum," and that this In-the-Fields-
of-Treblinka essay was thought worthy of reprinting as recently as 1979
by The Holocaust Library, which was found and is managed by survivors
themselves and is distributed by a major Jewish publishing house,
Shocken Books.
Polish people still talk about the way soap was manufactured from the
bodies of Jews. 'Sent away for soap!' was the expression the Poles would
use when they spoke of transports to Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor. The
discovery of Professor Spanner's soap factory in Langfuhr near Danzig
proved that their suspicious had been well founded. Witnesses tell us
that when the corpses were burned on pyres, pans would be placed beneath
the racks to catch the fat as it ran off, but this has not been
confirmed. But even if the Germans in Treblinka or at any of the other
death factories failed to do this, and allowed so many tons of precious
fat to go to waste, it could only have been an oversight on their part.
They were fully capable of doing things like that. It was entirely in
keeping with their proclivities. Only the newness of this branch of
manufacturing was to blame for this omission. If the Germans ever would
make another drive across Europe, they would not make this mistake
Professors Spanner's "soap factory" in Langfuhr near Danzing was
apparently an invention of active members of self-proclaimed Jewish
historical committees, based upon the entrepreneurial reports of
professional slanderers, and has since been kept alive by research
staffs at Jewish Holocaust memorials around the world. A photograph of
this "factory," with no documentation, appears in the scholarly
Encyclopedia Judacia, published in Israel and shelved in many of the
larger libraries across the United states. 

Polish Jews such as Rachel Auerbach witnessed Germans destroying their
culture. They witnessed Germans tearing apart Jewish families during the
titanic, brutal resettlement programs. Those Jews can be forgiven their
credulity and even some of their hatred, expressed in their eagerness to
believe every accusation made against Germans, no matter how corrupt.
Americans, however, who suffered nothing of what European Jews suffered
at the hands of Germans, have little right to indulge themselves with
it. Which brings me to Mr. George Will, Washington Post columnist and
ABC Television commentator. 

I am willing to accept Mr. Will's own assessment of himself. He is a
brilliant and principled man. I disagree with some of his viewpoints,
particularly with his obsessive-compulsive attachment to the state of
Israel, but I can't show that attachment to be morally wrong. As luck
would have it, Mr. Will has written a column about Shoah where he makes
a remarkable observation.
The most stunning episode in this shattering film lasts about five
minutes and involves 'only' the talk of a barber now in Israel. While he
clips the hair of a customer he talks, never needing to raise his voice
to be heard over the small sounds of a familiar ambiance. He describes
his duties in Treblinka, cutting hair from naked women on the threshold
of the gas chamber, and the day a fellow barber saw his wife and sister
enter the room. ()
Remarkable, eh? Cutting hair from naked women on the "threshold" of the
gas chamber. Do you see it? The threshold is the place directly below
the door to a room. A door sill perhaps. An entrance or a doorway.
According to Mr. Webster it is a "place or point of beginning." Taking
Mr. Will's own obvious assessment of himself, he is the proud possessor
of a formidably organized intellect. A man who always distinguishes
carefully between similar but different points of fact. While doing so
enrages those lesser men who cannot do it themselves, it gives Mr. Will
a lot of pleasure, which is why he does it so regularly. That being so,
what am I to make of the fact that Mr. Will has changed the wording of
Mr. Bomba's testimony?
Lanzmann: "Excuse me. How did it happen when the women came into the gas
chamber? Were you yourself already in the gas chamber?" 
Bomba: "I said we were already in the gas chamber, waiting over there
for the transport to come in. Inside the gas chamber -- we were already
If Mr. Bomba swears that he was inside the gas chamber at that
particular time, why does Mr. Will write that he barbed those naked
women on the "threshold" of the gas chamber? Mr. Bomba can be seen on
film saying that he was inside the gas chamber when he did it. In the
text of the film published by Mr. Lanzmann, Mr. Bomba again insists he
was inside the thing. What happened in Mr. Will's brain as he wrote
"threshold" rather than "inside" or "in?" Is it possible that Mr. Will
found Mr. Bomba's story ludicrous? He wouldn't want to say so publicly
of course as Mr. Will is one of our brightest and best Holocaust
fundamentalists. Nevertheless, having the kind of relentlessly rational
mind that he does, something at the bottom of it might not have bought
Mr. Bomba's story the way Mr. Will would have preferred to buy it. Maybe
a single wire got crossed in the depths of Mr. Will's brain, out of the
millions that are twisted around in there. Maybe Mr. Will wanted to
express some doubt about Mr. Bomba's story but could not bring himself
to do it. He may have been in that peculiar place where writers
sometimes find themselves -- smart enough to know that something needs
to be said but without enough character to go ahead and say it. When
this happens it causes a psychological malfunction known as writer's
block. Mr. Will isn't the sort to be bothered with writer's block, he
has the habit of full production, but if he wasn't going to spill the
beans he had to turn somewhere. It looks like he turned to invention. I
suppose in the moment it was easy enough for a man wired the way Mr.
Will is wired to invent a threshold image and use it to replace the one
Mr. Bomba invented. You can judge how much more intelligent Mr. Will is
than Mr. Bomba when you compare the rationality of their two opposing

Now that Mr. Will had Mr. Bomba on the threshold of the gas chamber
rather than inside it, Mr. Will could go on indulging his fantasy about
Mr. Lanzmann's Shoah. As the threshold to an exterior door not only
leads inside, but turning about leads to the great outdoors and indeed
to the survivors who claim to have actually seen a homicidal poison gas
chamber. In this scenario, as the eyewitness testimony is not allowed to
be challenged, the genocide theory can not be challenged either, and if
that is so then European Jews had every right to conquer Palestine and
the U.S. Government is morally obligated to protect forever the Israeli
State. That is the line that has been spoon-fed to American so
successfully for 40 years now. Mr. Will's threshold caper is a small
example of how our intellectual elites accept the use of invention on
the one hand and the suppression of good sense on the other to bolster a
world view that is based, incredibly, on a handful of stories told by a
handful of Abraham Bombas. 

I believe the worldwide Jewish community is being betrayed by the
coupling of such men as Abraham Bomba and George Will. Jews are being
betrayed by their own spokesmen, and they are being betrayed by gentiles
who profess to be friends and allies of the Jewish community but who in
reality are merely supporters of a Zionist leadership, entrapped by the
rhetoric of the Holocaust Lobby, too ashamed to reveal the immense fraud
and falsehood on which so much of its influence has been built.
Kapo: German for "trustee".
Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust, by Claude Lanzmann. Pantheon
Books. New York, 1985. Unless otherwise noted, all the passages quoted
in this article are from the Pantheon Books edition, pages 111-117.
The Death Camp Treblinka, Ed. by Alexander Donat, Holocaust Library (New
York, 1979). See Rachael Auerbach's contribution, In The Fields of
The parenthetical descriptions of Bomba's reactions here are not in the
published text. I have added them from memory. While I watched the film
I could not help but be touched by Bomba's sincere distress. His tears
brought tears to my own eyes. At the same time I was aware of what a
laugh I thought his story is. A nice irony for the psychotherapists.
The Washington Post (Nov 15, 1985)

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Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 15:31:51 PDT 1996
Article: 64786 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: BUCHENWALD Myths and Facts
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:09:34 +0100
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Buchenwald: Legend and Reality

Buchenwald is widely regarded as one of wartime Germany's most notorious
"death camps." In fact, though, this carefully cultivated image bears
little resemblance to reality. Today, more than forty years after the
end of We Second World War, the camp deserves another, more objective
History and Function
The Buchenwald concentration camp was located on a wooded hill outside
of Weimar, in what is now East Germany. It was opened in July 1937.
Until the war years, almost all the inmates were either professional
criminals or political prisoners (most of them ardent Communists). Some
2,300 Buchenwald inmates were pardoned in 1939 in honor of Hitler's 50th

At the outbreak of war in September 1939 the camp population was 5,300.
This grew slowly to 12,000 in early 1943, and then increased rapidly as
many foreign workers, especially Poles, Ukrainians and Russians, were
brought for employment in war production. () 

During the war years Buchenwald was expanded into a vast complex of more
than a hundred satellite factories, mines and workshops spread across a
large portion of Germany. The most important of these was probably the
Dora underground plant, which produced V-2 missiles. In October 1944 it
became the independent Nordhausen (Mittelbau) camp. () 

Many thousands of Jews arrived at Buchenwald from Hungary and various
eastern camps in 1944 and 1945. Most had been evacuated by railroad from
Auschwitz and other camps threatened by the advancing Red Army. () 

The number of inmates increased enormously during the final months of
the war: 34,000 in November 1943, 44,000 in April 1944, and 80,000 in
August 1944. A monthly peak was reached at the end of February 1945,
when 86,000 inmates were crammed into the severely overcrowded camp.
Almost 30,000 inmates were evacuated from Buchenwald during the week
before the U.S. Army takeover on 11 April 1945. Altogether a total of
239,000 persons were interned in the camp between 1937 and April 1945.

The Commandant and his wife 
The first Commandant, Karl Koch, ran Buchenwald from 1937 until early
1942, when he was transferred to Majdanek. He proved a notoriously
brutal and corrupt administrator who enriched himself with valuables
stolen from numerous inmates, whom he then had killed to cover up his
thefts. The camp physician, Dr. Waldemar Hoven, murdered many inmates in
cooperation with Koch and the Communist underground camp organization.
Koch was eventually charged by an SS court with murder and corruption,
found guilty and executed.  

His wife, Ilse Koch, was involved in many of her husband's crimes, but
the fantastic charge that she had lamp shades and other items
manufactured from the skins of murdered inmates is not true. This
allegation was made by the United States prosecution team at the main
Nuremberg tnal.  

General Lucius D. Clay, Commander in Chief of U.S. Forces in Europe and
Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone of Germany, 1947-49,
carefully reviewed the Use Koch case in 1948 and found that, whatever
her other misdeeds, the lampshade charge was baseless. He commuted her
sentence from life imprisonment to four years and informed the Army
Department in Washington "There is no convincing evidence that she [Ilse
Koch] selected inmates for extermination in order to secure tatooed
skins or that she possessed any articles made of human skin." During a
1976 interview Clay recalled the case:
We tried Ilse Koch ... She was sentenced to life imprisonment, and I
commuted it to three [four] years. And our press really didn't like
that. She had been destroyed by the fact that an enterprising reporter
who first went into her house had given her the beautiful name, the
"Bitch of Buchenwald," and he had found some white lampshades in there
which he wrote up as being made out of human flesh 

Well, it turned out actually that it was goat flesh. But at the trial it
was still human flesh. It was almost impossible for her to have gotten a
fair trial. 

... The Germans picked her up and gave her 12 years for her treatment of
her own people. But it wasn't really a war crime in the strict sense of
the word. 

And those are the kinds of things that we had to deal with all the time. 

The Inmates: Life and Death
There is no question that many atrocities were committed against
Buchenwald inmates. However, at least a very large portion of them were
committed, not by the German SS guards, but by the underground Communist
camp organization that gained almost total internal control after 1943.
This remarkable situation was confirmed in a detailed U.S. Army
intelligence document of 24 April 1945 entitled Buchenwald: A
Prelirninary Report. This confidential analysis remained classified
until 1972. 

In a short preface, Army intelligence chief Alfred Toombs called this
secret report "one of the most significant accounts yet written on an
aspect of life in Nazi Germany" because it "tells how the [Buchenwald]
prisoners themselves organized a deadly terror within the Nazi terror."
The general accuracy of the report had been independently confirmed,
Toombs added. 

As large numbers of foreigners began arriving at the camp during the war
years, the confidential report noted, the understaffed SS found it
necessary to turn over an ever larger share of camp administration to
the inmates themselves. In practice this meant that by 1943 the well-
organized and disciplined Communist inmate organization had taken
virtually total control of the camp's internal operation. As the report
The trusties had wide powers over their fellow inmates. At first they
were drawn almost exclusively from the German criminals. This period
lasted until 1942. But gradually the Communists began to gain control of
this organization. They were the oldest residents, with records of 10-12
years in the concentration camps ... They clung together with remarkable
tenacity, whereas the criminal elements were simply out for their own
individual welfare and had little group cohesiveness. The Communists
maintained excellent discipline and received a certain amount of
direction from outside the camp. They had brains and technical
qualifications for running the various industries established at the

Their advances were not made without resistance from the criminals, but
gradually the criminals were eliminated from power, partly by
intimidation, partly with the aid of the SS. Numbers of the criminals
were killed by beatings, hangings or injections of phenol into the heart
or of air or milk into the veins. The injections were a specialty of the
camp doctor [Hoven], who became a partisan of the Communist faction. 

Besides the top positions in the trusty organization, there were a
number of key Communist strongholds in the administration of the camp.
One was the food supply organization, through which favored groups
received reasonable rations while others were brought to the starvation
level. A second was the hospital, staffed almost exclusively by
Communists. Its facilities were largely devoted to caring for members of
their party ... Another Communist stronghold was the Property Room ...
Each German trusty obtained good clothing and numerous other valuables.
The Communists of Buchenwald, after ten or twelve years in concentration
carnps, are dressed like prosperous business men. Some affect leather
jackets and little round caps of the German navy, apparently the uniform
of revolution. 
As a result of all this:
... lnstead of a heap of corpses or a disorderly mob of starving,
leaderless men, the Americans [who captured the camp] found a
disciplined and efficient organization in Buchenwald. Credit is
undoubtedly due to the self-appointed Camp Committee, an almost purely
Communist group under the domination of the German political leaders. 

... The trusties, who in time became almost exclusively Communist
Germans, had the power of life and death over all other inmates. They
could sentence a man or a group to almost certain death ... The
Communist trusties were directly responsible for a large part of the
brutalities committed at Buchenwald.
Communist block chiefs, the report stated, would personally beat their
charges and "sometimes forced whole blocks to stand barefoot in the snow
for hours, apparently on their own initiative." The Communists killed
"large numbers" of Polish inmates who refused to submit to their rule.
They forced French inmates to give up thousands of Red Cross parcels.
The report mentioned several particularly brutal Communist camp leaders
by name. 

It confirmed that the camp physician, Dr. Hoven, had been an important
Communist ally who killed numerous criminal and anti-Communist political
prisoners with lethal injections. An SS investigation team uncovered his
activities during the war and sentenced him to death for murder.
However, because of the critical wartime shortage of doctors, he was
reprieved after 18 months in jail. After the war the Communists tried to
protect their ally, but Hoven was sentenced to death for a second time
by a U.S. military tribunal and executed in 1948. 

Camp Communists maintained close relations with the well- organized
underground Communist party on the outside. "From Buchenwald an inmate
went out regularly to establish contact with a Communist courier
bringing news and instructions. Bound by his loyalty to the Party, the
contact man never made use of his opportunity to escape personally." The
Communist camp military organization had three machine guns, fifty
rifles and a number of hand grenades. The German Communists lived better
than any other group. "Even now," the report noted, "they may be
distinguished from the rest of the inmates by their rosy cheeks and
robust health, though they have been in concentration camps for much
longer than the others." 

Fmally, the report's authors warned against the simplistic and naive
notion that former inmates should be trusted and helped just because
they had been interned in German camps. "Some are in fact 'bandits,'
criminals from all Europe or foreign workers in Germany who were caught
stealing ... They are brutalized, unpleasant to look on. It is easy to
adopt the Nazi theory that they are subhuman." 

A book published in 1961 by the Communist-run "Intemational Buchenwald
Committee" of East Berlin proudly describes the wartime activities of
the camp's Communist underground. It ran an underground camp newspaper,
an illegal radio transmitter, an inmate orchestra (which played
Communist songs), a large library and even a military organization. It
held Communist ceremonies and political meetings, and carried out
extensive sabotage of German war production.  

Former Buchenwald inmate Emst Fedem, a Jew, explained after the war how
the Communist camp organization cooperated with the SS to increase its
own power and eliminate opponents and undesirables. He recalled that the
leader of the Jewish section of the Communist camp organization, Emil
Carlebach, declared quite frankly that for him only his [Communist]
friends counted, that everybody else might as well perish." Fedem
reported that he personally witnessed two acts of brutality by
Carlebach, who was a Block Senior from 1942 until 1945. In one case he
ordered the death of a fellow Jewish inmate for allegedly mistreating
inmates at another camp. On another occasion Carlebach personally beat
an elderly Jewish inmate from Tulkey to death because he had unavoidably
relieved himself in the barracks.  

Similarly, an Englishman who spent 15 months in Buchenwald reported
after the war that the Communist camp organization did not consider the
Jewish inmates particularly worth trying to keep alive.  

In recent years some homosexual organizations have claimed that
thousands of homosexuals were "systematically exterminated" in the
German concentration camps. While it is true that many were interned as
criminals, no homosexual was ever killed by the Germans for that reason
alone. It is also worth recalling that during the 1930s and 1940s,
homosexual behavior was considered an odious crime in most of the world,
including the United States. 

A former Buchenwald inmate recalled in 1981: "... Homosexuals were
oppressed by the Nazis because of their social mores ... In Buchenwald,
a great number of them were not killed by the Nazis, but by political
prisoners [Communistsl, because of the homosexuals' aggressive and
offensive behavior."  

Day-to-day conditions were much better than most portrayals would
suggest. Inmates could both receive and send two letters or postcards
monthly. They could receive money from the outside. Inmates were also
paid for their labor with special camp currency which they could use to
purchase a wide variety of items in the camp canteen. They played
soccer, handball and volleyball in their spare time. Soccer matches were
held on Saturdays and Sundays on the camp playing field. A large camp
library offered a wide range of books. A motion picture theater was very
popular. There were also variety shows, and musical groups put on
regular concerts in the central square. A camp brothel, which employed
15 prostitutes when the Americans arnved, was available to many inmates. 

Extermination factory?
The Americans who arrived at Buchenwald in April 1945 found hundreds of
sick inmates and many unburied corpses in the camp. Horrific photos of
these gruesome scenes were immediately circulated throughout the world
and have been widely reproduced ever since, giving the impression that
Buchenwald was a diabolical mass killing center. 

The American government encouraged this impression. A U.S. Army report
about Buchenwald prepared for the Supreme Allied Headquarters in Europe
and made public at the end of April 1945 declared that the "mission of
the camp" was "an extennination factory." () And two weeks later a U.S.
Congressional report on German camps, later used as a Nuremberg trial
document, was issued which likewise described Buchenwald as an
"extermination factory."  

This superficially plausible description is, however, completely wrong.
The great majority of those who died at Buchenwald perished during the
chaotic final months of the war. They succumbed to disease, often
aggravated by malnutrition, in spite of woefully inadequate efforts to
keep them alive. They were victims, not of an "extermination" program,
but rather of the terrible overcrowding and severe lack of food and
medical supplies due to a general collapse of order in Germany during
the tumultuous final phase of the war. 

Along with these indirect victims of the war were many healthy inmates.
B.M. McKelway inspected Buchenwald shortly after the U.S. takeover as
one of a group of American newspaper editors and publishers. He reported
that "many of the hundreds of inmates we saw appeared to be healthy
while others suffering from dysentery, typhus, tuberculosis and other
diseases were living skeletons."  

One striking indication that Buchenwald was not an "extermination" camp
is the fact that some of the internees were children too young to work.
An estimated one thousand boys, aged two to 16, were housed in two
special children's barracks. Train transports of Jewish children arrived
>from  1942 to 1945. Some arrived from Auschwitz in 1943. Other Jewish
children came from Hungary and Poland.  The confidential U.S. Army
report of April 24, 1945, noted the "most remarkable sight of the
children" who "rush about, shrieking and playing."  

Thirty years after the war, even famed "Nazi hunter" Simon Wiesenthal
conceded that "there were no extermination camps on German soil." ()

The gas chamber lie 
Perhaps the most vicious lie circulated after the war about Buchenwald
is the charge that the Germans exterminated inmates there in gas
chambers. An official French government report submitted to the
Nuremberg tribunal as a prosecution exhibit imaginatively stated:
"Everything had been provided for down to the smallest detail. In 1944,
at Buchenwald, they had even lengthened a railway line so that the
deportees might be led directly to the gas chamber. Certain [of the gas
chambers] had a floor that tipped and immediately directed the bodies
into the room with the crematory oven."  The chief British prosecutor at
the main Nuremberg trial, Sir Hartley Shawcross, declared in his closing
address that"murder [was] conducted like some mass production industry
in the gas chambers and the ovens" of Buchenwald and other camps. () 

In a book published in 1947, French priest Georges Henocque, former
chaplain of the Saint-Cyr Military Academy, claimed to have visited the
inside of a Buchenwald gas chamber, which he described in detaiL This
particular story has been cited as a good example of the kind of
Holocaust lies which even prominent personalities are capable of

Another French priest and former inmate, Jean-Paul Renard, made a
similar claim about the camp in his own book published shortly after the
war: "I saw thousands and thousands of persons going into the showers.
Instead of liquid, asphyxiating gases poured out over them." When fellow
Frenchman and former Buchenwald inmate Paul Rassinier pointed out to the
priest that there was no gas chamber in the camp, Renard replied:
"Right, but that's only a figure of speech ... and since those things
existed somewhere, it's not important."  

In a book published in 1948, Hungarian Jewish writer Eugene Levai
charged that the Germans killed tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews at
Buchenwald in gas chambers.  

A widely distributed booklet issued by the Jewish Anti-Defamation League
of B'nai B'rith also spread the tale that people were gassed at

In 1960 the Buchenwald gassing story was officially declared a fable. In
that year, Martin Broszat of the anti-Hitler Institute for Contemporary
History in Munich specifically stated that no one was ever gassed at
Buchenwald. Professor A.S. Balachowsky, a member of the Institut de
France, likewise declared in November 1971: "I would like to confirm to
you that no gas chamber as such existed at Buchenwald ..." () Holocaust
writer Konnilyn Feig conceded in her book, Hitler's Death Camps, that
Buchenwald did not have a gas chamber.  Today no serious historian still
claims gassings there.

How many perished? 
The numbers of persons estimated to have perished at Buchenwald while it
was under German control vary tremendously. According to former inmate
Elie Wiesel, the prolific Jewish writer and 1986 Nobel Peace Prize
recipient, "In Buchenwald they sent 10,000 to their deaths every day."
This wildly irresponsible statement is, unfortunately, all too typical
of the the rhetoric of the man who was also chosen to head the U.S.
govemment's official Holocaust Memorial Council. 

The 1980 edition of the World Book Encyclopedia claimed that "more than
100,000" died in the camp. () The Encyclopaedia Judaica put the number
at 56,549. () Raul Hilberg, writing in the 1982 edition of the
Encyclopedia Americana, stated that "more than 50,000 died in the
Buchenwald complex."  

The U.S. Army intelligence report of April 24, 1945 (cited above) noted
that the total number of certified deaths was 32,705. () A detailed June
1945 U.S. government report about Buchenwald put the total at 33,462, of
whom more than 20,000 died in the chaotic final months of the war.  

The authoritative Intemational Tracing Service of Arolsen, an affiliate
of the Intemational Red Cross, stated in 1984 that the number of
documented deaths (of both Jews and non-Jews) at Buchenwald was 20,671,
with another 7,463 for Dora (Mittelbau).  

While even these lower figures are regrettably high, it is important to
realize that the great majority of those who died at Buchenwald were
unfortunate victims of a catastrophic war, not Germany policy. Most of
the rest were murdered by order of the Communist underground camp
organization. Several hundred were also killed in Allied bombing

In one air raid against a large munitions factory near the main camp,
British bombers killed 750 persons, including 400 inmates. 

American and Soviet atrocities
Following the American takeover of Buchenwald in April 1945, about 80
remaining German guards and camp functionaries were summarily murdered.
Inmates brutally beat the Germans to death, sometimes with the aid and
encouragement of American soldiers. Between 20 and 30 GIs took turns
gleefully beating six young Germans to death. Inmates also commandeered
American jeeps and drove to nearby Weimar, where they looted and
randomly killed German civilians.  

After the war the Soviet secret police operated Buchenwald as a
concentration camp for "potential class enemies" and other "possibly
dangerous" German civilians. In September 1949, more than four years
after the end of the war, there were still 14,300 inmates in the
"special camp." (While Buchenwald was under German control, the number
of inmates did not reach 14,000 until May 1943.) Conditions were
horrible. Even the Soviet official in charge of the concentration camps
in Germany, General Merkulov, acknowledged the severe lack of order and
cleanliness, particularly at Buchenwald. At least 13,000 and as many as
21,000 persons died in Soviet-run Buchenwald, but no one has ever been
punished for the deaths and mistreatment in this notorious postwar camp.
One former inmate described his "five years of horrible seclusion,
humiliations, interrogations and annihilation" in the Soviet-run camp in
these words:
People were mere numbers. Their dignity was consciously trampled upon.
They were starved without mercy and consumed by tuberculosis until they
were skeletons. The annihilation process which had been well tested over
decades was systematic. The cries and groans of those in pain still echo
in my ears whenever the past comes back to me in sleepless nights. We
had to watch helplessly as people perished according to plan -- like
creatures sacrificed to annihilation. 

Many nameless people were caught up in the annihilation machinery of the
NKVD [Soviet secret police] after the collapse of 1945. They were herded
together like cattle after the so-called liberation and vegetated in the
many concentration carnps. Many were systematically tortured to death. A
memorial was built for the dead of the Buchenwald concentration camp. A
figure of death victims was chosen based on fantasy. Intentionally, only
the dead of the 1937-1945 period were honored. Why is there no memorial
honoring the dead of 1945 to 1950? Countless mass graves were dug around
the camp in the postwar penod.  
In an act of stunning hypocrisy, the Communist rulers of the postwar
"German Democratic Republic" have turned the Buchenwald camp area into a
kind of secular shrine. Every year, hundreds of thousands visit the
sites, complete with museums, bell tower, monumental sculpture and
memorials dedicated, ironically enough, to the "victims of fascism."
There is nothing to remind visitors of the thousands of forgotten
Germans who perished miserably during the years after the war when the
camp was run by the Soviets. 

The story of Buchenwald, like the story of virtually every German
wartime concentration camp, is a microcosm of the entire Holocaust tale.
The widely-accepted portrayal of Buchenwald, like those of the other
German camps, contrasts sharply with the little- known reality.

1. The information in this section is from two sources: "Buchenwald,"
Encyclopaeda Judaica (New York and Jersualem: 1971), Vol. 4, pp. 1442,
1445; and U.S. government report B-2833 of 18 June 1945. Document 217I-
PS, published in the "red senes," Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (NC&A)
(Washington, DC: 1946-48), Vol. 4, pp. 800-833. 

2. U.S. Army report of 25 May 1945. Document 2222-PS. Published in NC&A,
Vol. 4, pp. 86p864; "German-Bom NASA Expert ...," New York Times, 18
October 1984, pp. Al, A12: "Ex-Nazi Denies Role ...," New York Times, 21
October 1984, p. 8. 

3. Document 2171-PS. NC&A, Vol. 4, pp. 800-833. 

4. 2171-PS. NC&A, Vol. 4, pp. 832-833. 

5. Nuremberg testimony of Günther Reinecke, 7 August 1946. Published in
the IMT "blue series," Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the
International Military Tribunal (IMT) (Nuremberg: 1947 49), VoL 20, pp.
438, 441 142; SS indictment brief against Karl Koch, 11 April 1944.
Document NO-2360. 

6. IMT, Vol. 3, pp. 514-515; Vol. 5, pp. 220-201; Vol. 32, pp. 267- 269. 

7. "Clay Explains Cut in Ilse Koch Term," New York Times, 24 Sept.

8. Interview with Lucius D. Clay. Official Proceedings of the George C.
Marshall Research Foundation. Transcript of a videotape interview shown
at the conference "U.S. Occupation in Europe After World War II," 23- 24
April 1976 at Lexington, Van, sponsored by the George C. Marshall
Research Foundation, pp. 37-38. (I am grateful to Robert Wolfe of the
National Archives for bringing this interview to my attention.) 

9. Egon W. Fleck and Edwartd At Tenenbaum, Buchenwald: A Preliminary
Report, U.S. Army, 12th Army Group, 24 April 1945. National Archives,
Record Group 331, SHAEF, G-5, 17.11, Jacket 10, Box 151 (8929tl63-
8929/180). I am grateful to Mr. Timothy Mulligan of the Military Branch
of the National Archives for bringing this report to my attention. See
also: Donald B. Robinson, "Communist Atrocities at Buchenwald," American
Mercury, October 1946, pp. 397-404; and Christopher Burney, The Dungeon
Democracy (New York 1946), pp. 21, 22-23, 28-29, 32, 33, 34, 44, 46, 49. 

10. Internationales Buchenwald-Komitee, Buchenwald (East Berlin:
Kongress, 1961). 

11. Ernst Federn, 'That German ..." Harper's, August 1948, pp. 106-107. 

12. Christopher Burney, The Dungeon Democracy (New York 1946), pp. l09,
124, 128-130. 

13. The Jewish Times (Baltimore). Quoted in "On the Holocaust," The Gay
Paper (Baltimore), December 1981, p. 2. 

14. John Mendelsoln; "Sources," Prologue (Washington, DC: National
Archives), Fall 1983, p. 180; Konnilyn G. Feig, Hitler's Death Camps
(New York 1981), p. 96; K. Morgen testimony, 7 August 1946, IMT, Vol.
20, p. 490; testimony by former Buchenwald innate Arnost Tauber at
Nuremberg "I.G. Farben" trial, 12 Nov. 1947. Printed in: Udo Walendy
(ed.), Auschwitz im IG-Farben Prozess (1981), p. 119; Roger Manvell and
H. Fraenkel. The Incomparable Crime (New Yorlc 1967), p. 155; Buchenwald
Camp: The Report of a Parliamentary Delegation (IAXK1OrL HMSO, 1945),
pp. 4,5. 

15. "Official Army Report Lists Buchenwald as Extermination Factory, The
Washington Star, 29 April 1945, p. A7. 

16. U.S. Congressional Report on Camps, Doc. 159-L., IMT, Vol. 37, pp.
605-626; and Congressional Record (Senate), 15 May 1945, pp. 457S 4582. 

17. B. M. McKelway, "Buchenwald ...," The Washington Star, 29 April
1945, pp. Al, A7. 

18. B. M. McKelway, "Buchenwald ...," Washington Star, 29 April 1945, p.
A7; affidavit of H. Wilhelm Hammann of 6 March 1947. NO-2328. (Hamman
was an inmate from 1938 until April 1945.) 

19. E.W. Fleck and EA. Tenenbaurn, Buchenwald: A Prelinunary Report, 24
April 1945 (Cited above), p. 14; see also the photo of Jewish children
inmates at Buchenwald in: Robert Abzug, Inside the Vicious Heart (New
York: Oxford, 1985), pp. 148-149. 

20. S. Wiesenthal (letter), Book & Bookmen (London), April 1975, p. 5. 

21. Nuremberg document 274-F (RF-301). If, Vol. 37, p. 148. 

22. IMT, Vol. 19, p. 434; NC&A, Suppl. Vol. A, p. 61. 

23. Georges Henocque, LesAutres de la Bàte (Paris: G. Duraissie, 1947),
p. 115. Facsimile reprint and commentary in Robert Faurisson, Memoire en
Defense (Paris: 1980), pp. 185-191. 

24. Paul Rassinier, Debunking the Genocide Myth (Torrance, CA.: The
Noontide Press, 1978), pp. 129-130. 

25. Eugene Levai, Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry
(Zurich: 1948), p. 439. 

26. Earl Raab, The Anatomy of Nazism (New York ADL, 1979), photo caption
opposite page 21. The Buchenwald gassing myth was also propagated in:
Francis Tomczuk, "Days of Remembrance," American Legion Magazine, April
1985, p. 23. 

27. Die Zeit, 19 August 1960, p. 16 (Up. editiorr 26 August 1960). 

28. Germaine Tillion, Ravensbrueck (Garden City, NY: Anchor/Doubleday,
1975), p. 231. 

29. K Feig, Hitier's Death Camps, p. 100. 

30. Stefan Kanfer, "Author, Teacher, Witness," Time magazme, 18 March
1985, p. 79. 

31. "Buchenwald," Worid Book Encyclopedia, (1980 edition), Vol. 2, p.

32. "Buchenwald," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 4, p. 1445. 

33. R Hilberg, "Buchenwald," Encyclopedia Americana (1982 edition), Vol.
4, p. 677. 

34. E. Fleck and E. Tenenbawn, Buchenwald: A Preliminary Report (cited
above), p. 18. 

35. 2171-PS. NCLA, Vol. 4, p. 801. 

36. Statement by Arolsen registry official Butterweck, 16 Jan. 1984.
Facsimile in: Deutsche National-Zeitung (Munich), Nr. 18, 27 April 1984,
p. 10. 

37. Buchenwald Camp: Thc Report of a Parliamentary Delegation (London:
HMSO, 1945), p. 5; 2171-PS. NC1EA, VoL 4, p. 821. 

38. Robert Abzug, Inside the Vicious Heart, pp. 49, 52. 

39. Marguerite Higgins, News Is a Singular Thing (Doubleday, 1955), p.

40. Elie WieseL Legends of Our Sune (New York Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, 1968), p. 140; Raul Hilberg, Destruction of the European Jews
(New York Holmes & Meier, 1985), p. 987. 

41. "Bis 1950: Buchenwald und Sachsenhausen," Amerika Woche (Chicago),
11 May 1985, p. 3; "Im Todeslager der Sowjets." D. National-Zeitung
(Munich), Nr. 47, 15 Nov. 1985, p. 4; "Soviet Camps Busy, Berlin Paper
Says," Ncw York Times, 10 Sept. 1949, p. 6. 

42. Letter by E. Krombholz of Aschaffenburg, "Erlebnisbericht aus einem
Sowjet-KZ," D. National-Zeitung (Munich), Nr. 11, 9 Mash 1984, p. 10;
see also sketches of conditions in Soviet-run Buchenwald by former
imnate Dr. Heinz Moller in: D. National-Zeitung (Munich), Nr. 6, 3 Feb.
1984, p. 5. 

43. "Nazi Death Camp ..." (AP) Gazette-Telegraph (Colorado Springs,
Co.), 1 July 1984, p. H12; "At Buchenwald ...," New York Times, 14 April
1985, pp. 1, 29. 

For the current IHR catalog, with a complete listing of books and audio
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Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 15:31:52 PDT 1996
Article: 64787 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: DIESEL GAS CHAMBERS A Myth in a Myth [2/2]
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:03:10 +0100
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demented fiend that something better was needed. And yet, Christian
Wirth supposedly asked Gerstein not to propose in Berlin any other kind
of gas chamber. (fn. 33) Supposedly, it was not just a few people who
were killed with Diesel exhaust, but millions. To have used such a
clumsy method to kill Jews, especially when far better methods were
readily available, is incredible enough, but that the same clumsy method
would have also been used by the Germans on their own people as part of
a euthanasia program is even more incredible.
Postscript: More Surprises to Come!
A marvelous metamorphosis is already taking place in the holocaust
story. Several leading Holocaust proponents are now taking great pains
to drop the Diesel claim and replace it with the view that the engines
were not Diesels but conventional gasoline engines which simply burned
Diesel fuel, presumably to make the engines more deadly than if they had
only burned regular gasoline. This amazing transformation has appeared
in a recent book in Germany entitled Nationalsozialistiche
Massentötungen durch Giftgas. (fn. 34) The book was a joint project of
24 of the most eminent scholars on the subject, including such notables
as Eugen Kogon, Hermann Langbein, Adalbert Rueckerl, Gideon Hausner,
Germaine Tillion and Georges Wellers. The book represents the current
state of the art of holocaust mythomania and has already been
recommended by the World Jewish Congress in London. (fn. 35) The new,
"revised" version of the holocaust says, in effect, that Gerstein and
others were mistaken when they had claimed that Diesels were used to
kill Jews at Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor. The claim now is that
gasoline engines were used. 

The clumsy juggling of evidence which characterizes this book is
exemplified by the fact that although the Gerstein statement refers to
Diesel engines four times, the portion of the Gerstein statement which
is quoted in this supposedly definitive rebuttal of the revisionists
does not mention Diesels at all, nor does it even describe the alleged
killing process. (fn. 36) For a description of the killing process that
Gerstein supposedly witnessed, the book gives a piece of postwar
testimony by Dr. Pfannenstiel in which there is also no mention of the
use of Diesels, but only of the use of Diesel fuel in the engine. How
one could possibly have operated a gasoline engine with Diesel fuel is,
of course, left to the imagination. The fact is that any gasoline engine
simply would not operate with Diesel fuel (and vice-versa). 

A fatal flaw in the new, non-Diesel, version is the retention of the
recurrent claim that the corpses were "blue." Although any possible
death from Diesel exhaust would have been due to lack of oxygen, which
would in turn have caused a bluish appearance of the corpse, death from
gasoline engine exhaust would "only" have been due to carbon monoxide
and could "only" have caused a distinctive "cherry red" or "pink"
appearance. Although Pfannenstiel's postwar testimony is generally less
wild than the Gerstein statement, nonetheless he and other
"eyewitnesses" also repeated the claim that the corpses were "blue."
(fn. 37) 

That the Gerstein statement, although in a severely abbreviated form, is
included at all in such a scholarly work, despite the problems for the
"revised" version of the holocaust 

story which should be obvious to anyone looking at the complete text of
that statement, only shows how desperate the holocaust scholars are to
scrape together everything they have in support of their monstrous
fantasy. They have precious little, and the Gerstein statement is still
the best evidence they can present. 

The new "revised" version of the holocaust story is actually more absurd
than the old version. Although it might be remotely possible for an
engineer to have mistaken a gasoline engine for a Diesel engine, how
could anyone possibly have mistaken "red" for "blue"? Perhaps they were
all color blind-we will just have to wait and see. No doubt, we will see
many more attempts by desperate men to hold together a crumbling
patchwork of lies. 

The Diesel gas chamber claim is rubbish-apparently some of the
exterminationists themselves recognize that now. However, the alternate
claim that gasoline engine exhaust was used instead is rubbish also.
The "gas chambers" that one is shown today in Dachau, Auschwitz and
elsewhere are practically nothing more than ordinary rooms which could
not have been used to kill in the manner alleged. The Diesel gas
chambers in Treblinka. Belzec and Sobibor were all supposedly destroyed
long before the end of the war.
Raul Hilberg. The Destruction of the European Jews (Chicago: Quadrangle
Books, 1961). p. 572.
It was at these camps that many photos were taken of dead bodies, many
already in advanced states of decay. These photos are still being
presented as proof of Jewish extermination. No comparable photos were
taken in Auschwitz, for example. Already in 1960 Dr. Martin Broszat of
the Institute for Contemporary History in Munich wrote in a letter to
Die Zeit (19 August 1960), p. 16, stating that there had been "no gas
chambers in the Altreich," meaning Germany within its pre-1937 borders,
but rather "gassings took place only in German-occupied Poland." The
exclusion of Dachau, Bergen-Belsen and Buchenwald from the current
litany of extermination camps in the serious literature is a tacit
admission that at least a "mini-hoax" had been perpetrated earlier.
Hilberg, pp. 561-62.
William B. Lindsey, "Zyklon B, Auschwitz, and the Trial of Dr. Bruno
Tesch," Journal of Historical Review Vol. 4, No. 3 (Fall 1983).
In a trial in France in 1982 in which Dr. Robert Faurisson had been sued
for slander by Poliakov for having described him as a "falsifier of
history," Poliakov had explained that he had simply misread a poor
quality copy of a copy, several times removed, of the original Gerstein
Leon Poliakov, Harvest of Hate, Holocaust Library (New York: Schocken
Books, 1979), p. 195.
Dr. Wilhelm Pfannenstiel was a professor at the Institute for Hygiene at
the University of Marburg an der Lahn. An article by him on the
effectiveness of vitamin K was published in Deutsche Zeitschrift für
Chirurgie, 257 Band (1943) pp. 639-42. Also, an answer by him to a
reader's question was published by the Muenchener Medizinische
Wochenschrift (4 July 1941), p. 766, with his home address: Pilgrimstein
2, Marburg an der Lahn. He was apparently sent to Belzec as well as
other camps as a medical consultant to improve camp sanitation. After
the war he was interrogated every few years with regard to his visit to
Belzec with Gerstein and on two occasions was prosecuted, the last trial
being in April 1970 in Marburg. Essentially, his testimony was always to
support the Gerstein statement while at the same time avoiding or
denying anything which would incriminate himself.
S. Kaye, Handbook of Emergency Toxicology, 4th ed. (Springfield: C.C.
Thomas, 1980) pp. 187-88. For a more detailed discussion of toxic
effects of CO see: C.J. Polson & R.N. Tattersall, Clinical Toxicology
(Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1969), pp. 604-21.
Poliakov, p. 196.
Y. Henderson and H.W. Haggard, Noxious Gases (New York: Reinhold
Publishing, 1943), p. 168.
W. Baker and A.L. Mossman, Effects of Exposure to Toxic Gases, (East
Rutherford, New Jersey: Matheson Gas Products, 1970), p. 12.
F.E. Camps, Medical and Scientific Investigations in the Christie Case
(London: Medical Publications Ltd., 1953), p. 170,
P.S. Myers, "Automobile Emissions-A Study in Environmental Benefits
versus Technological Costs," Society of Automotive Engineers
Transactions Vol. 79 (1970), Section 1, paper 700182, p. 662.
A Russian submarine engine is mentioned, without any details, in Jochen
von Lang, Eichmann Interrogated (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux,
1983) p. 76. Since World War I, gasoline engines have as a rule been
excluded from submarines because of the toxicity of their exhaust and
the flammability of their fuel. Thus, any submarine engine, even from a
Soviet submarine, would have been a Diesel and would probably have been
as powerful as the engine from any tank.
David F. Merrion, "Effect of Design Revisions on Two Stroke Cycle Diesel
Engine Exhaust," Society of Automotive Engineers Transactions Vol. 77
(1968), paper 680422, p. 1535.
J.C. Holtz, "Safety with mobile diesel-powered equipment underground,"
Report of Investigations No. 5616, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of
Mines, Washington, 1960, p. 67,
Figure 3 and Figure 5 have been used repeatedly over the last forty
years in the technical literature by numerous engineers thereby
demonstrating the reliability of the data on which these figures are
based and the extent to which they represent the worst possible carbon
monoxide emission levels from all Diesels. Two of the early examples of
articles using Figure 3 are: H.H. Schrenk and L.B. Berger, "Composition
of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas," American Journal of Public Health Vol.
31, No. 7 (July 1941), p. 674, and Martin A. Elliott, "Combustion of
Diesel Fuel," Society of Automotive Engineers Quarterly Transactions
Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1949), p. 509.
Although the related tests and their purpose have been discussed in many
articles, probably the best is in Holtz.
Elliot and Davis, "Composition of Diesel Exhaust Gas," SAE Quarterly
Transactions Vol. 4, No. 3 (July 1950), pp. 345-46-discussion by E.W.
Ibid, p. 333.
Edward F. Obert, Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution (New York
and London: Intext Educational Publishers, 1973), p. 361.
Henderson & Haggard, pp. 144-45.
J.S. Haldane & J.G. Priestly, Respiration (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1935), pp. 223-24.
L.J. Meduna, Carbon Dioxide Therapy (Springfield: C.C. Thomas), pp. 3-
J.D.P. Graham, The Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Poisoning (London:
Oxford University Press, 1962), pp. 215-17.
L.T. Fairhall, Industrial Toxicology, 2nd ed. (Baltimore: Williams &
Wilkins, 1957), p. 180.
Wolfgang Oerley, "Entwicklung und Stand der Holzgaserzeuger in
Oesterreich, Maerz 1938 [Development and Status of Woodgas Generators in
Austria, March 19381," in ATZ Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift, Heft 11
(April 1939), p. 314. Before the war, the leading company not only in
Europe but probably in the entire world in the manufacture and
development of "wood gas wagons" was the Vienna-based Saurer Company.
This is the same company which is identified, oddly enough, as the
manufacturer of the murderous "gas vans" in PS-501.
The German automotive technical literature of that period abounds with
material on this forgotten subject. For an introductory survey of the
subject, two especially useful issues of ATZ are Heft 18 from September
1940 and from 1941.
Rauff is now residing in Chile where he is pursued by the likes of Simon
Wiesenthal and Beate Klarsfeld- A recent attempt by the ADL in the
U.S.A. and by others to have him extradited to Israel was denied by the
Chilean government because of Chile's statute of limitations and because
of Rauff's faultless behavior in Chile.
A more thorough analysis of the gas wagons, and of Zyklon B, may be
found in the author's taped presentation given in Los Angeles on 6
September 1983 before the International Revisionist Conference of the
Institute for Historical Review, from which this article is essentially
an abridgement. The audio cassette is available from the Institute.
An excellent discussion of the subject including extensive lists of
references, especially German references, is: W. Gumz and J.F. Foster of
the Battelle Memorial Inst., "A Critical Survey of Methods of Making a
High BTU Gas from Coal," Research Bull. No. 6 (New York: American Gas
Association, July 1953).
See the complete text of the Gerstein statement in Arthur R. Butz, The
Hoax of the Twentieth Century (Torrance, CA: Institute for Historical
Review, 1982) p. 254. The extermination technology employed at
Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor was supposedly no longer an experimental
technology in 1942 but rather a highly developed technology based upon
almost three years of practical experience beginning in 1939 with the
euthanasia program.
Nationalsozialistische Massentoetungen durch Giftgas [National Socialist
Mass-Murders with Poison Gas] (Frankfurt: S. Fischer Verlag, 1983).
Chicago Jewish Sentinel (22 December 1983).
Nationalsozialistische Massentoetungen durch Giftgas, p. 172-74.
See, for example, his testimony before the Darmstadt court from 6 June
1950 which appears in Saul Friedlaender, Counterfeit Nazi: The Ambiguity
of Good (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967), p.18. For a thorough
discussion of the kind of mad dilemma confronting any German who was
even remotely connected with the concentration camps-Treblinka, Belzec
and Sobibor were actually transit camps rather than concentration camps-
see the article by W.B. Lindsey.

For the current IHR catalog, with a complete listing of books and audio
and video tapes, send one dollar to: 

Post Office Box 2739 
Newport Beach, California 92659 





Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 15:31:53 PDT 1996
Article: 64788 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
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1. Frere Birin

Frere Birin whose real name is Alfred Untereiner, published a
Chronological account of his experiences at Buchenwald and Dora entitled
16 mois de bagne  (Reims: Matot-Braine 1946)
In the Prologue, he relates the circumstances that led to his arrest and
deportation. He was arrested in December, 1943, was deported to
Buchenwald on January 17, 1944  and was transferred to Dora the
following March 13th . We were in the same deportation convoy and in the
same transport from Buchenwald to Dora. Our registration numbers were
also close together 43,642 for him, and 44,364 for me. 
We were liberated together........

"On the instigation [write Frere Birin in his book on page 77] of the
notorious Oberscharfurhrer Sanders, SS, with whom I had something to do,
other methods of execution were used for the saboteurs.
The unfortunates were made to dig narrow ditches, in which their
comrades were forced to bury them up to the neck. 
They were left for a cetain lenght of time. After that an SS. with a
long handled axe cut off their heads.

But the sadism of some of the SS led them to discover an even more cruel
death. They ordered other prisoners to pour barrow loads of sand over
their poor heads. I am still haunted by the looks etc....."

This, too, was never done at Dora. But the story was told to me in
almost the same words, in that camp, by prisoners who had been
transfered there from other camps and who all claimed to have been
present at the scene.: Mauthausen, Birkenau, Flossenburg, Neuengame,

[ pages 231-233 The Holocaust Story and the Lies of Ulysses by Paul

Available from :-
The Institute of Historical Review 
PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659 USA.







Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 16:14:17 PDT 1996
Article: 64794 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
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Subject: DIESEL GAS CHAMBERS A Myth in a Myth [1/2]
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The Diesel Gas Chambers: Myth Within A Myth
by Friedrich Paul Berg 

(Paper presented to the 1983 International Revisionist Conference) 

In any trial of even the most ordinary murder, one can expect an
abundance of information about the murder weapon, including a detailed
description of the weapon and how it was used. Surely, with regard to
murder as novel and as bestially spectacular as the alleged mass-murder
of millions of Jews in gas chambers, one would be given far more
information. Surely, the postwar trials involving those monstrously
amazing gas chambers would provide the most extensive and precise
documentation possible regarding such unconventional murder weapons. But
no, that is not what one finds at all. Although there is a vast
literature, based in part on those trials, including many "eyewitness
accounts" and "documentaries" covering the most diverse aspects of the
holocaust story, nonetheless, as far as the actual mechanics of the
extermination process are concerned, about all one ever finds is an
occasional short and vague description. 

The information gaps regarding the mechanics of the alleged
extermination process should arouse the gravest suspicions. We are after
all no longer in the immediate postwar era, when there would have been
many valid excuses for confusion as to events which may or may not have
taken place in a terrible war which had ended just recently. Almost
forty years have now elapsed. The holocaust specialists have had more
than enough time and opportunity to examine documents and alleged mass-
murder sites as well as the testimony from the most massive trials in
the entire history of the world. Throughout this period they have
certainly been active, and yet they have found little. Aside from a few
bits and pieces of so-called "confessions" and "eyewitness testimony,"
they have, in fact, found next to nothing. 

The information gaps are bad enough; what is far worse is that the bits
and pieces of information which one does find are simply incredible. To
kill people with gas is not inherently incredible since it certainly
does happen, even accidentally. But if one carefully examines the
available information about the German gas chambers from a scientific,
medical or technical perspective, he soon realizes that he is dealing
with an absurd muddle. To characterize the alleged mass-murder
methodology as "harebrained," "crackpot," or simply "weird" is to
understate the situation. The more one examines what little information
there is, the more obvious it becomes that the people who repeat the
holocaust story in one form or other really have no idea as to what they
are talking or writing about. The testimony of the so-called
eyewitnesses is especially weird. The Gerstein statement, which has been
widely accepted by the holocaust specialists, is probably the best
example of such testimony. But the other statements" or "confessions"
are almost as bad or worse. 

The absurdity of the various alleged extermination methods does not in
itself prove that the holocaust did not happen, but it should at least
persuade reasonable people to ask for some other evidence before they
let themselves believe such a monstrous tale. The fact that other
evidence such as documents ordering the killing of Jews with gas, or
hard, physical evidence such as workable gas chambers -- not just
ordinary rooms that have been mislabelled -- is also absent should make
it quite obvious that something is seriously wrong. (fn. 1) 

To concoct horrible, but conveniently vague, eyewitness accounts of
mass-murder is easy. To have such tales accepted about a defeated enemy
nation after a brutal war during which the vast media resources of the
victors had succeeded in portraying the enemy as thoroughly depraved and
wicked is also easy. On the other hand, it is not at all easy to explain
how one could possibly commit mass-murder with Diesel exhaust.
The Exterminationist Position
The table below is from The Destruction of the European Jews by Raul
Hilberg, published in 1961. The table summarizes the views of
practically all the generally accepted, "consensus," writers on the
holocaust story of the last 20 years. The camps listed are the only ones
which Hilberg regarded as having been "extermination" camps. Camps such
as Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, and Buchenwald are not included. (fn. 3) 

Table 1: Characteristics of the death camps according to Raul Hilberg
Camp Location Jurisdiction Type of Killing operation Number of Jews
killed Kulmhof Wartheland Higher SS and Police Leader (Koppe) gas vans
(CO) over a hundred thousand Belzec Lublin district SS and Police Leader
(Globocnik) gas chambers (CO) hundreds of thousands Sobibor Lublin
district SS and Police Leader (Globocnik) gas chambers (CO) hundreds of
thousands Lublin Lublin district WVHA gas chamber (CO), shooting tens of
thousands Treblinka Warsaw district SS and Police Leader gas chambers
(CO) hundreds of thousands Auschwitz Upper Silesia WVHA gas chambers
(HCN) one million 

The fourth column from the left shows that in all of the camps except
for Auschwitz, the killing operation supposedly used carbon monoxide or
CO. In Auschwitz the killing operation supposedly used hydrogen cyanide
or HCN. Of the five camps where carbon monoxide was supposedly used, the
vast majority of victims were supposedly killed in just three camps,
namely: Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor. It is in those three camps that
the carbon monoxide was supposedly generated by Diesel engines. The
numbers of Jews who were supposedly killed in Kulmhof (Chelmno) or
Lublin (Majdanek) are relatively small compared to the numbers for
Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor. 

On the basis of the generally accepted numbers of victims, one can say
that approximately half of all the Jewish victims of German gas chambers
were supposedly gassed with Diesel exhaust. In other words, the Diesel
gas chambers are as important, at least in terms of the numbers of
alleged victims, as the gas chambers that supposedly used Zyklon B and
hydrogen cyanide. 

For at least several months in 1939 and 1940, Diesel engines had
supposedly been used as part of the euthanasia program to kill Germans
who were feebleminded or incurably ill in Germany, The experience gained
>from  the use of Diesels for euthanasia was supposedly applied later by
some of the same people involved with the euthanasia program, such as
Reichsamtsleiter Viktor Brack and Kriminalkommisar Christian Wirth, to
the killing of Jews in Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor in Eastern Poland.
According to Hilberg, it was Wirth who supposedly constructed the
"carbon monoxide gas chambers" for the euthanasia program on the orders
of Brack, who was "actually in charge of the [euthanasia] operation."
Then in the spring of 1942 Brack ordered Wirth to Lublin where "Wirth
and his crew immediately and under primitive conditions began to
construct chambers into which they piped carbon monoxide from diesel
motors." (fn. 4) 

In the National Broadcasting Corporation's "Holocaust" miniseries for
television, which was essentially a dramatization of the generally
accepted holocaust story, there were several references to the use of
Diesel engines for mass-murder. In one scene, Dr. Bruno Tesch, who in
real life had been a highly qualified chemist and was hanged after the
war by the Allies, (fn. 5) explains to Eric Dorf, a fictional SS officer
administering the extermination program, that one of the advantages of
Zyklon B over carbon monoxide is that Zyklon B "won't clog machinery-and
there's no apparatus to break down, as in carbon monoxide." In another
scene Rudolf Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz, is about to start a
Diesel when Eric Dorf explains to him that he will not need the Diesel
anymore because he has ordered another substance, namely Zyklon B.
The Gerstein Statement
The statement of Kurt Gerstein is still a major cornerstone of the
holocaust legend in general. Gerstein was an Obersturmführer (First
Lieutenant) in the SS and a mine surveyor by profession with a graduate
degree in engineering. When he surrendered to the Americans, he
supposedly gave them a prepared statement dated April 26, 1945 (in
French, oddly enough) written partially on the backs of several receipts
for the delivery of Zyklon B to Auschwitz. Since then he has been
elevated to the status of "righteous gentile" by the Israelis and by
various Jewish writers for having at least tried to alert the world
regarding the Nazi extermination program. 

The text which follows is a portion of the Gerstein statement as given
in the English translation of Harvest of Hate by Leon Poliakov. Aside
>from  a rather brazen "error" on the part of Poliakov, namely the claim
that 700 to 800 bodies were crowded into 93 square meters instead of
only 25 square meters (which is the way the original documents actually
read) it is probably no worse a translation than any of the other
versions which can be found. (fn. 6) 

SS men pushed the men into the chambers. "Fill it up," Wirth ordered,
700-800 people in 93 [sic] square meters. The doors closed. Then I
understood the reason for the "Heckenholt" sign. Heckenholt was the
driver of the Diesel, whose exhaust was to kill these poor unfortunates.
SS Unterscharführer Heckenholt tried to start the motor. It wouldn't
start! Captain Wirth came up. You could see he was afraid because I was
there to see the disaster. Yes, I saw everything and waited. My
stopwatch clocked it all: 50 minutes, 70 minutes, and the Diesel still
would not start! The men were waiting in the gas chambers. You could
hear them weeping "as though in a synagogue," said Professor
Pfannenstiel, his eyes glued to the window in the wooden door. Captain
Wirth, furious, struck with his whip the Ukrainian who helped
Heckenholt- The Diesel started up after 2 hours and 49 minutes, by my
stopwatch. Twenty-five minutes passed. You could see through the window
that many were already dead, for an electric light illuminated the
interior of the room. All were dead after thirty-two minutes! Jewish
workers on the other side opened the wooden doors. They had been
promised their lives in return for doing this horrible work, plus a
small percentage of the money and valuables collected. The men were
still standing, like columns of stone, with no room to fall or lean.
Even in death you could tell the families, all holding hands. It was
difficult to separate them while emptying the room for the next batch.
The bodies were tossed out, blue, wet with sweat and urine, the legs
smeared with excrement and menstrual blood. (fn. 7) 

It was not a peephole through which Prof. Pfannenstiel supposedly looked
into the gas chamber-it was a window. And it was a window in a wooden
door-not a steel, gas-tight door as one might expect. Apparently, there
were wooden doors on two sides of at least one of the gas chambers. We
are told that the intended victims were still alive after almost three
hours in the gas chambers before the Diesel even started. Surely, there
must have been many air leaks into the chambers or else the Jews would
have been asphyxiated without the aid of any Diesel. 

The men were "standing, like columns of stone with no room to fall or
lean. Even in death you could tell the families, all holding hands."
There is no mention anywhere of the intended victims trying to break
out. Surely Prof. Pfannenstiel, with "his eyes glued to the window,"
would have noticed if some of the people on the other side had been
trying to smash through. 8 But no, there is no mention of anything of
the sort. We are, however, told that the victims had enough presence of
mind to form groups of family members and hold hands. 

According to the last sentence of the text quoted, "the bodies were
tossed out blue, wet with sweat and urine." Here we have a flaw as far
as the death-from-carbon-monoxide theory is concerned because victims of
carbon monoxide poisoning are not blue at all. On the contrary, victims
of carbon monoxide poisoning are a distinctive "cherry red," or "pink."
(fn. 9) This is clearly stated in most toxicology handbooks and is
probably well known to every doctor and to most, if not all, emergency
medical personnel. Carbon monoxide poisoning is actually very common
because of the automobile and accounts for more incidents of poison gas
injury than all other gases combined. 

The Gerstein statement, to its credit, makes no claim that carbon
monoxide was the lethal ingredient in the Diesel exhaust. It is the
exterminationists, i.e., the people who try to uphold the holocaust
story, who have repeatedly stated that death was due to the carbon
monoxide in the Diesel exhaust. The recurrence of references to "bluish"
corpses in several examples of so-called, eyewitness testimony" from
West German trials merely demonstrates the "copy-cat" nature of much of
that testimony. That such testimony has been accepted by West German
courts specializing in holocaust-related cases and by the holocaust
scholars, apparently without any serious challenge, merely demonstrates
the pathetic shoddiness of those trials and of the 'scholarship'
pertaining to the subject in general. 

If the corpses had, indeed, appeared "bluish," death certainly would not
have been due to carbon monoxide. A "bluish" appearance could have been
an indication of death from asphyxiation, i.e., lack of oxygen. In this
article we will investigate that possibility and we will see that in any
Diesel gas chamber, although death from lack of oxygen is very unlikely,
it is nonetheless far more likely than death from carbon monoxide. 

According to Leon Poliakov, who is a French-Jewish historian and one of
the few historians anywhere who has actually written at any length in
support of the holocaust story, "there is little to add to this
description [the Gerstein statement] which holds good for Treblinka,
Sobibor as well as for the Belzec camp. The latter installations were
constructed in almost the same way and also used the exhaust carbon
monoxide gases from Diesel motors as death agents." According to
Poliakov, more than a million and a half people were killed with Diesel
exhaust. (fn. 10)
Toxic Effects of Carbon Monoxide
To investigate the Diesel gas chamber claim, two questions one should
ask are: How much carbon monoxide is actually needed to kill a human
being in half an hour? Does Diesel exhaust ever contain that much carbon

Table 2: Toxic effects of carbon monoxide (fn. 11) Parts of carbon
monoxide per million parts of air Carbon monoxide in per cent
Physiological effects 100 0.01% Concentration allowable for an exposure
of several hours. 400 to 500 0.04%-0.05% Concentration which can be
inhaled for 1 hour without appreciate effect. 600 to 700 0.06%-0.07%
Concentration causing a just appreciable effect after exposure of 1
hour. 1,000 to 1,200 0.10%-0.12% Concentration causing unpleasant but
not dangerous effects after exposure of 1 hour. 1,500 to 2.000 .1 5%-.2%
Dangerous concentrations for exposure of 1 hour. 4,000 and above .4% and
above Concentrations which are fatal in exposure of less than 1 hour. 

Carbon monoxide poisoning has been thoroughly studied since about 1920,
when it was carefully examined in order to determine the ventilation
requirements of tunnels for motor vehicles, particularly for the New
York City metropolitan area in such tunnels as the Holland Tunnel. Since
the early 1940s, it has been widely accepted on the basis of the
research of Yandell Henderson and J.S. Haldane that an average carbon
monoxide concentration of "0.4% and above," as shown on the last fine of
Table 2, is the amount needed to kill people in "less" than one hour of
continuous exposure. (fn. 12) Concentrations of 0.15% to 0.20% are
considered "dangerous," which means they might kill some people in one
hour, especially if those people have, for example, weak hearts. But in
order to commit mass-murder in a gas chamber, one would require a
concentration of poison gas sufficient to kill not merely a "portion" of
any given group of people, but rather, sufficient to kill "all." 

The vagueness introduced by Henderson's use of the term "less" is
unfortunate. It arises from the fact that although Henderson and others
were able to test for non-lethal effects in a laboratory with a high
degree of accuracy -- the lethal effects could not be tested in the same
way. The lethal effects and the corresponding CO levels were determined
on the basis of careful extrapolation of carboxyhemoglobin levels over
time from nonlethal tests on humans and from some lethal tests on
animals. Although the test results for lethal effects are not as precise
as one might wish, they are nonetheless sufficiently accurate to support
some important conclusions about Diesel gas chambers. 
According to the exterminationists, the nasty deed was always done in
less than half an hour. In order to determine how much carbon monoxide
would be needed to kill in only half an hour, instead of a full hour,
one can use the widely accepted rule of thumb known as "Henderson's
Rule," which is: 

% CO x (exposure time) = Constant for any given toxic effect 
In other words, for any given toxic effect, the poisonous concentration
must be inversely proportional to the time of exposure. This means that
to kill in half an hour, one would need twice the concentration that one
would need to kill in a full hour. Applying this rule to the "0.4% and
above" needed to kill in "less than one hour," we get 0.8% and above as
the concentration needed to kill in less than half an hour. (fn. 13) 

Applying the same rule to the 0.15% to 0.20% which is "dangerous" for
one hour of exposure, we get 0.3% to 0.4% as the amount of CO which is
dangerous for half an hour of exposure. 

What all this means is that to have any kind of practical gas chamber
using carbon monoxide as the lethal agent, one would need an average
concentration of at least 0.4% carbon monoxide, but probably closer to
0.8%. We should keep "0.4% to 0.8%" in mind as benchmark numbers to
which we can refer shortly. 

The important consideration is always the "average" concentration over
the entire exposure period and not some quantity of poison measured in
pounds or cubic feet. To try to analyze the problem by determining
actual quantities of CO produced, rather than "concentrations," would be
futile since the little that one is told, in the case of Gerstein's
description, about the actual size of the chamber or chambers is so
incredible to begin with. 

Figure 1 gives the symptoms of various low level carbon monoxide
exposures as a function of time of exposure. The highest CO
concentration which is discussed is 600 ppm (parts per million). 600 ppm
is another way of saying 0.06%. The chart shows that after one hour of
exposure to an average concentration of 600 ppm of GO, one would
experience a headache but not a throbbing headache. Even after 100 hours
of exposure, the worst that one would experience would be a coma but not
death. However, after only half an hour of exposure to 600 ppm, no
symptoms are indicated at all-not even a mild headache. We should keep
"0.06%" in mind as another benchmark number to which we will refer.
The Diesel Engine
It would have been helpful if the holocaust proponents had provided such
data as the engine manufacturer's name or the model number, size and HP
rating of the engines. Although similar information would be considered
essential in the investigation of any ordinary murder, alas, when one is
dealing with holocaust such details are too much to expect. The most
frequent claim seems to have been that the engines were Diesels from
Soviet tanks (most Soviet tanks during the war were Diesel-driven,
including the famous T-34), but it has recently been claimed that at
least one of the engines was from a Soviet submarine. Any submarine
engine would certainly have been a Diesel also. Is In lieu of better
information, one has to investigate the broader and more difficult
question of whether or not any Diesel ever built could possibly have
done the abominable deed. 

If Gerstein had claimed that the carbon monoxide was generated by
gasoline engines, his story might be more credible. Gasoline engines
can, indeed, kill rather easily and with little or no warning because
their exhaust is almost odorless. Although Diesel engines look very much
like gasoline engines, at least to most people, they are actually quite
different. Any mining engineer or mine surveyor should certainly have
been able to easily distinguish between the two types of engines. For
one thing, the sound of Diesels is so distinct that almost anyone can
with a little experience recognize them with his eyes closed. 

Another peculiarity of Diesels is that when in operation they usually
give warning of their presence-their exhaust generally smells terrible.
The intensity of the smell or stench has, no doubt, given rise to the
thoroughly false impression that Diesel exhaust must therefore be very

Although Diesel exhaust is not totally harmless it is, in fact, one of
the least harmful pollutants anywhere except for some possible long
term, carcinogenic effects which are totally irrelevant for the
operation of a gas chamber to commit mass-murder. Diesel emission levels
have always been within the current air emission standards of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency without requiring any modifications or
accessories. Diesels have always produced less than 1% carbon monoxide
which is the current standard for internal combustion engines. Gasoline
engines have only met the same standard after many years of research and
after the addition of many complex accessories and engine modifications.
The Diesels of the 1930s and 1940s were as clean-burning as, if not more
clean than, Diesels of today. 

Figure 2 compares the carbon monoxide emissions from Diesel and gasoline
engines. Gasoline engines are sometimes called spark ignition engines as
in this figure. Clearly, the logical choice between the two types of
engines as a source of carbon monoxide would always have been the
gasoline engine. From spark ignition or gasoline engines, one can easily
get 7% carbon monoxide, but from Diesel engines one can never get even
as much as I% with liquid fuels. 

Carbon monoxide emissions from internal combustion engines are commonly
plotted as functions of air/fuel ratio or fuel/air ratio. 

Fuel/air ratio is merely the reciprocal of air/fuel ratio. It has
generally been accepted by the auto industry and by environmentalists
that Diesel exhaust-gas composition is related chiefly to these ratios
and not to other factors such as rpm. (fn. 17) 

An air/fuel ratio of 100, for example, means that for every pound of
fuel burned, 100 pounds of air are drawn into the engine. However, only
about 15 pounds of air can ever react in any way chemically with each
pound of fuel regardless of the air/fuel ratio or even the type of
engine. This means that at an air/fuel ratio of 100, there are always
about 85 pounds of air which do not react. These 85 pounds of excess air
are blown out of the engine without undergoing any chemical change at
all. As far as the excess air is concerned, the Diesel engine is nothing
more than an unusual kind of blower or compressor. 

Gasoline engines always operate with a deficiency of air. As a result of
this deficiency, the reaction process in a gasoline engine can never go
to completion, a relatively large proportion of carbon monoxide to
carbon dioxide is always formed. 

Diesels always operate with an excess of air. At idle, Diesels operate
with air/fuel ratios as high as 200:1. At full load, the air/fuel ratio
is only down to 18:1. Because of the abundance of air, there is always
far greater opportunity for the fuel to burn to completion, thereby
causing very little carbon monoxide to be produced as compared with
gasoline engines. Also, what little carbon monoxide is produced in the
cylinders of a Diesel is subsequently diluted by the excess air. 

As soon as one acquires an understanding of the differences between
Diesel and gasoline engines, it becomes obvious that the logical choice
as a source of carbon monoxide would always have been the gasoline
engine. The Diesel engine is, and always was, an inherently ludicrous
choice as a source of carbon monoxide. 

There are basically two types of Diesel engines: divided combustion
chamber engines and undivided combustion chamber engines. 

The divided chamber category of Diesel engines is generally subdivided
into precombustion chamber designs and turbulent cell designs. 

Figure 3 shows a pair of emission curves for Diesels with divided
combustion chambers that were the result of exceptionally careful and
extensive tests made in the early 1940s in the United States by the U.S.
Bureau of Mines to determine whether or not Diesel engines could operate
in underground mines without endangering miners. l) The conclusion of
the- U.S. Bureau of Mines as stated in many reports throughout the
intervening years has always been that Diesels may operate underground
in non-coal mines subject to USBM approval of the engines and the
mechanical arrangements in which the engines are employed. 

The lower curve in Figure 3 is for a precombustion chamber Diesel. The
upper curve is for a turbulent cell Diesel. The lowest fuel/air ratio
always corresponds approximately to idle and also to a no-load
condition. For the pre-combustion chamber Diesel at idle, the carbon
monoxide level is less than 0.0211/o. For the turbulent cell Diesel at
idle, its carbon monoxide level is barely 0.06%. What this means is that
at idle both of these types of Diesels could not produce enough carbon
monoxide to even give a headache after half an hour of continuous

As one starts to impose loads on these engines, thereby, in effect,
increasing the fuel/air ratio's, the carbon monoxide levels actually
decrease at first. Only as one approaches full load, represented by the
solid heavy line in the figure, do the carbon monoxide levels rise
significantly to a maximum of 0.1% at a fuel/air ratio of .055. A CO
concentration of 0.1% is still well below the benchmark range of
numbers, "0.4% to 0.8%." In other words, neither of these engines could
possibly have produced enough carbon monoxide to kill anyone in half an
hour regardless of the loads on the engines.
Diesel Smoke
One characteristic of Diesels is that they tend to smoke. This is not
due to any inherent inefficiency of Diesels. On the contrary, Diesels
are as a rule extremely efficient. The smoke is primarily the result of
the nature of Diesel combustion and the heavier fuels which are used-as
compared with gasoline engines. 

The solid heavy line in Figure 3 represents the smoke limit that
manufacturers have found necessary to protect their engines from
excessive wear due to smoke and solids accumulations within the
cylinders. As a practical matter, a Diesel cannot be operated to the
right of the solid heavy line with liquid fuels. In Figure 3 as well as
in Figure 5, the solid heavy line is at a fuel/air ratio of 0.055. Many
manufacturers are more conservative and limit their engines to fuel/air
ratios below 0.050. 

Diesel engines can operate safely at fuel/air ratios greater than 0.055
only if they are burning a clean gaseous fuel; this is the only way to
avoid the buildup of solid material within the cylinders. The data shown
for fuel/air ratios above 0.055 were only gathered because the
researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines chose to test the engines for
theoretical reasons with gaseous fuel far beyond the normal, full load
settings of the respective engines. 

The data for clean gaseous fuel is irrelevant to our analysis because if
the Germans had had a gaseous fuel for the Diesel, they could have sent
that gas directly to the gas chamber. To have used a Diesel engine as
some kind of intermediate step would have made no sense at all. Such an
arrangement could only have made the gas far less toxic. Since carbon
monoxide is highly combustible, any carbon monoxide going into the
Diesel would have been largely consumed within the engine. 

Diesel smoke contains a liquid phase and a solid phase. The liquid phase
generally gets blown out of the engine with the exhaust and, therefore,
does no harm to the engine. But if enough solid material is also
produced, and rapidly enough, some of that material will accumulate in
the cylinders where in just a few minutes it can severely damage the
piston rings and valves and cause the engine to simply self-destruct and
stop. As the graph shows, the amount of solids produced by the engines
increases dramatically just beyond a fuel/air ratio of 0.055. For this
reason, manufacturers as a rule equip the fuel injection pumps with
stops so that the engines can only operate below 0.055 or 0.050. 
Operating any Diesel under any substantial load, regardless of the
particular design or engine type, would have led to the production of
significant amounts of smoke. Smoke is generally also noticeable
immediately after start-up, even at idle or under light load, when the
engine has not yet had time to reach its normal operating temperature.
It should be no great surprise that there is no mention of any smoke
>from  the Diesel-black, white, dense or otherwise-anywhere in the
Gerstein statement or in any of the postwar trial testimony.
Undivided Chamber Diesels
Figure 5 shows that an undivided chamber Diesel still produces only
about 0.03% carbon monoxide at idle, which is not enough to cause a
headache after half an hour of exposure. However, as increasing loads
are imposed on such an engine, the carbon monoxide levels do eventually
rise rather sharply, and at full load, represented by the heavy vertical
line, the carbon monoxide level is indeed about 0.4%. In other words,
here we have a Diesel which looks as if it could have been used to
commit mass-murder in half an hour. 

The problem for this engine, and for au Diesels, is that to operate at
full load continuously for long periods, such as half an hour at a time,
would involve severe risks of fouling and damage from accumulated solids
inside the cylinders. If operating at lower and safer fuel/air ratios
than 0.055, which would also be lower loads, the carbon monoxide
emission levels drop very dramatically. For example, at 80% of full -
load, which is generally regarded as a safe maximum for continuous
operation and which occurs at a fuel/air ratio of about 0.045, the
carbon monoxide level is only 0.13%. According to Henderson's rule and
index figures and some simple calculation, 0.13% carbon monoxide would
not even be "dangerous" for half an hour of exposure. 

That Figure 3 and Figure 5 are indeed typical of all Diesel engines over
the last fifty years is attested to by the fact that these particular
curves have been referred to and are still being referred to in
countless journals and books on Diesel emissions to this very day. In
other words, there are no better examples of Diesel emissions. To be
sure, there are many other test results which one can find in reputable
automotive journals such as the Society of Automotive Engineers
Transactions. But if one takes the trouble to look through the SAE
Transactions of the last forty years, as well as through other journals,
he will not find any examples of worse carbon monoxide emissions than
Figure 5. Our analysis of Figure 5 represents the worst case that can be
found anywhere for any Diesel engine.
Engine Loading
Aside from the smoke problem, merely to impose a full load on any engine
is far from easy. For example, if one has a truck, a full load can be
imposed on the engine by first filling the truck with a heavy cargo and
then racing the vehicle up a steep hill at maximum speed with the
accelerator to the floor. Under that condition one would probably be
putting out about 0.40/o from the exhaust pipe if the truck's engine
were an undivided chamber Diesel. However, if the truck is parked in a
driveway, it is far more difficult to impose a full load on the engine.
Simply "racing" the engine with the transmission in neutral" will put no
more than a few per cent of load on the engine. Letting the clutch slip
and stepping on the accelerator may impose a somewhat greater load on
the engine but the clutch will rapidly burn out, jacking up the rear end
of the vehicle and applying the brakes while racing the engine will
impose a somewhat greater load but the brake linings will rapidly burn

The only way to realistically impose a significant load on any engine is
by attaching to the engine some kind of brake dynamometer or other
loading device, such as a generator with an electrical load. 

Brake dynamometers could have been available and the Germans must have
had many, but they are hardly the kind of equipment that one finds in
the typical auto repair shop. They are generally only available in well-
equipped engineering testing laboratories. They cost much more than the
engines to which they are attached, since they are not mass-produced. 

A generator arrangement seems more plausible since places such as
Treblinka and Belzec would have needed electricity, even if only to keep
the barbed wire charged and the lights burning. However, such an
arrangement suggests a continuous operation of both the generator and
the Diesel which is contrary to the Gerstein statement. According to
that statement, the engine was unable even to start for almost three
hours prior to the actual gassing. There is nothing in the statement to
even remotely suggest that the engine served any other purpose than to
kill Jews. If it had had a dual purpose, for example, to also drive a
generator, one could have expected some comment about the lights going
on as the Diesel started-but there is nothing of the sort.
Aldehydes, Nitrous Oxides and Hydrocarbons
There are other pollutants in Diesel exhaust besides carbon monoxide.
These are aldehydes, nitrous oxides, and hydrocarbons, which are indeed
harmful. The smell or stench for which Diesels are notorious is not
caused by carbon monoxide-carbon monoxide is completely odorless. The
smell is caused by trace amounts of certain hydrocarbons and aldehydes
which the most modern analytical instruments can just barely identify,
let alone measure. The sensitivity of the human nose to these compounds
is, however, extremely high and out of all proportion to the actual
quantities present. 

Nitrous oxides can form nitric acid by reacting with the moisture in the
lungs which can, in turn, cause cancer after many months of exposure.
One of the nitrous oxides formed by Diesels is tear gas, which is
extremely irritating. The possible carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of
nitrous oxides and certain other ingredients in Diesel exhaust may
become the basis for special emission standards for Diesels in the not
too distant future. All these effects are, however, long-term and
totally irrelevant for mass-murder in a gas chamber. 

Although Diesel exhaust is relatively harmless, inhaling it is not a
pleasant experience. If Diesel exhaust were introduced into a large
meeting room, it would not take very long before everyone present would
feel driven by an overwhelming desire to get out, regardless of how safe
he or she were convinced the exhaust really was. And yet, the Gerstein-
statement makes no mention of any attempt to break out of the gas
chamber or even to break the "window." We are told rather that the
victims formed family groups and held hands.
Oxygen in Diesel Exhaust
If the Jews were not murdered with carbon monoxide from Diesel exhaust,
could they have died instead from the effects of reduced oxygen in
Diesel exhaust? Such a theory would at least be consistent with the
claim that the corpses were "blue." A bluish coloring to certain parts
of a corpse is indeed a symptom of death from lack of oxygen. This
theory, however, does not hold up very well because of the fact that
Diesels always operate with excess air. 

Normal air contains 21% oxygen. In Figure 6 we see that the oxygen
concentration corresponding to idle in the exhaust of any Diesel
(divided or undivided chamber), shown near the top of the chart at a
fuel/air ratio of 0.01, is 18%, which is just a few per cent less than
one finds in normal air. At full load, which corresponds to a fuel/air
ratio of 0.055, the oxygen concentration in the exhaust of any Diesel is

Probably the best discussion of the effects of reduced oxygen levels or
asphyxia is provided by Henderson and Haggard: 

Second Stage. When the oxygen is diminished to values between 14 and 10
per cent the higher values of the brain are affected. Consciousness
continues, but judgement becomes faulty. Severe injuries, such as burns,
bruises and even broken bones, may cause no pain. Emotions, particularly
ill temper and pugnacity, and less often hilarity, or an alteration of
moods, are aroused with abnormal readiness ... 

Third Stage. When the oxygen is diminished to values between 10 and 6
per cent, nausea and vomiting may appear. The subject loses the ability
to perform any vigorous muscular movements, or even to move at all.
Bewilderment and loss of consciousness follow, either with fainting or a
rigid, glassy-eyed coma. If revived, the subject may have no
recollection of this state, or an entirely erroneous belief as to what
has happened. Up to this stage, or even in it, he may be wholly unaware
that anything is wrong ... 

Fourth Stage. When the oxygen is diminished below 6 per cent,
respiration consists of gasps separated by apneas of increasing
duration. Convulsive movements may occur. Then the breathing stops, but
the heart may continue to beat for a few minutes and then develop
ventricular fibrillation, or stand still in extreme dilation. (fn. 23) 

According to Haidane and Priestley, "air containing less than 9.5 per
cent of oxygen would ordinarily cause disablement within half an hour."
(fn. 24) Disablement is still not death. 

It is clear that there is no magic number below which death would occur,
or above which life would continue. However, for any gas chamber relying
upon reduced oxygen as the killing method, one would have to reduce the
oxygen to below 9.5% perhaps even below 6%. 

>From  Figure 6 we see that to reduce the oxygen concentration in the
exhaust to just 9%, any Diesel would have to operate at a fuel/air ratio
of about 0.040, which corresponds to about 3/4 of full load. To reduce
the oxygen concentration to as low as 6%, which would be the fourth
stage according to Henderson and Haggard and would almost certainly be
the condition needed to kill "all" members of any intended group of
victims, any Diesel would have to operate at a fuel/air ratio of about
0.048, which is close to full load. In other words, any Diesel gas
chamber relying on the reduction of oxygen as a killing method would
have to operate at more than 3/4 of full load, but probably closer to
full load. 

>From  the above it should be obvious that over most of their operating
ranges, Diesels discharge sufficient oxygen so that one can literally
inhale pure Diesel exhaust and survive on the oxygen in the exhaust.
>From  idle to at least 3/4 of full load, Diesel exhaust contains
sufficient oxygen to sustain human life for at least half an hour.
Carbon Dioxide
If the Jews were not killed with carbon monoxide or from a lack of
oxygen, could they have died instead from the effects of carbon dioxide? 

Carbon dioxide is not really any more poisonous than ordinary water.
Most toxicology handbooks do not even mention it. When mentioned at all,
it is generally classified as a "non-toxic, simple asphyxiant." There
are occasional accidental fatalities where carbon dioxide is directly
involved. Death in almost all such cases is caused by a lack of oxygen.
The lack of oxygen is caused by the fact that the carbon dioxide is much
heavier than oxygen and will, especially in an enclosed space, displace
oxygen in the same way that water will displace air in the lungs of a
drowning man. The cause of death, chemically, in both situations is not
carbon dioxide but rather the lack of oxygen in the blood. One symptom
of this kind of death is a bluish appearance of the skin. 

Carbon dioxide can be beneficial and therapeutic. 2-5 It is commonly
used in clinical medicine as a harmless stimulant for respiration, for
which purpose it is supplied under pressure in cylinders (Carbogen)
containing oxygen and 7% carbon dioxide. (fn. 26) Normally, when a
person exhales, the air leaving the lungs contains about 5.5% carbon

Levels of 3% carbon dioxide are quite tolerable for exposures lasting
several days. For example, in the 1950s the U.S. Navy experimented with
gas mixtures containing 3% carbon dioxide and 15% oxygen, i.e., 25% less
oxygen than in normal air, for use in American submarines with exposures
lasting up to several weeks. (fn. 27) 

For Diesel engines, the carbon dioxide level at or near idle is only
about 2% and gradually increases to about 12% at full load as shown in
Figure 6. A carbon dioxide level of 12% may cause cardiac irregularity
and may, therefore, be dangerous for people with weak hearts. Gasoline
engines, in contrast to Diesels, produce 12% already at idle. In
general, if enough oxygen is available, a carbon dioxide level even as
high as 12% is not likely to cause death. However, when the carbon
dioxide level is this high in Diesel exhaust, the corresponding oxygen
level is dangerously low. 

The principal danger to life from Diesel exhaust arises not from the
abundance of carbon dioxide, nor even from carbon monoxide, but rather
>from  the lack of oxygen.
Diesel Gas Chamber Operation
If the exhaust pipe from a Diesel engine is connected to a gas chamber,
the carbon monoxide concentration will initially be extremely low and
the oxygen level will initially be high. (Since the doors of a gas
chamber must be opened to allow the intended victims to enter, fresh air
must enter the chamber also.) As soon as the Diesel starts and as more
and more Diesel exhaust is introduced into the chamber, the carbon
monoxide concentration will gradually rise to the level directly inside
the exhaust pipe of the Diesel engine without ever being able to exceed
that level. Exactly how long it would take before the oxygen and carbon
monoxide levels in the gas chamber equal the levels in the engine
exhaust pipe is impossible to determine in the case of the Gerstein
account because the information about the engine and gas chamber is so

To got a better idea as to how effective-or ineffective-a Diesel gas
chamber such as that described by Gerstein might have been in practice,
we can analyze the problem by dividing the half-hour into two periods: a
period of "rising CO concentration" followed by a period of "constant CO
concentration." Since we do not know the size or rpm of the engine, or
the size of the chamber, or the amount of leakage into or out of the
chamber, we cannot possibly determine the actual duration of each of
these two periods. Nonetheless, we do know that when they are added
together, the sum must equal half an hour. 

For the "constant period," the deadliest arrangement would use an
undivided chamber Diesel which could give a carbon monoxide
concentration as high as 0.4%. 

For the "rising" period, the carbon monoxide concentration would be near
zero initially and no more than 0.4% at the end. When we average these
two numbers together, we get a maximum, average concentration for the
"rising" period of 0.2% assuming a steady rise in carbon monoxide. 

The combined average over the entire half-hour cannot be determined
precisely because we simply do not know the duration of the "rising" and
"constant" periods respectively. But we can be sure that it would always
be some number less than 0.4%. If the "rising" period had only been of
short duration, the combined average for half an hour would be only
slightly less than 0.4%. 

If the "rising" period had been longer, the combined average would be

If the "rising" and "constant" periods had each lasted for fifteen
minutes, the combined average concentration for the entire half hour
would be less than 0.3%. According to our previous analysis of toxic
effects, 0.3% of CO (for half an hour) is only "dangerous" which means
that it could have killed no more than a portion of any group of
intended victims. 

Without knowing the type and size of the engine, and the amount of
leakage into the gas chamber, we cannot possibly determine the exact
carbon monoxide concentration in the gas chamber. We do know, however,
that the average would always be less than 0.4%. It would always be less
than the benchmark number which was established previously as the
minimum amount required in the Gerstein-Diesel gas chamber. In other
words, the carbon monoxide from any Diesel ever built would by itself
never have been able to kill more than a portion of any group of
intended victims even if the Diesel were of the undivided chamber design
and even if it were operated at full load. 

A similar analysis of the effects of reduced oxygen would show that one
would have had to operate any Diesel ever built at some indeterminate
level above 3/4 of full load before the arrangement could have been even
marginally lethal due to lack of oxygen. 

An analysis of the combined effects of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide
and reduced oxygen might be possible on the basis of the research of
Haldane and Henderson, but it would not give any significantly different
results than what has already been concluded on the basis of reduced
oxygen acting alone. The reason is that the carbon monoxide and carbon
dioxide levels are just too low to make much difference. 

In any event, any Diesel ever built would have had to operate at a
minimum of 1/4 of full load in order for the Diesel gas chamber to have
been even marginally effective from any possible combination of toxic
Noise and vibration
In addition to their smoke and smell, Diesel engines are also notorious
for their intense noise and vibration. Because of their higher
compression ratios, lower rpm's, and the type of combustion, the amount
of vibration that Diesels produce is substantially greater than that of
any comparably sized gasoline engines. The noise and vibration are among
the major reasons why Diesels have not generally been used in

If the 12 cylinder, V-type Diesel engine from a typical Soviet T-34 tank
with a rated capacity of 500 HP had been mounted on the floor of a small
building and had been operated for half an hour at more than 3/4 of full
load, i.e., at more than 375 HP, the noise and vibration would have been
at least as noteworthy and as wildly spectacular as the wailing of any
Jews-and yet, there is no mention of any such noise or vibration in the
Gerstein statement or in any of the postwar trial testimony.
Diesels for Mass-Murder?
Without some understanding of the basic characteristics of Diesel
engines, the method that would have come to mind most readily for any
would-be mass-murder would have been to simply mount a Diesel on the
floor of a building and direct the exhaust into some adjoining rooms
without any provision for artificial load on the engine. Such an
arrangement would have annoyed the hell out of any group of intended
victims, but would have given them nothing worse than a headache. The
headache would have been due to the stench and smoke and noise but
certainly not to carbon monoxide or lack of oxygen. As a method for
committing mass-murder, it would have been a fiasco. 

For any Diesel arrangement to have been even marginally effective for
mass-murder would have required an exceptionally well-informed
collection of individuals to know and do all that was necessary. They
would have had to be familiar with the carbon monoxide and oxygen
emission curves for their particular engine. Such information is
probably not known even today by most engineers, despite all the popular
concern over air pollution. The gas chamber designers would also have
had to know how to impose and maintain an engine load of more than 3/4
of full load on their engine since anything less would just not have
been enough. If they had overloaded the engine or operated it for too
long at or near full load (more than 80% of full load is generally
considered unsafe for continuous operation), they might after each
gassing have had to overhaul and, perhaps, replace the engine because of
fouling and damage from engine smoke. Merely to gather and properly
assemble the appropriate equipment, including the equipment for imposing
and controlling an artificial load, would have been a major undertaking
which would have required the expertise of experienced engineers, not
just ordinary auto mechanics. The mounting of the engine on the floor of
the building would have required a proper foundation with some provision
to isolate vibrations so as to avoid tearing the building apart. 

The all-important question is: if any persons had been smart enough and
resourceful enough to know and do all that was necessary to make a
workable Diesel gas chamber, why would they have bothered to try to use
a Diesel engine in the first place? For all their efforts they would
have had a gas chamber which at the very worst would still have been
only marginally effective at its morbid task. For all their efforts they
would have had an average concentration of less than 0.4% carbon
monoxide and more than 4% oxygen. Any common, ordinary gasoline engine
without any special attachments would easily have given them ten times
as much carbon monoxide at idle as any comparably sized Diesel at full
load. Any common, ordinary gasoline engine would easily have given them
7% carbon monoxide and less than 1% oxygen. If one had tampered with the
carburetor, one could probably have had as much as 12% carbon monoxide
by merely turning one small screw, namely the idle-mixture adjustment

Comparing the two types of engines, with both operating at idle or under
light load, the difference is even more dramatic. At idle or under light
load any common, ordinary gasoline engine without any special
attachments would easily have given more than one hundred times as much
carbon monoxide as any comparably sized Diesel. 

The Diesel gas chamber story is incredible on these grounds alone.
However, the story becomes even more incredible when one discovers that
far better sources of carbon monoxide, better even than gasoline
engines, were readily available to the Germans. Those other sources did
not require either Diesel fuel or gasoline.
The Gaswagons
During World War II all European countries relied for most of their non-
military vehicular transport needs upon vehicles which burned neither
gasoline nor oil, but burned solid fuels such as wood, charcoal, or coal
instead. The solid fuel, which was generally wood, was first converted
into a mixture of combustible gases by burning in a generator, usually
mounted at the rear of the vehicle. The gases were then withdrawn from
the generator and burned in a modified gasoline or Diesel engine located
at the front of the vehicle. The combustible gas produced in this way
always contained between 18% and 35% carbon monoxide. 

In English-speaking countries, these vehicles were generally called
"producer gas vehicles." However, they could just as appropriately have
been called "poison gas vehicles" because that is precisely what they
were-the gas which they produced was extremely poisonous. The operation
of these vehicles required special safety procedures as well as special
government approved training and licensing of the many thousands of
drivers who drove these vehicles daily throughout most of the war in
German-occupied Europe. (fn. 29) 

In German-speaking parts of Europe, the producer gas vehicles were
called "Gaswagen." If they burned wood, which most of them did, they
were generally called "Holzgaswagen," which literally translated means
"wood gas wagons." The abundance of the gaswagons throughout German-
occupied Europe and the intensity with which the Germans were developing
ever newer vehicles and applications of the producer gas technology is a
fact which undermines the holocaust story in general. Had the Germans
ever intended to commit moss-murder with carbon monoxide, they certainly
would have employed the producer gas technology long before they would
have ever used anything as idiotic as Diesel exhaust. Surely, Eichmann
and the other "transportation experts" involved with the "final solution
of the Jewish problem," which was to a great extent a transportation
problem, would have been well aware of these vehicles and of their
unique features. Surely, they would have used the "gaswagons" to kill
the Jews had there ever been any intent to kill the Jews with poison

The gaswagons are not the "gas vans" which were allegedly used for mass-
murder in Chelmno, and by the Einsatzgruppen in Russia, despite the fact
that the terminology is identical in German. 

The murderous "gas vans" were, as can be seen in all of the "evidence"
pertaining to the gas van story, conventional trucks which supposedly
used "only" the exhaust of the engines as the killing agent. The basis
of the "gas van" story is a strange document known as "PS-501" which is,
in my opinion, a forgery based on an innocuous letter from SS
Untersturmführer (First Lieutenant) Becker to SS Obersturmbannführer
(Lieutenant Colonel) Walter Rauff, discussing some of the many problems
that must have occurred with gaswagons. (fn. 30) The letter was
apparently rewritten and the text partially changed so as to give it a
sinister meaning. A thorough analysis of the gaswagons and PS-501 is,
however, beyond the scope of this article. (fn. 31) 

The gaswagons, which would have been far superior for mass murder to any
conventionally powered vehicles, including the "gas vans," traveled on
all the roads of Europe and into and from the concentration camps daily.
And yet, these potentially perfect mass-murder devices have never been
implicated by the promoters of the holocaust story in even a single

The gas van story is merely an adaptation by the holocaust propagandists
of some documentary materials related to the perfectly innocent use of
producer gas vehicles, supported of course by appropriate "eyewitness"
testimony generated after the war. It is within the gas van story that
one clearly sees in miniature the evolutionary process of the larger,
general holocaust story.
Coal Gasification
In addition to the producer gas technology, the Germans had the world's
most advanced coal gasification technology. (fn. 32) One of the first
steps in most of the coal gasification processes was to produce carbon
monoxide from coal. The carbon monoxide could then be used either as a
fuel or as an intermediate step in the synthesis of other products. 

Because of Germany's isolation from adequate sources of petroleum and
natural rubber, she had converted much of her industry already during
World War I to use coal as a substitute source of hydrocarbons for
making synthetic liquid fuels as well as a vast assortment of chemical
substances, including synthetic rubber. The quantities of carbon
monoxide that were produced as part of this technology measured in the
millions of tons and would have been more than enough to kill the entire
population of Europe many times over. 

Coal gasification plants were located in all of Germany's industrial
areas. One region containing several such plants was Silesia, where the
abundance of coal had for more than a century been the basis of that
region's industry. One Silesian facility was the I.G. Farben plant at
Auschwitz, a small portion of whose 

carbon monoxide could easily have been diverted through a small pipeline
to Auschwitz-Birkenau only a few miles away. Of course, no one alleges
that carbon monoxide was ever used for mass-murder at Auschwitz although
that would have been an ideal place for it. For mass-murder at
Auschwitz, the Germans supposedly used a completely different substance,
Zyklon B.
Although it would be most convenient for the revisionist camp in the
holocaust controversy to be able to say that mass-murder could not
possibly have been committed with Diesel exhaust in half an hour, that
simply cannot be said with total accuracy. It must be conceded that it
would have been remotely possible to commit the deeds in question with
Diesels. However, it would certainly have required an inordinate amount
of expertise and determination and, for all their efforts, the would-be
murderers would have had an arrangement which at best (worst?) would
still have been only marginally effective at its morbid task. From a
practical perspective the whole idea of perfecting a Diesel arrangement
for such a purpose would have been contrary to all common sense. 

One is sometimes told in the Holocaust literature that the reason the
Germans used gas chambers to murder the Jews was to avoid the emotional
strain on soldiers who would have otherwise had to kill the Jews by
shooting them by the thousands. It is suggested that the gas chamber
method was more efficient somehow. No doubt, an efficient killing method
could have been developed- but not with Diesel exhaust. From au the
evidence we have seen regarding Diesel exhaust and its effects, a more
hideously clumsy, and inefficient, method of committing mass-murder
would be hard to imagine. Although it is conceivable that some deranged
minds may have tried for a time to commit murder with Diesel exhaust,
after a few tries it would have become apparent to even the most

From Thu Sep 12 16:14:18 PDT 1996
Article: 64803 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
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Subject: PHOTO NO 2 [f.gif] see KEY TO THE PHOTOS [5/5]
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Subject: b) they were shown to be lying
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9. On 15th July 1947 I recieved a general charge sheet and was
with my co-accused to the Bunker I, camp Dachau.
It was impossible for me to procure any exonerating material there. One
cut off from the outside world. 
Letters to relatives or acquaintances in which something was said about 
witnesses or the approaching trial were so cut up that the receiver
only scraps from which he could glean nothing. For that reason it was
impossible for me to procure any defense material. Requests for special 
letters to witnesses or prior reports to the defense lawyer were
Already in little things they were making the procuring of exonerating 
material impossible. Also the time before the beginning of the trial was
too short to obtain any material.

10. On 6 August 1947 the trial began, and lasted until 21 August.

11. The prosecution witnesses had every support of the prosecuting 
authorities. When they were shown to be lying, up jumped the prosecutor,
Lindberg, and accused the defense lawyer of intimidating the witnesses
trying to make out that they were liars.
12. In reality, the opposite was the truth. Defense witnesses were 
intimidated by the braying of the prosecutor or were branded as false.
 happened that defense witnesses were threatened and beaten by foreign 
former prisoners so that the former had no more interest in appearing
the defense. They were afraid that they too would be accused of
which the foreign prisoners were quite capable of, as they hated
German and were out for revenge.

Perats statement is cited on Pages 258 to 263 in Innocent at Dachau by 
Joseph Halow.]

INNOCENT AT DACHAU is available from:-
The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659
PS more to follow.

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 16:14:19 PDT 1996
Article: 64805 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: The ARTICLE that MCVAY Couldn't Answer.
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:07:51 +0100
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by Carlo Mattogno 

1) The New Thesis of Jean-Claude Pressac:

In the section headed The Extermination of Hungarian Jews in our study,
Auschwitz: The End of a Legend (pp. 31-32), we demonstrated that the
Pressac thesis maintaining mass extermination of Hungarian Jews at
Auschwitz is historically unfounded based upon two arguments:

1) The material impossibility of carrying out actual cadaver- cremations
of such alleged masses of homicidally gassed persons.
2) The Allied aerial reconnaissance photographs of 31 May 1944 which do
not reveal any extermination activity.

Our reasoning must have impressed Pressac (1) because now he presents a
radical revision of his thesis on pages 169 to 173 of Le macchine dello
sterminio,(2) which does not purport to be a revised edition, but merely
that it is supposed to be an Italian language translation of his
original French language book, Les CrÈmatoires d'Auschwitz: La
machinerie du meuertre de masse. But it IS different. Realizing the
material impossibility of an extermination of 292,000 Hungarian Jews, as
he had previously maintained, Pressac now has sought to salvage the
extermination principle by reducing the number of Jews deported to
Auschwitz from Hungary. In this regard, he affirms as follows:
The reports of Lieutenant Colonel Laszlo Ferenczy of the Hungarian
Police indicate that from 15 May to 8 July 1944, 148 convoys containing
483,000 (3) Jews were deported from Hungary with an average of 3,000
persons per convoy. The scheduled destination: Auschwitz, according to a
telegram of 24 April to German diplomat Edmund Veesenmayer. Routinely
mentioned as destinations of the Hungarian Jews: labor camps situated
within the territory of the Reich and subject to the authority of the
Reichsf¸hrer SS (according to Ritter); Upper Silesia, and the General
Gouvernement (according to Eberhard von Thadden). 
We would like to point out that the reports of Lieutenant Colonel Laszlo
Ferenczy refer to deportation of 434,351 Jews in 147 trains, (4) not of
438,000 in 148 trains. 

Then Pressac outlines the following status quaestionis [position]:
In the first Calendar of Auschwitz which Danuta Czech published in 1964,
are recorded 91 convoys from Hungary which had reached Auschwitz between
2 May and 18 October 1944 (limit dates).
It was estimated then that the 480,000 (5) deportees indicated by
Ferenczy had actually arrived at Auschwitz, but that the number of
convoys was less, and their load greater (4,800 per train). The
Auschwitz Museum prefers not to give an explanation as to the gap
between the two durations of deportations of approximately two months
according to Ferenczy, compared to four months claimed by them [the
Auschwitz Museum]. Since only about 28,000 Jews, both men and women,
were registered at Auschwitz, the other 410,000 were considered
homicidally gassed; signifying that 94% of the deportees were liquidated
upon arrival, and that only 6% were selected as capable for work
(percentages offered by researcher G. Wellers in 1983). For 25 years
these figures have been spread around the world and accepted as
In the 2nd Kalendarium by Danuta Czech published by Rohwolt in 1989, no
longer is there any more mention of 53 Hungarian convoys arriving at
Auschwitz between 2 May and 11 July 1944. About 40 convoys have
disappeared. This "evaporation" explains with a misconception, the so-
called "selection" among the Hungarian Jews at Auschwitz, which is
revealed from documents discovered in the Arolsen Center.
The reception of a convoy at Birkenau proceeded as follows: the
unloading of arrivees at the "ramp"; the separation into two columns,
one of women and children; the other of men. Selection was carried out
by one or two SS medical doctors functioning near the center of the
platform after the two columns were divided into four columns: two of
women and children, and two of men. Those unable to work went ahead in
function of availability toward Crematories II, III, or V, and [were]
liquidated. The able men and women were either immediately registered
and interned in Auschwitz (especially the men); or transferred as soon
as possible to other camps of the Reich without being registered; or
finally-for the men and the women- thrust into the camp sectors of
Birkenau, the BIII (Durchgangslager) and the BIIc (camp of the Hungarian
Jews); always without being registered. Whenever the Auschwitz work
office needed manpower, or received a request from the outside, the
select registered workers were directed to the work Kommandos of the
camp or elsewhere, from the Jews of BIII and BIIc. It is these internal
and external transfers that took place after 11 July (the end of
deportations of Hungarians to Auschwitz), which caused the erroneous
belief that because of registration, the trains were still arriving from
Hungary. (pp. 170, 171).
2) The Pressac Basis for his New Thesis: 

In the first German edition of the Auschwitz Kalendarium (6) there are
91 convoys of Jews coming from Hungary between 2 May and 18 October
1944, which resulted in a total registration of 29,159 people. (7) As
far as the destiny of the non-registered people, the Kalendarium
invariably states: "Die from  which he subtracts incorrectly 150,000 deportees from Poland, just
as in the previous case; but he also reduces from 438,000 to 240,000,
the number of Hungarian Jews deported to Auschwitz; thereby obtaining
667,200 to 747,200 deportees:

1,095,200 - 150,000 - (438,000 - 160,000) = 667,200;
1,095,200 - 150,000 - (438,000 - 240,000) = 747,200.

Jean-Claude Pressac rounds out these figures to 670,000 and 750,000,
subtracting the 200,000 registered from them, he obtains 470,000 to
550,000 homicidally gassed Jews. He puts the total death count as

Non-registered Jews who were gassed...........470,000 to 550,000
Deceased registered Detainees.......................126,000 - 
(Jews and non-Jews) 
Soviet Prisoners of War.....................................15,000 - 
Miscellaneous (Gypsies etc.)............................20,000 - 
Total ..................................................................
631,000 to 711,000 

In the calculation of the total death count, Pressac does not take into
consideration Jewish detainees who were transferred to other
concentration camps. The Hungarian Jews transferred from the
Durchgangslager must be included in this category.

As we have seen, Pressac estimates that at least 80,000 Hungarian Jews
escaped homicidal gassing; 28,000 of those registered at Auschwitz, and
52,000 who were not registered and were transferred to other camps.
Those must be subtracted from the 670,000 to 750,000 alleged homicidally
gassed who were unregistered. So the Pressac number of alleged
homicidally gassed Jews would be between 418,000 to 498,000.

We also take note that Pressac has also changed once again the number of
alleged homicidally gassed Hungarian Jews, now putting it at 80,000 to

Before presenting our conclusion, we summarize in a synoptic table,
Jean-Claude Pressac regarding Jews he alleges were homicidally "gassed"
at Auschwitz:

Year 1989: 938,000
-of whom 200,000 to 250,000 were Hungarian Jews.

Year 1993: 630,000 
- of whom 320,000 were Hungarian Jews.

Year 1994: 550,000 
- of whom 80,000 to 160,000 to 470,000 were Hungarian Jews.

So, from 1989 to 1994, Jean-Claude Pressac has thus reduced the number
of homicidally gassed Jews by 50% from 938,000 to 470,000!

Our study, Auschwitz: The End of a Legend concludes with the observation
that since Jean-Claude Pressac wanted to study the question of Auschwitz
in a technical manner, he
had to accept revisionist methodology, according to which, where
testimony and technology disagree, it is technology which prevails.
Pressac has applied this principle by reducing the number of alleged
victims of alleged homicidal gassing, precisely because of its
incompatibility with the capacity (craftily inflated by him) of the
crematory ovens. In this manner, he has opened an irreparable leak in
traditional historiography, because technology reveals the material
impossibility of mass extermination at Auschwitz-Birkenau. If therefore,
Pressac wants to be coherent in his technical stance, all that remains
for him is to accept this conclusion. If he does not accept it, he can
only go backwards, declaring, in acceptance of that appeal of those
French historians, that one must not inquire as to how such alleged mass
extermination was technically possible (p.90).
In Le macchine dello sterminio, Jean-Claude Pressac has gone one step
further towards this conclusion. Pressac has understood that
extermination of the Hungarian Jews would have also been technically
impossible on the basis of the huge cremation capacity that he
attributed to the Birkenau facilities; but he did not want to draw the
extreme consequences from such an acknowledgment.

To pull himself out of trouble, he had only two ways out: either
increase cremation capacity, or diminish the number of deportees.
Pressac chose the second option.

The drastic reduction of deported Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz has become
such a tactical requirement for Jean-Claude Pressac, which cannot be set
aside; an unrenouncable way out; an illusory game by which he would make
the impossible possible. 

Because Pressac's "revision" has no historical foundation, but is merely
tactical, his statistics-the instruments for his illusory game-are
inevitably arbitrary and unfounded.

>From  a strictly historiographical point of view, Jean-Claude Pressac
seems to be torn between two contradictory necessities: one being the
technical, which rationally pushes him to negation of extermination of
the Jews at Auschwitz, and the other being the dogmatic one about the
holocaustic religion, which fiercely opposes such denial. 

It is difficult to predict which one of these two necessities will
prevail in the end, but Pressac's continual "revisions" gives us good

One thing is certain: If Jean-Claude Pressac wants to go on - even by
small steps - through the technical way in which he started, we could
expect at least more reductions in the numbers of homicidally "gassed"
people at Auschwitz.


1. The study Auschwitz: Fine di una leggenda was written in October of
1993 and Pressac received a copy of the text from the author by the end
of February 1994.
2. J.C. Pressac, Le macchine dello sterminio. Auschwitz 1942-1945.
Feltrinelli, Milano, October 1994.
3. Printing error: read 438,000.
4. Report of 9 July 1944, T-1322.
5. Typographical error [from Pressac]; read 438,000.
6. Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau,
published in: Hefte von Auschwitz, Wydawnictwo Pa_stwowego Muzeum w
O_wi_cimiu, Hefte 2, 1959; 3, 1960; 4, 1961; 6, 1962; 7 and 8, 1964.
7. See the complete list of the convoys in our study, Wellers e i
"gasati" di Auschwitz, Edizioni La Sfinge, Parma, March, 1987, pp. 51-
8. Hefte von Auschwitz, 7, p. 91 ff.
9. Le Monde Juif, October-December 1983, Nr. 112, pp. 127-159.
10. This figure is mentioned in the telegram from E. Veesenmayer dated
11 July 1944, NG-5615.
11. G. Wellers, Essai de dÈtermination..., art. cit., pp. 147, 153.
12. Le procËs de JÈrusalem. Jugement-Documents. Introduction de LÈon
Poliakov. Calman-LÈvy, Paris 1963, p. 199.
13. Wellers e i "gasati" di Auschwitz, op. cit., pp.18-20, 37, 39.
14. Danuta Czech, Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager
Auschwitz-Birkenau 1939-1945. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbeck bei Hamburg,
15. Idem., p.699.
16. Idem., pp.777 ff.
17. Wellers e i "gasati" di Auschwitz is one of our five studies which
are cited by J.C. Pressac in the bibliography which appears on page 564
of his book, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers,
published by The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, New York, 1989.
18. The report by E. von Thadden of 26 May 1944 [NG-2190] states that
one-third of the deported Jews from Hungary were able to work (see
below). Pressac has erected this into a "rule" which he observed in
relation to 116,000 deportees.
19. NG-5573.
20. NG-2190, p.2.
21. Idem., pp.4-5. 
22. T-1319 (text in Hungarian).
23. Printing mistakes: Read 30 May; also the three citations after 21
May are wrong: the correct date is 31 May.
24. The question of cremation capacity of the crematory ovens at
Auschwitz-Birkenau is presented in our articleDie Krematoriumsfen von
Auschwitz-Birkenau, in the anthology entitled Grundlagen zur
Zeitgeschichte, edited by Ernst Gaus, and published in 1994 by the
Grabert Verlag, Tuebingen, Germany, 1994, pp. 281-320.
25. The absurdities expressed in this regard by this " eye-witness" have
been analyzed and disproved in the cited essay Die Krematoriumsfen von
Auschwitz-Birkenau, op. cit., pp. 317-318.
26. Filip M¸ller, Sonderbehandlung. Drei Jahre in den Krematorien und
Gaskammern von Auschwitz. Verlag Steinhausen, M¸nchen, 1979, pp. 207,
211. of these alleged five crematory pits (total approximate area: 1,800
square meters) in the Allied reconnaissance photographs taken on 31 May
1944, as Pressac reduces these alleged pits from five, down to three,
and the area from 1,800 down to 157.5 square meters.
27. Filip M¸ller declares that in a 40 or 50 meter by 8 meter pit,
averaging 360 square meters in area, they cremated 1,200 cadavers in
three layers placed one upon another, alternating three layers of wood.
[Sonderbehandlung, op. cit., p.219]. The calculation would therefore be
this: [(1,200 360) ¥ 157.5] = 525.
28. Miklos Nyiszli, Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account, Fawcett
Crest, New York, 1961, pp. 70, 71.
29. T-1319.
30. According to the Auschwitz Kalendarium (1989), the first three
convoys would have arrived at Auschwitz on 16 May, and all the deportees
would have been homicidally gassed [op. cit., p.776]. This piece of
information, based exclusively on declarations given after the war, is
completely untrustworthy: the duration of the journeyæonly one dayæis
too short, and the complete lack of anyone at all who could work, is too
unlikely among three convoys sent to Auschwitz in order to be selected
for labor.
31. NG-5608
32. T-1319
33. NG-5623
34. 33,187 * 11 = 3,017 persons per each convoy. 3,017 ¥ 3 = 9,051
35. 3,017 * 4 = 12,068 persons.
36. 45,179 / 14 = 3,227 deportees per each train; 3,227 ¥ 4 = 12,908
37. 3,227 * 5 = 16,135
38. J.C. Pressac, Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas
Chambers, op. cit., p. 13.
39. Idem. p.97.
40. Idem. p. 253.
41. Franciszek Piper, Estimating the Number of Deportees to and Victims
of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp. Yad Vashem Studies, XXI (Jerusalem 1991,
pp.49-103); Auschwitz, Wie viele Juden, Polen, Zigeuner...wurden
umgebracht. Krakow, Universitas, 1992.
42. Franciszek Piper, Estimating the Number of Deportees to and Victims
of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp, art. cit., p.99.
43. Idem., S.97.
44. Idem., S.98.
45. F. Piper puts the count at 200,000 to 205,000

CODOH can be reached at: 
Post Office Box 3267 
Visalia CA 93278 


Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 16:55:24 PDT 1996
Article: 64820 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: bombs
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:47:58 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
Lines: 70
Distribution: world
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Picture taken by an allied aircraft over Birkenau [Auschwitz II] on Sept
13th 1944.

It shows Bombs which have been dropped onto the nearby rubber plant. 
[at Monowitz, which is designated Auschwitz III]

Below the bombs and clearly visible [below the tip of the bottom middle
bomb] is 

Crematory No II with the morgues going from the building.

On the one to the left are no VENTS. 

This is at a time when "mass extermination of the jews" by SS men
throwing gas pellets down Vents was taking place.


This is because "Homocidal Gassing" is Propaganda fiction. 

Notice also, 

a) the fences around the Crematorium have been retouched to look like
walls, and drawn in the wrong place. 

b) The chimmey is not smoking, despite having to deal with thousands of
corpses every day.

c) There is a nice garden in the grounds of the crematory. 

d) The bombs are NOT being dropped on the Gas Chambers, which are
supposely gassing thousands of Jews every day, but on a Rubber Plant

References:  AIR PHOTO EVIDENCE by JOHN BALL 175 photos, 116 pages. [15
Available from Samisdat Publishers Ltd, 206 Carlton St, Toronto,
Further reading: AUSCHWITZ: THE END OF A LEGEND A critique of Jean-
Pressac by Carlo Mattogno. [15 dollars]
Available from The Insitute of Historical Review, PO Box 2739, Newport
Beach, CA 
92659, USA.

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 16:55:25 PDT 1996
Article: 64821 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: a) An false statement may be severly punished
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:49:28 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
Lines: 131
Distribution: world
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Petrat's post-conviction plea was in the case file, a forlorn voice from
the grave which I read with pangs of sorrow. His statement had been
prepared in German had been submitted to the Military Governor of the US
Zone of Occupation in English translation. Since no more than a handful
of Americans have seen this or any other  German "war criminal's" side
of the story, I reproduce it in its entirety, as follows:

I, Gustav PETRAT, born 12 November 1924 in Wirballen/Litauen
[Lithuania], presently in Landsberg/Lech, make the following sworn
statement after I have been informed that this statement is to be
submitted to the Military Governor of the US Zone and that an false
statement may be severely punished.

l. In May 1944, on account of my wound, I was transferred to the guard
personnel of the Mauthausen concentration camp and served there as dog
leader with the 16th Guard Company. My rank was Corporal (Rottenfuehrer)
in the Armed (Waffen) SS.

2. On 10 May 1945, I was taken prisoner by American  soldiers in Reid
near Mauthausen and taken to the Tittling camp. When I got there I was
mistreated with whips, fists and feet, as was the general custom at that
time for newly arrived prisoners.

3. Like many others I was quartered in a potato patch in the open air,
so that we all were exposed to the weather.
The first three days we received nothing to eat, and from the fourth day
on they gave us one loaf of bread for every 20 prisoners and 1 litre of
soup for every two men. Under these conditions I lived for some weeks
until I was totally undernourished, so that it was hardly possible for
me to move from the spot.

4. On 26 May 1945 I had my first interrogation there, which was one of
the most memorable of my entire captivity. Even before they asked me the
first Question, they struck me so that I collapsed. After I had managed
to stagger upright again in spite of my weak condition and aided by the
necessary kicks from the interrogator, the real interrogation began.
They asked me questions that I could not have answered if I had the best
will in the world to do so. I was to state where the leader of the
Mauthausen Concentration Camp was. It was impossible for me to give the
information, since I really didn't know, and, as a little corporal I
couldn't know. My reply loosed a hail of blows. 
The second question concerned myself. They asked me how many prisoners I
had shot and beaten, to which I replied truthfully and with a clean
conscience, "Not one."
Then the interrogator drew a pistol and threatened to kill me if I did
not tell the truth, immediately. He meant, however, that I should be
hanged. I told him again that I only spoke the truth and he could kill
me if he wanted to, that at least I would be freed from the whole mess.
Then more blows, and with a push in the small of the back I fled [sic].

5. On 9 May 1945 I was taken to the Moosburg internment camp with about
80 other prisoners. On 7 September 1945 I had my second interrogation,
in Moosburg, at which they asked me the same questions they asked in the
Tittling camp. There too, I received blows from a whip. This consisted
of a wooden handle about 30 cm  long to which leather straps had been
fastened. Since I had to answer the questions in the negative, they told
me that there were other ways and means to force me to tell the truth.
Then the interrogator left the room for a few minutes, and returned with
a second interrogator. Since I had to reply to this man's questions in
the negative also, because I did not know of any killing, he struck me
with his fists and threatened to "hang" and "shoot" me. After I stuck to
my guns, I was taken back to my quarters.
On 10 February 1946 I was transferred to the Dachau internment camp.

6. There I was interrogated two times At the interrogation on 21 June
1946 they read statements to me that said that I had shot eight
prisoners in the Mauthausen concentration camp. I was to sign this, but
I vigorously refused because I never shot a prisoner After repeated
requests to sign, I was struck with fists and kicked with feet. They put
a paper in front of me to sign in which it said that l had never been
beaten by American interrogators and soldiers. I refused, and only after
repeated blows, with the threat that I would never leave the room alive
until I had signed, and that they would know how to break me down my
obstinacy, did I put my name to it. I had never had anything to do with
the court in my life and I was afraid that they would make my life even
more difficult.

7. In  January 1947 the so-called "line-ups" commenced  in Dachau
Special Camp. I was confronted with prisoners three  times, yet not one
accused me of the least thing. The man in charge of the line-up, Mr.
ENTRESS, told the prisoners that I was said to have shot many and beaten
them to death, where at only a burst of laugher arose. At that time I
was 22 years old. When I was 19.5  I came to Mauthausen as 
dog-leader. A former prominent prisoner, Dr. SANNER, asserted he did not
know me, but if a dog-leader had beaten prisoners to death or shot them
that would certainly have become known in the camp. Many other former
long-term prisoners  joined in this exonerating testimony

8. At mid-July 1947 I and my seven co-accused were presented for the
first time to our official defence lawyer, Major William A.OATES. To his
question whether I knew what I was accused of, and by whom, I could only
reply that I was not conscious of any guilt and also had never counted
on being brought  to trial, since I had never mistreated or killed
Major OATES  told me that he too, knew nothing, that he could not get a
glimpse of the incriminating papers of the prosecution, and therefore he
would have to go by my statements, the general charge sheet, and the
testimony of the prosecution witnesses at the trial.
Since only the prosecution had access to the records, my lawyer did not
see them, and so naturally it was very difficult for him to prepare a
defence. Major OATES promised to do everything he could. Also I gave him
the names of the witnesses who were important for me, and who themselves
were interned in Dachau.

Perat's statement is cited on Pages 258 to 263 in Innocent at Dachau by
Joseph Halow.]

'INNOCENT AT DACHAU' is available from:-

The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 16:55:26 PDT 1996
Article: 64824 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: Watch Soccer and See the GASSINGS at Auschwitz
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:59:49 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
Lines: 43
Distribution: world
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X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 

Christie then questioned [Professor Robert] Faurisson about two plans
which show the entire Birkenau camp. One came from a book published in
Warsaw in 1980, and agreed, said the witness, with all the other plans
known to him. The second came from The Auschwitz Album, a popular book
first published in 1981 or 1982 that contains nearly 200 photos of the
camp. The latter plan, said Faurisson, contains a "trick."
He then explained himself. Exterminationists say that the women and
children selected for gassing at Auschwitz were led to the buildings
called Crematoria II and III. Faurisson believes they were led to the
camp's large bath/sauna complex by way of a road which passed between
Crematoria II and III. aThe trick," explained Faurisson, is that in the
map in The Auschwitz Album, that they cut the road going to the big
sauna," making it look like it dead-ends at the crematoria.
 "There are other tricks" in the same book, said Faurisson. For example,
the well-known soccer field for internees beside Crematoria II and III
is not designated as such because readers would find it hard to believe
that gassings and athletics were conducted side-by-side.        
[Pages 303   From the "The Holocaust on Trial , The case of Ernst Zundel
by Robert Lenski.]

The 'Holocaust on Trial' is available from:-
The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 19:36:25 PDT 1996
Article: 64830 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:12:17 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
Lines: 142
Distribution: world
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Notes to Air Photos

You should have four UUE files. Using Newswin or a slimilar piece of
"uudecode" these files. This will create 4 GIF  [graphic image files].

The first file; [Bug1.gif]

Is a part of a sketch map of the western end of Auschwitz II [Birkenau]
drawn by John Ball, an Air photo interpreter, from air photos taken by
the RAF from May to December 1944.  
This appears on page 6, of the Ball Report.

The numbers refer as to :- 
3) Birch trees
7) Watchtowers.
8) Sewerage treatment tanks
9) wire fence with 14 strands of barbed wire.
10) gate
11) healthy garden not crushed from being walked on.
12) stairs down, where many hundreds of people a day, were allegely
during 1943 and 1944.  
13) 3 ft (1 metre) high roofs of below ground roofs built as morgues to
corpses cold before cremation.
14) 3 ft (1 metre) high roofs with NO vents where SS men daily poured
Zyklon B cyanide pellets onto screaming victims.
15) Left: A small pit, 2 meters deep, with a water tank, and 2 sheds.
another pit.
16) Left: Crematoria No 2. Right: Crematoria No 3.
18) to 20) locations where photos were taken, which appear elsewhere in
22) Railway waggons.
24) Location where groups such as the womens symphony orchestra, or the
member brass band gave Sunday Afternoon concerts in good weather.
25) sports field where soccer was most popular, and inmates cheered
favourites at boxing matches was 160 feet (50 metres) from a cremation

The second file; [f.gif]

Shows the arrival of a transport of internees  in May 1944.  The view is 
westwards up the railway line towards Crematoria No 2 [refer previous
GIF ]. 
The 14 wire fence is clearly shown. The Crematoria's chimmey is not
smoke or shooting flames  twenty feet into the air , as stated by some
There is no smoke coming from the nearside of the Crematoria, to
indicate a pit where thousands of corpses are being burnt. 

The third file; [K.gif]

Is a part of a photo taken by a RAF recce plane on Wednesday, September
1944. Refer to the sketch [1st file] .
John Ball states "Black lines at the same location as wire fences around 
creamtion buildings, were drawn on to look like solid fences before the
photos were released by the US govenment in 1979. Proof is in the
1. more than 80 lines and marks were carefully drawn on the May to Sept
negatives in order to look like:
-morgue roof vents, - solid fences, and - groups of inmates,
2. the changes were done when the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
possession, and most probably in 1977." 
The fourth file; [Z.gif]
Same as third file, but marked for explanatory reasons.

C) Crematoria No 3.
D) Morgue 2 of Crematoria No 3. This is where SS men supposely put
Zyclon B 
pellets down through roof vents, onto screaming Jews. It is in shadow.
E) Morgue 1 of Crematoria No 3. Jews supposely undressed here, before
going into d).

A) Morgue 1of Crematoria No 2. [This is where Jews supposely undressed
before going into f) 
B) Crematoria No 2.
F) Morgue 2 of Crematoria No 2. This is where SS men supposely put
Zyclon B 
pellets down through roof vents, onto screaming Jews. Unlike d) it is
G) Actual position of Wire fence. Note position of watch towers [mauve
H) WALL drawn in by CIA in wrong place. WALL would be very wide, if
real. The second file [f.gif] shows clearly that it is a wire fence,
which would certainly not appear as a thick line on a air photo. WALL is
also too close to F) and bisects J). 
I) WALL drawn in, in correct position to replace actual fence.
J)  A pit, water tank, and 2 sheds, close to the pit. This is supposely
where thousands and thousands of corpses of Jews who had been gassed by
SS men throwing Zyclon B pellets through non-existant roof vents on F)
were burnt continously in a  open pit. 
No signs of any corpses, any burning, or any activity whatsoever.
[likewise the opposite pit]

No signs of any piles of COKE around, to cremate the thousands and
thousands of dead jews. 
There are no roof vents, because there was no "gassing". This is because
"Homocidal gassings" is just PROPAGANDA FICTION.

References:  AIR PHOTO EVIDENCE by JOHN BALL 175 photos, 116 pages. [15
Available from Samisdat Publishers Ltd, 206 Carlton St, Toronto,
Further reading: AUSCHWITZ: THE END OF A LEGEND A critique of Jean-
Pressac by Carlo Mattogno. [15 dollars]
Available from The Insitute of Historical Review, PO Box 2739, Newport
Beach, CA 
92659, USA.

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 19:36:26 PDT 1996
Article: 64831 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: photo NO 1 [z.gif] SEE KEY TO THE PHOTOS [3/3]
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:14:34 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
Lines: 180
Distribution: world
Message-ID: <>
References: <>
MIME-Version: 1.0
X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 

[ Section: 3/3 File: z.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ]

Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: PHOTO NO 4 [k.gif] SEE KEY TO THE PHOTOS [3/3]
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:15:37 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
Lines: 185
Distribution: world
References: <>
MIME-Version: 1.0
X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 

[ Section: 3/3 File: k.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ]


sum -r/size 21401/10046 section (from first encoded line to "end")
sum -r/size 57648/90312 entire input file

Jeff Roberts
Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope:
and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. 
Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900

From Thu Sep 12 19:36:30 PDT 1996
Article: 64839 of alt.revisionism
From: Jeffrey 
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism
Subject: PHOTO NO 4 [k.gif] SEE KEY TO THE PHOTOS [2/3]
Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:15:36 +0100
Organization: xxxxxxx
Lines: 927
Distribution: world
References: <>
MIME-Version: 1.0
X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 

[ Section: 2/3 File: k.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ]


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M%E2!+1DJ&00"]5-"("2"(X0T(KB!'4Q"G0`$G$%_$N'9@T@1G3]L\H!9$T8- M'C%YW,"I`\C-&31?QHQ90V?.G3!SS*1A\X4.F3YOZ`32LP?(D"E@`HTQ\Z;+ M&2EJJ,@X,:+&$S%MUD!A@L.$B!0F1H0X<8+$C#N2,'T"-:F0*4>`X!1A8H7- M%B==H(@9$P@0'SQ1YK1!HR6)EBIKMECQ@F3*DRIWN1!J^W3G394I4B:Q0A7K MTB--BRPI,./O;@XXX^]#B$C8?,*.,-.\3HHXX]2"N##RVT:`.*,:CXX@LGSJBK M+BVZJ*.,-KBP@@PU\EBC_(TQZ#BDC"W*:"(,*L8H8@432LB!"SGHX(,**H)0 M`0023""!!!5.*,$'0";1A)3V^HB$$D8*L0(-/>88XP@ED/#B"^L&\<.+,M8H MXX@=EO#"##&R(",*+L0P`PTGS`@$$3WD&..)+B))Q914."D%DT[1BC1 M!!%+%D&DCT`2.602229!9)`4)R'D8$#J(R@10@0Q9!!$`,8#DB-TD&$%%?M" M``&(3"&"PQ`^_C@#B$[Z.*.-*<90(PLKDN7"C#'B&*J/1=K(XHLLKEA""C"R M4)(+*9RX`HHFL`AB"2&(B**)(X8H8@@?C#ABB2&@<&()*(P0`HDM$+4"2CPL M24010^8(Y(DAG%""#3KRF"(&%42HP8HX\LBC"25R:(&%%EQ@`0455FCAA3K\ sum -r/size 21153/57226 section (from first to last encoded line) From Thu Sep 12 19:36:32 PDT 1996 Article: 64840 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!!!!!!!uknet!!uknet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: A SOVIET COMMISSION CONCLUDED....... Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:21:43 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 104 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 A Soviet commission investigated Auschwitz and concluded that 4,000,000 people were killed there by the use of "co-efficents". that 840,000 Russian Pows were killed by mobile crematoria at Saschenhausen camp. [An SS man testified that this was "true". testimony of Paul Waldmann [USSR-52]) A Soviet Commission established - that 46,500 peaceful citizens were shot by the "Hiterites" in the Birkeneck Forest, near Riga. Another Soviet commission established that 600,000 corpses were burned in the crematoria, 300,000 corpses burnt on pyres in the Krempetz woods, 80,000 in the 2 old ovens, 400,000 corpses burned in pyres in the camp of Maidenek. Another soviet commission ascertained that in 34 graves in the Blagovtschchina Woods, near Minsk the fascists exterminated up to 150,000 persons. Another soviet commission discovered in 80 graves in the Smolensk district, the corpses of 150,000 soviet citizens. Another soviet commission established the fact that the Germans shot over 200,000 people in the Lisenitz forest, near Lvov. Another soviet commission ascertained that the Germans shot over 11,000 Poles in various places in Poland and then transported them to be buried in the Katyn forest near Smolensk, that the Germans had also shot 500 Russian POWs, who had been employed to bury more bodies there and plant false evidence, and that the German fascists, had bribed, threatened, and barbarously tortured Soviet citizens to obtain false testimony to blame the Soviets. This was proved by the depositions of over 100 witnesses questioned, the data of the medico-legal experts, documents, material evidence and belongings taken from the graves. The Hiterites generated human soap at the Danzig Anatomic Insitute. In the Jewish Ghetto of Lvov from 7th Sept 1941 to 6 july 1943, over 133,000 persons were tortured and shot. In the Ganov camp near Lvov, 200,000 peaceful citizens were exterminated. Deliberately infected people with typhus. Deliberately poisoned the people of Geozgievsk, by order of Dr Baron Von Heiman, by selling methylated spirit and oxalic acid as alcohol and soda water. In the Estonian SSR, shot tens of thousands of persons, 2,000 in one day at camp Kloga. In the Lithuania SSR, there were mass killings by the Hitlerites, at least 100,000 at Panerai, more than 70,000 at Kaunas, about 60,000 in Alitus , at Prenai more than 3,000, another 8,000 at Villiampol, 7,000 in Mariampol, in Trakai 37,640. In the Latvian SSR, 577,000 were murdered. In the Leningrad region, the hiterites shot and tortured over 172,000 persons. In an anti-tank ditch close to the station at Mineraly Voda, and other places in the Stavropol region, tens of thousands were exterminated. In Pyatigorsk, many tortured and shot. In Krasnodar, 6,700 civilians murdered by gas vans, or tortured and shot. In the Stalingrad area 40,000 persons tortured and killed. Over a thousand bodies of local citizens found, having been tortured. In Orel, 5000 were murdered. In Novogorod region, many thousands, shot, starved or tortured. In the Crimea, peaceful citizens were taken out on barges and drowned. Over 144,000 persons were exterminated in this manner. In babi Yar, Kiev, over 100,000 people were shot. In Kiev, the Germans killed over 195,000 persons. In the Rovno region, over 100,000 peaceful citizens were killed and tortured. In Dnepropetrovsk, shot or threw alive 11,000 women, old men and children. In Kamenetz-Podolsk region, 31,000 Jews were shot. In Odessa region, at least 200,000 citizens were killed. In Kharkov, about 195,000 persons were tortured to death, shot or gassed in gas vans. Shot the population of Gomel, after torturing and tormenting them. Carried out a experiment near Auschwitz, in which 20,000 Jews were eradicated... Then there's of course human skin lampshades, human skin breeches, handbags, and other household items, driving gloves, pocket books, shrunken peoples heads, human skin to bind books, human skin saddles, human skin ladies handbags, medical experiments, electrocution floors, steaming chambers, 'showering' to death, guard dogs eating human meat, and soap and, gassing of the mentally ill, Hitler eating carpets CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Thu Sep 12 19:36:33 PDT 1996 Article: 64842 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!hookup!!!!!!!!pipex!!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: c) they contradicted themselves Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:51:37 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 67 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 13. In the courtroom were Polish, Jugoslav and Jewish prisoners as spectators, who served as an information bureau, that is , during the court recesses they told their comrades, who were waiting for their interrogation everything that had been discussed during the course of the trial. On the basis of this information the latter were then able to reinforce the accusations and bring to naught the exoneration, which was scanty enough anyway. For this reason it was also possible to always bring out the same points in the accusations. 14. The questionaires we had filled out were handed to the persecution witnesses by the prosecutor or by his interpreter. In this way each exact date could be looked up in order to incriminate the accused without having to fear a false statement was being made. In spite of this, it happened that they contradicted themselves in cross- examination. However, because the witnesses were under the protection of the American court, they had nothing to fear from perjury, which they committed repeatedly. 15. We, as accused, had no right to give our opinion. At the beginning of the trial the defense lawyer told us we had to keep quite still and the questions we wanted to have put to the witnesses we were to write on paper and give to his interpreter, Mr. BARR. I did not understand most of the trial, since I am a Lithuanian and only know a little German. I had to find out during the court recesses, from my comrades, of what I was accused. 17. [sic] There was no final argument by the defense lawyer. I was sentenced to death on 21 August 1947. The sentence was approved on 26th June 1948. Landsberg/Lech, 1O September 1948 /s/ Gustav Perat. Perat's statement is cited on Pages 258 to 263 in Innocent at Dachau by Joseph Halow.] 'INNOCENT AT DACHAU' is available from:- The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659 USA. CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Thu Sep 12 19:36:40 PDT 1996 Article: 64844 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!n3ott.istar!ott.istar!!van.istar!west.istar!n1van.istar!van-bc!!!!!btnet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: bombs [1/1] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:19:22 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 4268 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 [ Section: 1/1 File: bombs.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ] begin 644 bombs.gif [4245 lines of encoded binary deleted] end sum -r/size 50253/263106 section (from "begin" to "end") sum -r/size 48809/190943 entire input file CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Thu Sep 12 19:36:47 PDT 1996 Article: 64846 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!uknet!!uknet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Human skin LAMPSHADE STORY A CRUEL AND VULGAR HOAX Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:47:14 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 40 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 Some reporter had called her [Ilse Koch] the "Bitch of Buchenwald" had [also] written that she had lampshades made out of human skin in her house. And that was introduced in court, where it was absolutely proven that the lampshades were made out of goatskin. [1] During my time at Dachau I saw one of the "human skin" lampshades. It looked like translucent skin, approximately one-quarter of a inch thick, and was adorned with a tattoo somewhat fuzzy in outline, not at all like the distinct tattooed figures I was familar with. The shade must have struck me as rather odd, for I recall some puzzlement at the look of the skin and the crude tattoo. In those days, it would never have occured to me that the human lampshade story was a cruel and vulgar hoax. [1) Smith, Jean Edward, Lucius D.Clay An American Life, p301. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1990 reference on] . Page 252 of Innocent at Dachau by Joseph Halow.] 'INNOCENT AT DACHAU' is available from:- The Institute of Historical Review PO Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA 92659 USA. CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Thu Sep 12 19:36:48 PDT 1996 Article: 64848 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!!btnet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: TOUT Y EST FAUX Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:55:07 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 825 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 (translation and notes by Henri Ayre, a fleunt french speaker) Auschwitz: la mimoire du mal Fifty years ago on Saturday, January 27th, 1945, a detachment (1) of the 60th Soviet Army penetrated the concentration camp of Auschwitz- Birkenau, in upper Silescia on the Oder River in Poland, less than 50 kilometers >from Cracow. In the three camps which were liberated the soldiers of the Red Army (2) found only 7,000 inmates, for the most part sick or dying. In fleeing before the troops of Stalin, the Germans had taken with them a great number, a large majority, of those prisoners "able to work." (3) This evacuation of the camps had suddenly accelerated in mid-month (two weeks before): the Red Army had just launched sooner than expected its offensive on the Vistula River. The Nazis, under the severe press of circumstances, decided to abandon the three camps. Between the 17th and the 21st of January, 1945, 56,000 camp inmates left the camp on foot in the snow and ice. These "death marches" claimed in several days thousands of victims who fell of fatigue or cold, or by the bullets of their guards who were panicky because of their retreat. On arriving, the Soviets found the remains of buildings never before heard of in the history of humanity: the crematoria furnished with gas chambers that the German sappers had dynamited the 20th of January. (4) Listening to those still alive at the camps, the Soviets (officers?) discovered the method of functioning and finality of a machinery designed for mass murder. (5) Auschwitz was not the only Nazi extermination camp. However, it was the largest and claimed the most victims. And it is today the most well- known. In distinction to the other extermination camps (Treblinka, Chelmo, Majdanek, Sobibor, Belzec) of which there are very few witnesses (6), Auschwitz, because it was both a work camp and a concentration camp, left more survivors, and thus more memories. About one million persons were assassinated in Auschwitz-Birkenau, of which 90% were Jews. Since the end of WWII, the significance of this historically unique happening, for a long time under-estimated in the West and falsified in the East, has continued to grow. The photographs and depictions of rail lines coming from all of Europe to end abruptly before the depot at Birkenau have become universally recognized, and brand the 20th century forever. This is winter work. Protected from the cold and snow in the old laundry now transformed into a workshop, seven carpenters busy themselves around a large wooden door, blackened with age, resting on sawhorses. All except one carefully pull out all the nails of the door. On each of the panels and parts of the door, now a separate piece, they place a little numbered tin label. Then they store, side by side in the back of the workshop, nearly a hundred other pieces--boards, beams, trim--all belonging to Barracks B 153, being one of the twenty last prefabricated German Army barracks, 125 feet long and made of pine, still standing on the area of the old "quarantine camp," put up from 1941 onward at Birkenau and intended only for temporary use. (7) It was autumn when the present workmen slowly dismantled Barrack B 153 after having numbered all its separate parts and having photographed it >from all angles. These hundreds of photos are placed in a file cabinet. Another file cabinet contains dozens of drawings and videocassettes illustrating the steps of the process of dismantling the barrack. The third filing cabinet is devoted to the classification of the barrack parts by color, noting the parts still in good shape, others rotten and in need of replacement by new pine wood. A fourth fiel cabinet stands ready to hold the photos of the photographs taken while the barrack is rebuilt in the Springtime. The appearance of all these thick files is one of complete order and neatness. Witold Smrek takes care of them personally. "Absolutely everything that we do is immediately recorded and filed!" As Head of the Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau, this 40 year-old engineer supervises all of the work of upkeep and restoration of both Auschwitz I (about 50 acres) and Birkenau (about 422 acres). His men are going to spend six months restoring Barrack B 153 to prevent its complete decay. Four other barracks, several observation posts, and dozens of bed frames have already been restored according to these new rules of strict recording. To prevent any of the original pine from succombing to the slow rot which permeates most pieces, the workman have up to the present time soaked each restored piece in a bath of insecticide. However, Witold Smerk has just received free from the German government an enormous Danish machine normally costing about $135,000. "It is a very large cylinder made expressly for impregnating wood under pressure. It will let us treat several dozen boards at once, guaranteeing that they will last for thirty years." Witold Smrek insists on his personal professional responsibility. "I must maintain in good shape all these buildings of poor quality, only put up to be temporary fifty years ago on an old swamp where the soil never stops quivering! (8) But specialists in bad concrete work don't now exist! Nor in poor quality brick which chips and spalls. Sometimes we don't know what to do about it all!" Witold Smrek hardly ceases to talk about his worries that pursue him daily: how can he accomplish conscientiously work that is often impossible? When brick chimneys lined up as far as the eye can see--being the last remains of some vanished barracks--threaten to fall down themselves he fills them with concrete and reinforcing bars to anchor them to the ground. Anyhow, half of these chimneys have been rebuilt in the 1960's. When the rolls of barbed wire variously placed rust out completely Smrek has no scruples about replacing them with brand new barbed wire... the 90 miles of such wire have already been totally replaced three times since World War II! But what to do about the curved concrete posts hold some of the wire since they now begin to split and become dangerous? The same question about the brick walls less than 5 inches thick of the block houses of Birkenau which are tumbling down because of the weight of the heavy roofs? Same question concerning the remnants of reinforced concrete of the gas chambers of the crematories II and III which the Nazis dynamited January 20th, 1945, which remnants crack, split, and spall a bit more each year? (9) Witold Smrek would like someone to tell him what to do, since it is no longer a question now of reconstructing it all as those before him did. Meanwhile, for five years he has done as he has been instructed and has directed his 15 workmen and foremen, even though it means working on buildings the authenticity of which is already in question, like these last barracks of Birkenau. The Nazis had put up more than 200 of them. They took down several dozen in 1944 before evacuating the camp, and burned many others. (10) Then after the war the Poles came and took away more than a hundred barracks for the homeless people of Warsaw. Furthermore, the inhabitants of the nearby town of Auschwitz came into the camp from 1945 to 1947 when it was abandonned to carry away piecemeal some of the barracks for stovewood. In 1952 there were only 38 barracks left, with only enough usable wood and parts among them to reconstruct 20 nearly complete barracks. These rebuilt barracks were then regularly re- rebuilt, finally being on concrete decks that didn't exist originally... they had been simply built on packed earth. (11) What pieces and parts of these remaining buildings still date from 1945? "At least 60%," declares Witold Smrek, annoyed by the growing number of critics of the forty years of maintenance and reconstruction of Auschwitz. He doesn't feel the criticism is just... yet. He has no part in such sentiments. For this reason he oversees with an attention nearly maniacal every step of work taken by his workmen. No one can accuse him of doing things wrong. Everything is there in the dozens of folders in the large office he occupies in the center of an old Inmate Block of Auschwitz I. His attitude of conservation extends to "objects" in the parlance of museums. These include luggage and valises, shoes, plates and eating equipment, eyeglasses, artificial limbs, combs, etc. These were discovered (by the Soviets) by the tens of thousands in the storage buildings of the camp in 1945, and were the personal effects of the last Jews assassinated which had been carefully gathered together in order to send them to Germany to be "recycled." A portion of these objects are in the museum deteriorating behind large glass panels for the past 50 years in unheated quarters formerly occupied by inmates. With the aid of a cash grant of about $5 million from the German government, a Dresden firm has designed a system of heating and climatization for these objects. And since Witold Smrek has been in charge the employees of the museum have paid more attention to the maintenance of the objects as for example, the 43,500 pairs of shoes. Before Witold Smrek, the shoes were brushed (12) periodically on a rotary brush with sawdust moistened with lanoline to dust and oil them. As a consequence, they had taken on a uniform color and a number of shoes had been destroyed by this treatment which is now no longer used. The museum now has help from dozens of young Germans, members of "Operation Repentence," who freely give their help periodically to do a good deed. Witold Smrek has them clean these tragic shoes one by one by hand. The students of the school of restoration of Cologne have taken upon themselves the cleaning of the valises. (13) All these precautions, all this care to do things correctly and not be accused of falsifying the record, illustrate the recent efforts of the Polish authorities to deliver the former extermination camp from 40 years of communist administration which had altered it just to the point of denying its significance. After the fall of the Iron Curtain the caretakers of the camp had to cope with the sudden increase in foreign visitors, of which many were shocked by what they saw and protested. There were many criticism, suggestions and protests. The affair of the Carmel of Auschwitz sparked the new Polish directors to make changes rapidly. The man responsible for this diplomatic mission was Stefan Wilkanowicz, director of the Catholic magazine "Znak," an influential publication of the former Catholic opposition. Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki had named this acquaintance as mediator in the Carmel affair. Less a puppet than he seemed, this man of sixty played an essential role in the company of the Frenchman Thio Klein in the resolution of a conflict that had drawn much attention to the administration of the area. Tadeusz Mazowiecki then asked him to take charge of the entirety of Auschwitz and to bring into the task the several associations of former camp inmates. Thus was born, in 1990, the International Committee of the Museum of the State of Auschwitz comprising 26 members of many nationalities, of which Israel Gutman of the memorial Yad Vashem of Jerusalem and Thio Klein, former president of Crif, the council representing the Jewish organisations of France. The presidency of this new organization was given to Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, a reknown figure, historian of Judaism, a resistance fighter, survivor of Auschwitz and now Polish Ambassador to Austria. An able vice president was chosen: Stefan Wilkanowicz. Officially charged with advising both the director of the Museum and the (Polish) Minister of Culture (the camp fell under his juridiction), this committee was to become suddenly, and for the first time since the end of the war, the scene of a new debate, what to do with Auschwitz? "The vote was unanimous (14) to finish discussing the nationalist-communist aspect of the site, and for the idea that the (act of the) genocide of the Jews would have finally a central place, the memory of Auschwitz. However, there were profound disagreements concerning just how the changes to the camp were to be made," remembers Stefan Wilkanowicz. Five years later disagreements remained. "The largest problems have been fixed, but the main discussions continue on and nothing has been decided. I can even say that the basic arguments, painful and sometimes unexpected, have only just begun!" The International Committee, however, had been obliged only a few weeks ago to put an end to the five year-old controversy. It had just replaced, for the upcoming ceremonies marking the camp's 50th anniversary, with a new commemorative plaque at Birkenau (now in twenty languages), the old one it had removed in 1990. This old plaque had been the most visible and troubling sign of the communist control over the site. One was able to read there, "Here, from 1940 to 1945, four million men, women, and children were tortured and assassinated (15) by Hitler's murderers." Not only was the number very greatly in error, but the text of the plaque made no mention that 90% of the victims were Jewish. At the time of the inauguration ceremony for this "international monument to the memory of the victims of fascism" on the 16th of April, 1967, in three hours of speeches (among the orators, the Polish Prime Minister and the Soviet liberator of the camp) they managed the prodigious feat of not pronouncing one single time the word "Jew." During several decades, this negation of the genocide of Jews was one of the constants of the Stalinist administration. The Poles and Soviets made of Auschwitz above all a Polish and anti-fascist place of suffering. Because of that viewpoint then, Auschwitz I was emphasized as the place where 75,000 Poles, hostages and resistance fighters, were imprisoned and executed, and the enormous complex of Birkenau, site of the extermination of the mass of Jews of Poland and of Europe, was neglected. Apart from the monument in honor of 15,000 Soviet soldiers who were assassinated, the largest part of the museum of Auschwitz I was devoted to national displays--a Jewish display simply one of many--of which some extolled the benefits of communism, such as the Bulgarian display (even though there had been no Bulgarians at Auschwitz). The Museum had just taken the liberty of closing the Bulgarian display (officially for security reasons). The Soviet display, now abandonned, also praised communism and vaunted the power of the Red Army. This historic lie had to stop immediately. But it was only when the old plaque was taken down that the members of the Committee realized that they didn't agree on the number of victims to have inscribed on the new plaque. According to the most serious estimates--those of Raul Hilberg, Franciszek Piper, and Jean-Claude Pressac--from 800,000 to 1.2 million persons had been assassinated at Auschwitz, of which 650,000 to 1 million were Jews. These differences are due to the difficulty to establish the number of Polish and Hungarian victims, while those of the western European Jews is well known, largely due to the work of Serge Klarsfeld. The discussion was tense. The logical solution was to accept the estimate of 1.1 million victims--of which 960,000 Jews--established by the Department of History of the Museum after ten years of work by Franciszek Piper. Or, perhaps, not to mention a figure at all as proposed the Museum. Serge Klarsfeld suggested not mentioning the overal number of victims, after all unknown, but to give the fullest information about the geographic origins of victims, country by country, giving where known the number in each case, as well as the high-low estimations of victims from Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary. Stefan Wilkanowicz, as concilliator, proposed the phrase "more than 1 million." Lacking an agreement in committee, the problem was settled at the office of the Polish President as simply "1.5 million." (16) There wasn't any necessity to make more explicit the preponderance of Jewish dead since the text read, "That this place where the Nazis have assassinated a million and a half men, women, and children, mostly Jews of many different countries of Europe, be forever a cry of despair and a warning to humanity." This new wording, more in keeping with historic reality, also translated into more emphasis given to Birkenau. "In several years we hope to make this place (Birkenau) the main place for all visits to the camp, whereas for a long time and up to present most visitors who were not encouraged never got to Birkenau, only 2 miles away," stated Teresa Swiebocka, in charge of expositions and responsable to the Museum board. Shocked by the near total public ignorance about Birkenau, an organization of Canadian Jews took it upon themselves in 1991 to fund a bus which now makes round trips between Auschwitz and Birkenau. The arrival of this bus was the first clear sign of the foreign intervention in camp management with which Poland is now condemned jointly to run the camp. (17) Then came the Estee Lauder Foundation. Ronald Lauder, businessman and former U.S. Ambassador to Austria, is the director of this wealthy Philadelphia institution which has taken upon itself the job of maintaining the cemetaries and synagogues of eastern Europe. His complacency vanished when he discovered the abandonned condition of Birkenau. Calling on his skills as a diplomat, he discussed the situation with Polish officials. They explained to him that they had done what they could given their reduced financial abilities. Lauder decided to provide more than sufficient funds to the Polish officials because he saw it as a basic necessity. The estimate for basic and urgent repairs he had commissioned a group of American experts from the Metropolitan Museum to make for him on the site in 1993 came to 230 million French francs. The wealthy American philanthropist had a clever idea: ask for financial contributions from all the countries from which Jews were deported to Auschwitz. He sought for an official mandate of recognition and permission to do this from the International Auschwitz Committee which gave it to him willingly. The Committee itself had always before refused to appeal for foreign help by principle, but was not adverse that someone else make such an appeal for them... The "Lauder Effect" is startling. Germany, which had never done anything for Auschwitz, paid willingly, but preferred to do so directly to the Museum. (18) "They didn't decide what work was going to be done, we let them know what was planned and the exact cost estimated and they chose what they would fund," explained Krystyna Oleksy, Vice-Director of the Museum. These discussions took place usually with the German Consul to Poland at Krakow. By the terms of an agreement signed in November, 1944, the Federal Republic of Germany has promised 10 million Deutschemarks. In Lower Saxony, at their own initiative, the landed estates, not wishing to be left out of the effort, united to engage themselves for an equal amount. They had already taken upon themselves the work of restoring the "central sauna." And the German radio station Norddeutscher Rundfunk organized a telethon "against forgetting" and collected from the public two million marks. The other countries contributed through the Lauder Foundation. Greece responded to the call with a half million dollars, the same as the Netherlands and Belgium. Also contributing were Spain, Japan, and Great Britain which were not sollicited. Last October, Edouard Balladur decided that France would contribute 10 million French francs to this international collection. Austria has not given an answer. (19) Now that, for the first time, generous financing--more than half coming from Germany--is allocated to the preservation of Auschwitz, suddenly money is not the main priority. The ability finally to consider what to do with these cursed ruins, held frozen for so long by the communists, has given rise to a number of proposals, all contradictory to each other, which were never thought of a few years ago. Some of these ideas even question work projects already begun. Embarrassed by this dissension, the International Committee and the Museum organized, in August 1993, a discussion meeting of historians, religious figures, philosophers, and technicians: "The Future of Auschwitz: Conserve the Ruins?" Far from clarifying the situation, the meeting resulted in a dizzying display of wide differences. "The most surprising thing was to note that people at the same level, former inmates, university professors, or religious people, could express positions that were so totally opposed," remarked Stefan Wilkanowicz. Jonathan Webber, professor of Hebrew studies at Oxford, recalled that before attending the meeting he had asked the advice of a British rabbi he knew who responded, "Let's let this evil place simply decay!" James Young, historian and professor of Jewish studies a the University of Massachusetts, suggested that the preservation of the specimens in the setting of the camp itself--which one would let slowly decay--would permit visitors to "see at the smae time that which was and the time which has passed since then." Ketlef Hoffman, professor of the History of Art at the Institute of Sciences of the Culture of Essen, believed that "this passage of time and natural change, ordinarily depended upon to assuage and lessen to hurt to all those people so injured, isn't imaginable with respect to Auschwitz. Because of the unique crime of the Nazis it is necessary to preserve the ruins, and Germany must help financially in this." Some attedning the meeting proposed to limit the ravages of time by any means possible, for example, in covering the ruins of the crematoria by a sort of plexiglas dome. Others at the meeting envisaged something much more, to reconstruct the entire camp. Several suggested projects concerned the huge central sauna (in the process of restauration) where those inmates, not immediately gassed at their arrival but rather selected for work, were shaved, showered, and tatooed. Some people wished to see this place, where the inmates lost their own personality, become a memorial in which a voice would recite, in perpetuity, the names of known victims. Some people wanted to place in the huge sauna the personal objects taken from the inmates. Others yet, advised that the place should be left empty for all eternity. Someone had even come up with the idea to dig a trench in the burying grounds where the bodies of victims were burned when the crematoria couldn't keep up with the supply of corpses, or were temporarily out of service, as during the great gassing of Hungarian Jews in May and June, 1944. The gallery adjacent to this trench would be equipped with a large glass wall in order that spectators could see the depth of the ashes. (20) According to Yaffa Ehach, professor of Jewish Studies at Brooklyn, several railroad cars of that time used to transport inmates should be placed on the rails at Birkenau. There is also the project of Serge Klarsfeld to rebuild the old arrival ramp which was, just until May, 1944, outside of Birkenau before the rail line was extended into the camp. However, in the interior of the camp he would prefer that one would "allow these material traces to decay because their fate is tied to that of the generation which had known the victims." For Jean-Claude Pressac it would be necessary to reconstruct in place the old Crematorium III, a very large building which tied in a homicidal gas chamber with crematorium furnaces... "In order that the visitors can see in their own minds the concrete reality of a machine of mass murder, which viewing the ruins does not allow." (21) Serge Klarsfeld isn't opposed to such a reconstruction on condition that it is done outside of the camp. (22) Theo Klein, on the other hand, doesn't see the utility of this proposal. "All that is contrary to Jewish tradition: the memory of the dead must serve the living." David Cesarini, director of the Wiener Library of London which is devoted to holocaust topics, expressed the general disarray felt by the participants of the meeting in saying, "We cannot take the risk of arousing new accusations of falsification. We cannot, on the other hand, allow the ravages of time and nature obliterate the place. The future of Auschwitz-Birkenau requires a great international debate, we all of us are touched and concerned by this place."(23) One question, in particular, grew to the point of obsession: What to do with all the hair, the hair of the victims? When the camp was liberated by the Soviets they found seven tonnes of hair not yet sent to Germany for use. This seven tonnes of hair then disappeared. At the time of the creation of the camp (after the war) the Polish found 2.5 tonnes of hair originating from Auschwitz in a respinning factory at Kietz. They had put on exhibit the largest part (of this 2.5 tonnes) in the museum, piled behind an immense plate glass... as proof of barbarism. (24) But then, in the last few years, several voices were raised denouncing this "sacrilege." No one before had objected to the display but now this concern was taken seriously. Was it necessary to display this mound of hair to a half million visitors who passed by each year? Perhaps keep this hair but not exhibit it? Perhaps bury it all? From that point on, the debate has done nothing but grow more intense. "Who owns this hair?" asked Wladyslaw Bartoszewski. Apparently it is not the property of the Polish government. For Jonathan Webber, "They (the hairs) are a part of the mortal remains (of the victims) and must be entombed." Thio Klein share the thought, "I don't like museums of horrors but people perhaps have need of something like that in order to understand what happened. I think a small symbolic amount of the hair should be kept (and displayed) and the rest should be buried at the same place in a ceremony that isn't a theatrical production." (25) Today yet this mound of hairs still haunts Auschwitz. "When we loaned objects for foreign exhibitions there was always a small amount of hair. No we no longer do that," explained Teresa Swiebocka. And Witold Smrek no longer dares to touch the hair. "In order to preserve the hair it was regularly chemically treated against mites, dusted, washed, and closed in very large sacks. This treatment has saved the hair but also caused its degradation since it has become grey and brittle. Now all treatment is stopped while waiting to find out what we must do." Another delicate subject: What to do with the falsifications created by the former communist caretakers and left in place? In the 1950s and 1960s several buildings, which had disappeared or had been converted to other use, had been reconstructed with gross errors and had been presented to the public as authentic. (26) Certain of these buildings, having an appearance much to new, have been closed to the public. Then there are also the delousing chambers (which used Zyklon B to kill lice) which have sometimes been shown as homicidal gas chambers. These aberrations and errors have very much served the revisionist arguments which have drawn from them the basis of their work of fiction. (27) The example of Krema I, the only one of Auschwitz I, is significant. In its morgue was installed the first homicidal gas chamber. It was used only a short while at the beginning of 1942: the difficulty of isolating the area, necessary for the gassings, disturbed the activity of the camp. (28) It was thus decided, at the end of April, 1942, to transfer these homicidal gassings to Birkenau where they were done, principally with Jewish victims, on an industrial scale. (29) Krema I at Auschwitz was then transformed into a bomb shelter and surgical operating room. In 1948 at the time of the creation of the Auschwitz museum Krema I was refitted to its supposed original state (with gas chamber). Everything there is false, (30) the dimensions of the gas chamber, the placement of the doors, the openings to pour in the Zyklon B, the ovens (rebuilt on the basis of the memory of several of the survivors), the height of the chimney. In the late 1970s author Robert Faurisson exploited these errors all the more that the directors of the museum were reluctant to recognize them as errors. A revisionist (David Cole?) recently shot a video in this gas chamber, still represented as authentic, and spoke there to visitors about his "revelations." Jean-Claude Pressac, one of the first to establish the exact history of this gas chamber and its modifications during and after the war, proposes to restore the gas chamber to its state during its use in 1942, in accepting as true and accurate the German architectural plans that he has just discovered in Soviet archives. (31) Others, like Thio Klein, prefer to leave it in its present state while explaining to the public the travesty. "History is as it is--it's necessary to say that--even when it isn't simple, rather than to add artifice to the artificial." Krystena Oleksy, of the director's office which is in the old SS hospital giving directly on the Krema I, can't make up her mind. "For the moment we will leave it (the gas chamber) as it is and not say anything to the visitors. It is all too complicated. We will decide later. (32) "How to decide on these matters when the difference of opinion is so extreme? When these differences are all legitimate and of good faith? (33) In such matters a near-consensus is necessary. Since it doesn't exist it is better not to take any decision. It's necessary to wait and to continue to discuss these matters," believes Stefan Wilkanowicz who, during his long years in opposition to the majority viewpoint, has learned to be patient. This explains the lack of concrete choices. Other than changing the commemorative plaque at Birkenau and the new attentiveness (to accuracy) taken in the restorations, the only orientation already noticeable is the emphasis on Birkenau, which progressively takes on the sacred atmosphere of a cemetery. For the past several weeks large panels bearing numerous photographs have been put up in key places to help bring to visitors what had happened there. This operation is financed by the German goverment (400,000 marks). Once the moral debate had been resolved that the only existing photographs had been taken by the SS (34), it was decided to place each photo on a block of black granite. The great number of these stones placed on the ground gave to Birkenau the aspect of a graveyard. This aspect was heightened by other blocks of granite placed on the sites of burning trenches and also by others still in the part of the camp called "Mexico" of which nothing remains and where many Hungarian women died of exposure. "This is what should be emphasized," declared Detlef Hoffmann, "the right for Birkenau to be a cemetary, a place of silence and prayer." Teresa Swiebocka supports this point of view. "We are moved, >from now on, according to the nature of the place. Birkenau is the largest cemetary in the world. On "dizaines d'hectares," probably no more than 75 acres, the earth is inextricably mixed with the ashes of hundreds of thousands of people." (35) The museum has recently taken measures to protect this vast area of the dead. A security building has been installed, surveillance doubled, and a guard post placed at the far end of Birkenau towards the Central Sauna by the birch trees and the old burning trenches. These measures have been taken to dissuade the treasure hunters who come to the area occasionally, sometimes equipped with metal detectors as happened in 1994, and who follow the same practice as certain Poles who, after the war, searched through macabre burying sites looking for small items made of gold. This vigilance will also prevent finding people on the area who are picking mushrooms, as was the case shortly ago. The slow movement toward a sacred silence has already provoked other questions. For some time the committee directing the museum has received special requests. Some Jews ask to be buried at Birkenau. Some explain that the area is the tomb of a part of their family. Once again problems and differences. "We reply to them that this isn't possible, but that there is a Jewish cemetary in the town of Auschwitz," explains Teresa Swiebocka. She thinks, however, that with the agreement of the International Committee a small cemetary could be created near the common grave where hundreds of dead were buried who were found at the time of the liberation of the camp. Stefan Wilkanowicz would personally favour such a move but only for the benefit of former inmates of Auschwitz. "A plot of ground could be bought on the edge of the camp. We will talk about it." Thio Klein doesn't agree. "This would be without end. The children of the children would want, at their turn, to be buried there. The story of this place is completed. It is not necessary to continue the life of this place. It is a place that is finished." (36) NOTES (1) The question must be asked if this was the first Soviet unit to reach the camp. (2) It is unfortunate that the author makes no mention of the details of counting these 7000 inmates. (3) This leads the reader to assume that most of the camp inmates were able to travel with the German army in a field retreat. (4) Unfortunately, we are asked to take the word of the Soviets for this. The nearby villagers place the explosions after the German Army left the area. (5) Once again, it is the Soviets themselves, bitter enemies of the Germans, who provide this information. (6) For a balancing viewpoint on other German concentration camps read and view "Air Photo Evidence" by John C. Ball. (7) Here the reader may ask why try to save what was not intended to last. (8) "Qui ne cesse de bouger." This is one of many French exaggerations to emphasize a point during a conversation. However, in this case the author could have used nearly any other choice of words that would have embarrassed less the claim of burning trenches. If the ground was swampy and quivered, the water table was close to the surface, thus making burning trenches an impossibility! (9) It is not impossible, not even improbable that the Soviets themselves blew up these buildings. Molecular testing of the concrete might determine what kind of explosive was used and thus who likely was responsible. (10) The historic value of this work, then, is entirely in the hands of those determining what work was done. (11) This suggests that the Germans were pinched for both materials and labor and that they had to use both carefully. (12) The exact origin of these shoes, so carefully preserved, has not, however, been clearly stated. (13) In all ages and within all large societies certain groups have reverenced inanimate objects. Although religion is a part of history it is not a substitute thereof. (14) This vote should not be confused, however, with a historical analysis. (15) At the least, it is disconcerting to have such large numbers of deaths decided on the basis of a bronze plaque. (16) It seems obvious, then, that this figure is a very loose approximation. (17) This "foreign intervention" in camp management suggests that present interpretations and innovations of past happenings may be seamlessly added to history. (18) The German government perhaps felt more secure this way. (19) Austrians, a Germanic people but not the "enemy," seem anxious to steer clear of the entire effort. (20) Unfortunately, in the absense of chemical and microscopic analysis, nearly any grey substance could be used to represent such ashes to the visitors. (21) Jean-Claude Pressac, having written a book unequivocally declaring the homicidal gas chambers to be reality yet finding no such reality in the physical evidence, now apparently wishes to make good this discrepancy by constructing history! (22) Launching immediately into such passionate differences of opinion tends to obscure the fact that either construction would be artificial if not false. (23) Once again, a great debate does not necessarily improve the quality of knowledge about the reality of the past happenings, often just the opposite. (24) Several questions must be asked. How did the Polish know the hair came from Auschwitz? What happened to the 7 tonnes of hair from Auschwitz that disappeared? This is a little too much like a shell game to make the reader feel comfortable about the reality of the exhibit. (25) It could be asked by the reader if Thio Klein objected to the Hollywood treatment of Auschwitz? (26) Here the author opens a veritable Pandora's box of questions and doubts. The visitor apparently must ask himself or herself, what part of the exhibits can be taken as real and what part as belonging to a film production. (27) One can hardly blame doubtful historians from noticing the fabrication of false historical artifacts. (28) For an explanation see Note 6. (29) Air photo evidence of this, however, is lacking. See Note 6. (30) "Tout y est faux." It is difficult to imagine a French author, writing on a serious subject, using this phraseology which has great emotional finality in the French language if he did not wish to inject in his piece a tone of doubt. (31) Once again we are asked uncritically to accept evidence coming first through Soviet channels then through the hands of M. Pressac. How and by whom have these architectural plans been vetted? (32) One must admire the reportorial honesty of the author, all in questioning his complete acceptance of the subject matter. Here we learn that visitors are still shown false artifacts, known by the Museum directors to be false, and are told that they are real and true. Could he not have left this detail out of his article? (33) Once again the reader is led to conclude that this history is created by the decisions of the exhibitors. (34) Note, however, that the art of photo montage and creation is very advanced. That we are told the photos come from the SS, then putting them on black granite blocks, tends to obscure the fact that they might be later creations. (35) This suggests that it is impossible to ascertain any more about the subject, and that, the area being sacred, it would be sacrilegious to do so in any case. Thus, we must accept the statement on faith. (36) "C'est un lieu fini." Once again the author's choice of words in all the richness of the French language for this final phrase of the article is puzzling. One is left asking if he feels the area is finished because of its macabre nature or its less than perfect documentation and authenticity. CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Thu Sep 12 19:36:54 PDT 1996 Article: 64861 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!n3ott.istar!ott.istar!!van.istar!west.istar!n1van.istar!van-bc!!!!!!!swrinde!!!btnet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: SOVIETS MANUFACTURE the "FACTS" for Katyn [1/2] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:24:15 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 1498 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 WAR CRIMES TRIALS KATYN: How the Soviets Manufactured War Crime Documents for the Nuremberg Court Translator's note: The following is a typical example of Nuremberg "evidence". The "testimony" consists of "written statements" said to have been signed by "eyewitnesses", but which are simply "quoted" in a "report" written by the Stalinists and read aloud (in excerpt form) by the Soviet prosecutor. The "statements" are not attached to the report, the "witnesses" do not appear in court, and the "original documents" are not attached. The Soviets were assigned by the Nuremberg Tribunal with the task of introducing all the evidence of German atrocities in Eastern Europe. Nearly all Nuremberg evidence is of similar quality, if not worse. The "forensic report" quoted in this "report" was the ONLY forensic report ever introduced into evidence at Nuremberg. The victims at Katyn were buried in greatcoats and boots in perfect condition. If they had been alive doing heavy road construction work for another year and a half, from April 1940 until September 1941 as claimed by the Russians, these articles would have shown severe wear. And, of course, the victims would have been sending and receiving correspondence for another year and a half. The 15,000 victims must have had hundreds of thousands of relatives, friends, and acquaintances in Poland, yet nothing was heard from them after April 1940; no letter or postcard written by any of these men after April 1940 has ever been produced. All mail sent to them after April 1940 was returned by the Russians, marked "Return to Sender Gone Away". Parts of this document have an air of very great realism, even though it is known to be false from beginning to end: the Soviets admitted their guilt for the Katyn shootings in November 1989. The report describes how perjured statements are obtained using procedures which are identical to those of the witchcraft trials of the Middle Ages. This is why civilised countries have rules against oral and written hearsay and prior consistent statements (i.e., the multiplication of "evidence" by repeating the same thing 10 times), and a requirement that cross examination be permitted in some form. Personally, I consider this document by far the most important document ever introduced into evidence at Nuremberg, and possibly in any other war crimes trial as well. Note the constant references to totally irrelevant factual material (such as the title and author of a science book possessed by one of the Russian "witnesses") just as if they were really proof of something. It reminds one of the joke: "My dog treed a 300 pound possum last week, and if you don't believe it, I'll show you the tree he treed him in." Carlos W. Porter DOCUMENT 054 USSR Report by a Special Soviet Commission, 24 January 1944, concerning the shooting of Polish officer prisoners of war in the forest of Katyn. The executions had been carried out in autumn 1941 by the German "Staff of the Construction Battalion 537". In spring 1943 the Germans, by blackmailing witnesses into giving false evidence and by other means, had tried to make it appear that the Soviet NKWD was responsible for the shooting of the 11,000 victims. Description Brochure in the Russian language from the year 1944. 56 pages in octavo format, later bound. Signature of German translation. REPORT of the Special Commission for the examination and investigation of the circumstances of the shooting of Polish prisoners of war in the Katyn forest by the German fascist invaders. The Special Commission for the examination and investigation of the circumstances of the shooting of Polish prisoners of war in the forest of Katyn (near Smolensk) by the German fascist invaders was formed by order of the Special State Commission to examine and investigate the atrocities of the fascist German invaders and their accomplices. The Commission consists of the following persons: Member of the Special State Commission, Academician N.N. BURDENKO (President of the Commission); Member of the on the Special State Commission, Academician ALEKSEJ TOLSTOI; Member of the Special State Commission, Mythropolitos NIKOLAI; President of the AllSlavic Committee, Lieutenant General GUNDOROW A.S.; President of the Executive Committee of the Association of the Red Cross and Red Half Moon, POLESNIKOW S.A.; People's Commissar for Education of the RSFSR'Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic', Academician POTEMKIN W.P.; Chief of the Forensic Head Office of the Red Army, CoronelGeneral SMIRNOW E.I.; President of the Executive Committee for the Region of Smolensk, MEINIKOW R.E.. To deal with the tasks laid before the Commission, the Commission called upon the following forensic experts: Superior Forensic Expert of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Director of the Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine PROZOROWSKI W.I.; head of the Professorship of Forensic Medicine of the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute, Doctor of Medical Sciences, SMOLJANINOW W.M.; eldest scientific expert of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, SEMENOWSKI P.S.; eldest scientific official of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Professor SCHWAIKOWA M.D.; chief pathologist of the Major Front of the Medical Service, Professor WYROPAIJEW D.N.. The extensive material laid before his associates and the forensic medical experts who arrived in the city of Smolensk on 26 September 1943, immediately after the liberation of the city, and who conducted the preliminary study and investigation of the circumstances of all atrocities committed by the Germans, was made available to the Special Commission by Member of the Special State Commission, Professor BURDENKO N.N.. The Special Commission carried out on-the-spot investigations and found that the graves of the Polish prisoners of war shot by the German occupiers are located 15 kilometres from the city of Smolensk, on the Witebsker highway, in the region of the Katyn forest known as "Kosji Gori", 200 metres southwest of the highway, in the direction of the Dnjipr river. The graves were excavated by order of the Special Commission, and in the presence of all members of the Special Commission and the forensic experts. A great number of corpses in Polish uniforms were discovered in the graves. According to the calculations of the forensic experts, the number of corpses amounts, in total, to 11,000. The forensic experts thoroughly examined the disinterred corpses and all objects and exhibits found in the graves and on the corpses. Simultaneous with the excavation of the graves and the examination of the corpses, the Special Commission carried out interrogations of the numerous witnesses and the local populace, whose testimonies precisely established the time and circumstances of the crime committed by the German occupiers. The following is clear from the testimonies of the witnesses: The Katyn Forest The Katyn forest was always a favourite holiday spot for the people of the city of Smolensk. Those who lived in the vicinity pastured their livestock in the Katyn forest and cut wood. There were no restrictions or prohibitions against entering the Katyn forest. This was the case in the Katyn forest until the outbreak of the war. The "Promstrachkasse" combat engineers camp which was only dissolved in July 1941 was still located in the forest in the summer of 1941. Following the occupation of the city of Smolensk by the German invader, quite a different system prevailed in the Katyn forest. The forest began to be guarded by reinforced patrols, and numerous warning notices appeared, stating that all persons who entered the forest without special permits would be shot. Especially strictly guarded was that part of the Katyn forest known as "Kosji Gori", as well as the region along the banks of the Dnjepr, where a summer house rest centre for the NKWD offices at Smolensk was located 700 metres from where the graves of the Polish prisoners of war were discovered. After the arrival of the Germans, a German office was created at this location, called "the Staff of the Construction Battalion 537". Polish prisoners of war in the region of Smolensk The Special Commission has established that, prior to the conquest of the city of Smolensk by the German occupiers, Polish prisoners of war, officers and enlisted men, worked on the construction and repair of the highways in the west districts of the region. The Polish prisoners of war were housed in three camps, i.e., camp no. 1ON, no. 2ON, and no. 3ON, which were located approximately 2545 kilometres west of the city of Smolensk. It has been established, based on the testimony of witnesses and documentary proof, that the above named camps could not be evacuated in time due to the unfavourable conditions after the commencement of military operations. All Polish prisoners of war, some of the guard personnel, and the camp employees, fell, for this reason, into German captivity. The former head of camp no. 1ON, Major of Security WETOSCHINIKOW W.M., interrogated by the Special Commission, stated: "I awaited the order relating to the dissolution of the camp. But "phone"; connections with the city of Smolensk were interrupted. Therefore I drove together with a few fellow employees to Smolensk to clarify the situation. I found the situation in Smolensk tense. I turned to the head of railway traffic for the Smolensk stretch of the western railway, Comrade IWANOW, with a request to provide the camp with 'train'; carriages to evacuate the Polish prisoners of war. Comrade IWANOW answered, however, that I could not count on that. I made attempts to get in connection with Moscow to obtain permission to cover the distance by foot, but I was not successful. "At this time, Smolensk was already cut off from the camp by the Germans, and I don't know what happened to the Polish prisoners of war and the guard personnel who remained behind in the camp." Engineer IWANOW S.W., head of traffic for the Smolensk stretch of the western railway in July 1941, stated to the Special Commission: "The administration of the camp for Polish prisoners of war contacted my office with a request to obtain train carriages for the evacuation of the Poles, but we had no carriages available. We were furthermore unable to direct any carriages to the Gusino stretch, since the stretch was already under fire. For this reason, we could not consider the request of the camp administration. Thus, the Polish prisoners of war remained behind in the region of Smolensk." That the Polish prisoners of war remained behind in the camps of the region of Smolensk was confirmed by the testimony of the numerous witnesses, who had seen these Poles in the vicinity of the city of Smolensk in the early months of the occupation until the month of September 1941. The female witness SASCHENEW Marija Akeksandrowna, a teacher at the primary school of the village of Senjkowo, stated to the Special Commission that she had hidden one of the Polish prisoners of war in the attic of her house after he had escaped from the camp. "The Pole wore a Polish military uniform, which I immediately recognized since I had seen the groups of Polish prisoners of war in 1940-41 on the highways, working under guard. I was very interested in this Pole since he, as it turned out, had been a primary school teacher in Poland before his callup. Since I had myself graduated from teacher's training college and wanted to be a teacher, I struck up a conversation with him. He told me that he had attended a teacher's training college in Poland, then went to a military school and became a lieutenant in the reserve. Upon the outbreak of hostilities between Poland and Germany, he was called up for active military service. He was in BreskLitovsk and was taken prisoner by units of the Red Army. He stayed in a camp near Smolensk for over a year. "When the Germans came and occupied the Polish camp, a hard system prevailed there. The Germans did not consider the Poles to be human beings, and pushed them around and mistreated them in every possible way. There were cases in which Poles were shot without any reason. So he decided to escape. He told me of his own accord that his wife was also a teacher and that he had two brothers and a sister." When he went away the following day, he mentioned a name which SASCHNEWA noted in a book. The book, presented'to the Special Commission' by SASHNEWA, "Practical Exercises in the Natural Sciences" by Jagodowsky, contains the following note on the last page: "LOECK, Jusef and Sophia, city of Smostjie, Agorodnaja Street no. 25." The list'of Katyn shooting victims' published by the Germans contains the name LOECK Jusef under no. 3796 as having been shot in the spring of 1940 at Kosji Gori in the Katyn forest. >From the German reports, it therefore appears that LOECK Jusef was shot one year before his acquaintance with the female witness Saschnewa. The witness DANILENKOW N.W., a farmer from the "Krasnaja Zarja" collective farm and a member of the village council of Katyn, stated: "In the months of August September 1941, when the Germans came, I met Poles working on the highway in groups of 1520 men each." Similar statements were made by the witnesses: SOLDATENKOW, former village elder of the village of Borock, KOLATSCHEW A.S., doctor of the city of Smolensk, OGLOBLIN A.P., priest, SERGEEW T.I. railway master SMIRJAGIN P.A., engineer, MOSKOWSKAJA A.M., resident of the city of Smolensk, ALEKSEJEW A.M., foreman of the collective farm of the village of Borock, KUTZEW I.W., technician of the water services, GORODEZTKIJ W.P., priest, BASEKINA A.T., bookkeeper, WITROWA E.N., teacher, SAWWATEJEW I.W., duty officer at the railway station at Gnesdowo, among others. The raids in search of Polish prisoners of war The presence of Polish prisoners of war in the region of Smolensk in the autumn of 1941 was also confirmed by the fact of the German raids in search of prisoners who had escaped from the camps. The witness KARTOSCHKIN I.M., carpenter, stated: "The Germans not only searched for Polish prisoners of war in the forests in the autumn of 1941, but there were also police house searches carried out at night in the villages." The former village elder Nowie Bateki SACHAROW M.D. testified that the Germans, in the autumn of 1941, "combed" the villages and forests feverishly in search of for Polish prisoners of war. The witness DANILEKNOW N.W., farmer on the "Krasnaja Zarja" collective farm, stated: "In our region, special raids were carried out in search of escaped Polish prisoners of war. Such searches were conducted two or three times in my house. After one house search, I asked the village elder, SERGEJEW Konstantin, whom they were looking for in our house. Segejew said that an order had been issued by the German commander to search all houses without exception, since Polish prisoners of war who had escaped from the camps were said to have hidden themselves in our village. Some time later the searches stopped." The witness FATJKOW T.E., a farmer at the collective farm, stated: "Raids in search of Polish prisoners of war were carried out several times. This was in the months of August September 1941. After the month of September 1941, the raids stopped, and no one saw any more Polish prisoners of war." The shootings in the Katyn forest The above mentioned "Staff of the Construction Battalion 537", located in the summer house at Kosji Gori, did no construction work. Its activity was carefully kept secret. What this "staff" actually did was testified to by many witnesses, including the female witnesses: ALEKSEJAWA A.M., MICHAILOWA O.A., and KONACHOWSKAJA S.P., residents of the village of Borock of the village council of Katyn. Upon order of the German commandant of the settlement of Katyn,'transmitted' by the village eldest of the village of Borock, SOLDATENKOW W.J., they were sent to the summer house'of Kosji Gori' to serve "staff" personnel. After arrival at Kosji Gori, a number of regulations relating to their behaviour were communicated to them through an interpreter. It was most severely prohibited to stray away from the summer house and into the forest, to enter rooms in the summer house without being asked and without the accompaniment of a German soldiers, or to approach the region of the summer house during the night. Only one particular path to the workplace and back was permitted, and only then when accompanied by the soldiers. ALEKSEJAWA, MICHAILOWA AND KONACHOWSKAJA were instructed in this regard through an interpreter directly by the head of the German office, Lt. Col. ARNES, the women having been called in solely for this purpose. As to the personnel making up the "staff", ALEKSEJAWA A.M. stated: "In the Kosji Gori summer house, there were always about 30 Germans. The oldest of them was Lt. Col. ARNES; his adjutant was Lt. Col. REKST. There were also a Lt. HOTT; a Sgt. LUEMERT; a noncommissioned officer for economic affairs ROSE; his representative ISICKE; Staff Sergeant GRENEWSKY, who headed a power plant; a photographer; a lance corporal, whose family name I can no longer recall; an interpreter from the Volga German republic, his name seems to me to have been Johann, but we called him Iwan; the cook; a German named Gustav; and many others, whose first and last names are not known to me." Soon after their entry into service, Aleksejewa, Michailowa, and Konachowskaja began to notice "some sort of dark doings" going on the summer house. Alekskaja A.M. stated: "We were warned several times by the interpreter Johann, on behalf of ARNES, that we were to keep quiet and not blabber about anything we saw or heard in the country house. Otherwise, we noticed several things that made us understand that the Germans were carrying on dark doings in this country house. "At the end of August and during more than half of September 1941, several trucks arrived almost daily at the Kosji Gori summer house. At first, I paid them no attention; later I noted that, when the trucks arrived, they always stopped somewhere on the path leading from the highway to the summer house for half an hour or a full hour. I drew this conclusion because the noise of the motors went silent for some time after the trucks entered the grounds of the country house. At the same time, individual shots began to be fired. One shot followed another in short but regular intervals. Then the shooting stopped and the trucks drove to the country house. German soldiers and noncommissioned officers got down off the trucks. They talked in loud voices, went in the bathroom, and then drank wine. The bathroom was always heated on these days. On the days when the trucks arrived, soldiers also entered the summer house from some other unit. Beds were laid out for these soldiers in the soldiers' mess hall, which had been opened in one of the rooms. On these days, there was a great deal of cooking in the kitchen, and double portions of spirits were brought to the table. Shortly before the entry of the trucks, the soldiers went into the forest, probably to where the trucks were stopped. After half an hour or a full hour, they came back on the trucks, together the soldiers that lived in the country house. I would probably never have observed this or noticed when the noise began and went silent again. But every time the trucks entered, if we (myself, Konachowskaja, and Michailowa) were in the courtyard, we were driven back into the kitchen or not allowed to leave the kitchen if we were in there. Through this circumstance, and through the fact that I several times noted fresh bloodstains on the clothing of two corporals, I was compelled to take careful note of everything that went on in the country house. I then noticed the strange intermediate pauses in the movement of the trucks and their behaviour in the forest. I also noticed that the bloodstains were always on the clothing of the same two men, two corporals. One of them was a big one with red hair; the other, of medium build, was blond. For this reason, I drew the conclusion that the Germans were bringing people to the summer house by truck and then shooting them. I even guessed where everything was happening and, when I left the house or came back to it, I noticed earth thrown up at several places not far from the highway. The places where the earth lay got bigger from day to day. In the course of time the earth at these spots nevertheless took on its usual shape again. To the question by the Special Commission as to which persons were shot in the forest near the country house, Aleksejewa answered that Polish prisoners of war were shot there; and to confirm her testimony she stated: "There were days on which the trucks did not enter the country house. The soldiers however left the country house and went into the forest. From there, frequent shots could be heard. After their return, the soldiers always went into the bathroom and then they drank. "And then there was another such case. Once, I stayed longer than usual in the country house. Michailowa and Konachowskaja had already gone away. I was not yet finished with my work, I had stayed for that reason, when suddenly a soldier came up to me and said I could go. In so doing, he made reference to Rose's order. The same soldier accompanied me to the highway. "After I passed the curve in the highway 150200 metres from the country house, I saw a group of about 30 Polish prisoners of war marching along the highway under reinforced guard. "That they were Poles I already knew, because I had already met Polish prisoners of war on the embankment roadway before the outbreak of the war <between Germany and the USSR' and for some time after the Germans came; the Poles always wore the same uniform, with a characteristic fourcornered cap. "I remained by the edge of the road to see where they were being taken, and I saw them turn aside at the curve to our Kosji Gori country house. "Since I had already carefully observed all events from the country house before this time, I took great interest in this event on that day; I turned back a short distance on the embankment roadway, and hid in the bushes by the side of the road to await further events. 20 or 30 minutes later, I heard the characteristic individual shots which were so well known to me. "Then everything came clear to me, and I went home quickly. "From this fact, I concluded that the Germans not only shot the Poles during the day, when we were working, but also at night, during our absence. "This became still more clear to me when I remembered that the entire staff of officers and soldiers living at the country house, except for the guards, slept until late in the day, and only woke up around 12 noon. "Sometimes we could tell when the Poles were arriving at Kosji Gori, >from the tense atmosphere which prevailed in the country house on such days. "All officers then left the country house; only individual duty officers remained behind in the building, and the duty officer controlled all posts by telephone without interruption..." Michailowa OA stated: "In September 1941, very frequent shots could be heard in the Kosji Gori forest. At the beginning, I took no particular notice of the trucks arriving at the country house; they were covered on all four sides, painted green, and accompanied by noncommissioned officers. Later I noticed that these trucks were never parked in our garages, and were not unloaded either. These trucks arrived very often, especially in September 1941. "Among the noncommissioned officers who always sat in the cabin next to the driver, I noticed one tall one with a pallid complexion and red hair. When these trucks came into the country house, all the noncommissioned officers, as if they were obeying an order, went into the bathroom, washed themselves for a long time, and then drank in the country house. "Once this tall redhaired German left the truck and went straight into the kitchen, where he asked for water. As he drank the water from the glass, I noticed a bloodstain on the right cuff of his uniform." Michailowa O.A. and Konachowskaja S.P. once saw with their own eyes how two Polish prisoners of war were shot after apparently escaping the Germans and had being recaptured. Michailowa stated the following in this regard: "Once Konachowskaja and I were working in the kitchen as usual, and we heard noise not far from the house. When we came out of the kitchen, we saw two Polish prisoners of war surrounded by German soldiers, explaining something to noncommissioned officer Rose. Then Lt. Col. Arnes came up and spoke a few words to Rose. We got out of the way, since we were afraid Rose would shoot us for our curiosity. But we were noticed anyway, and the mechanic Linewski chased us away on Roses order into the kitchen, and then he led Poles away from the country house. After a few minutes, we heard shots. The German soldiers and noncommissioned officers, who returned shortly afterwards, were talking to each other excitedly. Konachowskaja and I were driven to leave the kitchen once more by the desire to find out what the Germans had done with the Poles whom they had arrested. Arnes' adjutant, who went out with us at the same time, asked Rose something in German, whereupon the latter answered in German "Alles in Ordnung'everything OK'". I understood these words, because they were often used by Germans in conversations with each other. I concluded from all these events that the two Poles had been shot." Similar statements were made in this regard by Konachowskaja S.P.: Intimidated by what was going on in the country house, Alekskaja, Michailowa, and Konachowskaja decided to quit their jobs at the country house on some pretext. They used the salary cut from 9 to 3 marks monthly, implemented at the beginning of January 1942 and, upon Michailowa's suggestion, did not go to work. The same evening, a car arrived; a man took them to the country house, and locked them in a cold room for punishment. Michailowa was locked up for 8 days; Aleksejewa and Konachowskaja for 3 days. After they had undergone this punishment, they were all released. During their work in the country house, Aleksejewa, Michailowa, and Konachowskaja were afraid to exchange their observations of what was going on in the country house.Only in confinement, when they were all locked in, did they exchange their thoughts during the night: Michailowa stated during the interrogation of 24 December 1943: "That was the first time we spoke of what was going on in the country house. I told everything I knew, but it turned out that Konachowskaja and Aleksejewa were already aware of all these things. But they were afraid to speak to me about them. Here I found out that the Germans in Kosji Gori were shooting Polish prisoners of war in particular, since Aleksejewa told how she was going home from work once in the autumn of 1941 and personally saw the Germans herding a big group of Polish prisoners of war into the Kosji Gori forest. Some time later she heard shots at that spot." Aleksejewa and Konachowskaja testified to the same effect. Aleksejewa, Michailowa, and Konachowskaja came to the firm conviction, after comparing their observations, that mass shootings of Polish prisoners of war were being carried on at the Kosji Gori country house in August and September 1941. The testimonies of Aleksejewa are confirmed by the testimony of her father Aleksejew Michail, to whom she reported her observations concerning the crimes being committed by the Germans at the country house in the autumn of 1941 while she was still working there. "For a long time she didn't say a single word," Aleksejew Michail testified, "Only when returned from her work, she complained that it was strange to work there and that she didn't know how she could get away. When I asked her what made it so strange, she answered that shots could very often be heard in the forest. Once, when she came back home, she told me confidentially that the Germans were shooting Poles in the Kosji Gori forest. After listening to my daughter, I warned her most severely not to speak to anyone else about it. otherwise the Germans would find out about it and our whole family would suffer." The testimony concerning the transport of Polish prisoners of war to Kosji Gori in small groups of 2030 men under a guard of 57 German soldiers is made by other witnesses interrogated by the Special Commission: KISSELEW P.G., farmer from the Kosji Gori dairy farm; KRIWOSERZEW M.G., joiner from the station Krasnyi Bor in the Katyn forest: IWANOW S.W., exforeman at Gnesdowo station in the region of the Katyn forest; SAWWATEJEW IW, duty officer at the same station; ALEKSEJEW M.A., president of the collective farm at the village of Borok; OGLOBLIN A.P., priest of the church of Kuprin, and others. These witnesses also heard shots resounding from the Kosji Gori forest. An especially great breakthrough for the investigation of the events at the Kosji Gori country house in the autumn of 1941 was provided by the professor of astronomy, Director BASILEWSKI B.W., of the observatory at Smolensk. Professor Basilewski was appointed representative of the head of the city (the mayor) by force during the first days of the German occupation of Smolensk, while the lawyer MENSCHAGIN B.G. was appointed head of the city by the Germans, who later took him away with them. MENSCHAGIN was a traitor who enjoyed the special trust of the German command, and especially that of the commandant of Smolensk, von SCHWEZ. In early September 1941, Basilewski asked Menschagin to ask commandant von Schwez to release the teacher SCHIGLINSKI from prisoner of war camp no. 126. In fulling this request, Menschagin talked to von Schwez, and then told Basilewski that his request could not be granted because, as von Schwez said, "an order had come from Berlin prescribing the immediate application of the strictest regime relating to prisoners of war and permitting no indulgence in this matter." "I couldn't help objecting", testified witness Basilewski, "'But What could be stricter than the regime prevailing in the camp now?'" Menschagin looked at me strangely and, coming very close to me, answered softly, "'It can be'a lot tougher'. The Russians will at least die off by themselves, but as for the prisoners of war, it was simply proposed to exterminate them.'" "'How? How am I to understand that?'" I cried. "You are to understand it literally. There is such an order from Berlin," answered Menschagin, requesting me, 'for God's sake', not to say a word about it to anyone." "Two weeks later, after the above mentioned talk with Menschagin, when I was again received by him, I could not help asking him: 'What have you heard about the Poles?' Menschagin hesitated a little and then answered, 'It's all up with them. Von Schwez told me that they have been shot somewhere in the vicinity of Smolensk.' "Since Menschagin noticed my excitement, he warned me again of the need to keep this matter strictly secret, and then he began to explain the German manner of procedure in this matter. He said, 'the shooting of the Poles was a link in the whole chain of anti-Polish policies carried out by the Germans, which was to be especially tightened up in view of conclusion of the treaty between the Russians and the Poles.'" Basilewski also told the Special Commission about his conversation with the Special Leader of the 7th Division of the German commander Hirschfeld, a Baltic German who spoke good Russian: "Hirschfeld cynically explained that the perniciousness and inferiority of the Poles had been historically proven, and that the reduction in Polish population figures would serve to fertilize the soil and provide a guarantee for the expansion of German living space. "In this connection, Hirschfeld bragged that nothing was left of the intelligentsia in Poland, since they had all been hanged, shot, or taken away to concentration camps." The testimony of the witness Basilewski was confirmed by the witness, physics professor Jefimow J.E., interrogated by the Special Commission, to whom Basilewski told of his conversation with Menschagin in the autumn of 1941. The testimony of Basilewski and Jefimow is strengthened by documentary evidence in the form of handwritten notes by Menschagin, in his own handwriting, jotted down in his notebook. This notebook, containing 17 full pages, was found in the files of the city administration of Smolensk after its liberation. The fact that this notebook belonged to Menschagin, and was also in his handwriting, is confirmed both by the testimony of Basilewski, who was well familiar with Menschagin's handwriting, and by graphological reports. As may be seen from the dates contained in the notebook, the contents concern the period from the early days of August 1941 until November of the same year. Among the various notes with regards to economic matters (wood, electrical energy, commerce, etc.) there are a number of notes concerning instructions >from the commander of Smolensk, made by Menschagin in order not to forget them. >From these notes, it may be clearly seen that the city administration was concerned with a number of matters as the body carrying out all the instructions of the German command. The first of the three pages of the note book describe the organization of the Ghetto and the system of reprisals to be carried out relating to the Jews. Page 10, dated 15 August 1941, states: "All escaped Polish prisoners of war are to be arrested and brought to the command post." Page 15, (without date), states: "Are there any rumours circulating among the populace of shootings of Polish prisoners of war at Kosji Gory (to Umnow)?" >From the initial notes, it may be seen that, on 15 August 1941, the Polish prisoners of war were still in the region of Smolensk, and that they were furthermore being arrested by the German authorities. The second note proves that the German command, disturbed by the possibility of the existence of rumours among the civilian population about crimes committed by the Germans, gave special instructions to investigate the matter. Umnow, who is mentioned in the note, was chief of the Russian police in Smolensk during the first months of the occupation. Beginning of German provocation In the winter of 1942-43, the general military situation changed fundamentally, and not in favour of the Germans. The military power of the Soviet Union was constantly increasing, and the alliance between the Soviet Union with the Allies was strengthening. The Germans decided to initiate a provocation by taking the atrocities which they themselves had committed in the forest of Katyn and accusing the Soviet authorities of having committed them. They thus intended to divide the Russians and the Poles and wipe away the trace of their crime. The priest from the village of Kuprino, district Smolensk, A.P. OGLOBLIN, testified: "The Germans took up this matter after the events at Stalingrad, when they were feeling unsure of themselves. Among the people, it was said that the Germans were attempting to improve their position." Concerned with expanding the Katyn provocation, the Germans first began to search for "witnesses" able to offer the testimony desired by the Germans, under the influence of promises, bribes, or threats. The farmer KISSELEW Parfen Gawrilowitsch, born 1870, who lived closer to the Kosji Gori country house than anyone else, attracted the attention of the Germans. Kisselew was told to report to the Gestapo as early as the end of 1942, and after under the threat of reprisals was requested to offer perjured testimony about the matter, stating that he knew that the Bolsheviks had shot the Polish prisoners of war in the Kosji Gori country house of the NKWD in early 1940. Kisselew testified in this regard: "In autumn 1942, two policemen came to my house and said I had to report to the Gestapo at Gnesdowo railway station. "The same day, I went to the Gestapo, which was housed in a twostory house next to the railway station. In the room which I entered, there was a German officer and an interpreter. The German officer began to interrogate me through the interpreter, asking how long I had lived in the district, what I did, and my financial situation. I told him I had lived in the farmstead next to Kosji Gori since 1907 and worked on my property. About my financial situation, I said I was having difficulties, because I was already old and my sons were in the army. "After this short conversation, the officer explained to me that the Gestapo had reports stating that members of the KNWD office had shot the Polish prisoners of war in the Katyn forest not far from Kosji Gori in 1940. He asked what testimony I could make about it. I answered that I had never heard anything about the NKWD office carrying out any shootings in the Kosji Gori. I furthermore explained to the officer that I considered it impossible to carry out shootings there, since Kosji Gory was very openly exposed, and thickly populated. The whole populace in the neighbouring villages must surely have known of it. "The officer answered that I was to make such a statement, since the aforementioned fact had allegedly really taken place. A big reward was promised me for this testimony. "I repeatedly explained to the officer that I had heard nothing of the shootings, and that something like this could simply not happen at all before the war in our region. The officer nevertheless insisted that I was to make the perjured statement. "After the first conversation, of which I have already spoken, I was called to the Gestapo for a second time in February 1942. "At this time, it was known to me that other residents of the neighbouring villages had also been ordered to report to the Gestapo, and they had been ordered to make the same testimony. "In the Gestapo were the same officer and interpreter who had interrogated me the first time. "Again they demanded that I should testify that I was an eyewitness to the shootings of Polish officers allegedly carried out in 1940 by the NKWD. I explained to the Gestapo officer once again that this was a lie, since I had heard nothing of the shootings before the war, and that I would not make the perjured statement. But the interpreter refused to listen to me, took a handwritten document from the table, and read it to me. It said that I, KISSELEW, lived in the farmstead not far from Kosji Gori, and had myself seen employees of the NKWD shooting the Polish officers in 1940. After the interpreter had read it to me, he suggested that I sign the document. I refused. The interpreter tried to force me to sign by means of threats and insults, Finally he said, 'Either you sign immediately, or you will be killed. You have to choose!' "I was now afraid, and signed the document, figuring that the matter was at an end. After the Germans organized the visit to the graves of Katyn by various 'delegations', I was forced to speak before the Polish 'delegation.'" Kisselew forgot the contents of the statement signed in the Gestapo office, got mixed up, and finally refused to speak. Then the Gestapo had him arrested, and, by beating him for a month a half without mercy, forced him to agree to appear again in public. In this regard, Kisselew testifies: "In reality, it happened differently. In the spring of 1943, the Germans announced that they had discovered the graves of the Polish officers in in the Kosji Gori region of the Katyn forest, after having been allegedly shot by the NKWD. "Soon afterwards, a Gestapo interpreter came to my house and drove me into the Kosji Gori region of the Katyn forest. After leaving my house, the interpreter warned me privately that when I was in the forest, to say everything just exactly as stated in the statement signed in the Gestapo office. "When we got to the forest, I saw excavated graves and a group of persons unknown to me. The interpreter told me they were 'Polish delegates' who were coming to view the graves. "When we approached the graves, the 'delegates' began to ask me various questions in the Russian language relating to the shooting of the Poles. "But since over a month had passed since I was told to report to the Gestapo, I had forgotten everything contained in the document signed by me. So I got mixed up and finally said that I didn't know anything about the shooting of the Polish officers. "The German officer got very angry, and the interpreter pushed and pulled me brutally away from the 'delegation'. The next day, a car with a Gestapo officer in it came to my house. When the officer found me in the courtyard, he explained that I was under arrest, put me in the car and took me to Smolensk prison. "After my arrest I was often called for interrogation, but they beat me more than they interrogated me. During my first interrogation they beat me badly and accused me of slandering them. Then they brought me back to my cell. "In the next interrogation, they told me I had to declare publicly that I was an eyewitness to the shootings of the Polish officers by the Bolsheviks and that I would not get out of prison until the Gestapo was convinced that I would fulfil my task to the best of my ability. I told the officer that I would rather rot in prison than pull the wool over people's eyes. After that, they beat me very badly. "These interrogations, in which I was beaten, were repeated. The result was that I completely lost my strength, partially lost my hearing, and could no longer move my right arm. "Approximately a month after my arrest the German officer called me to him and said, 'Now, you see, Kisselew, what your obstinacy has cost you. We have decided to carry out a death sentence upon you. Tomorrow you will be driven to the Katyn forest and hanged. I asked the officer not to do that, and tried to convince him that I was unfit for the role of eyewitness to the shootings, because I simply could not lie and would therefore simply get something mixed up again. But the officer stuck to his insistence. "A few minutes later, soldiers came into the room and began to beat me with rubber truncheons. I could not stand the beatings and mistreatment and agreed to confirm the perjured statement regarding the shooting of the Polish officers by the Bolsheviks. Then I was released from prison. At the same time, they told me that I had to speak in front of the 'delegates' at the first request of the Germans in the Katyn forest. Each time, before we drove to the excavated graves in the Katyn forest, the interpreter came to my home, called me out into the courtyard, took me aside so that nobody could hear us, and made me learn everything by heart for half an hour, completely and in detail, that I had to say about the alleged shootings of the Polish officers by the NKWD in 1940. "I remember that the interpreter told me'to say' approximately the following: "'I live on the farmstead in the Kosji Gori region not far from the KNWD country house. In early 1940, I saw how them bringing the Poles into the forest and shooting them there every night.' I also had to repeat word for word that this was the work of the NKWD. "After I had learnt by heart everything the interpreter told me, he drove me into the forest to the excavated graves and told me to repeat everything in the presence of the visiting 'delegation'. My remarks were strictly noted and orchestrated by the Gestapo interpreter. "Once, when I appeared before a 'delegation', they asked me whether I had ever seen the Poles before they were shot by the Bolsheviks. "I was not prepared for this question, and declared that I had seen the Polish prisoners of war before the beginning of the war engaged in road construction work, which was also true. At this, the interpreter pushed me aside roughly, and chased me home. Please believe me when I say that I was constantly tortured by remorse, because I knew that the Polish officers in reality were shot by the Germans in 1941; there was no other way out for me, since I was afraid of repeated arrest and torture." The testimony of Kisselew P.G. regarding his visit to the Gestapo and subsequent arrest and beatings are confirmed by his wife, Kisselewa Asksinija, born 1870, who resides with him; his son, Kisselew Wassili, born 1911; and his daughterinlaw, Kisselewa Maria, born 1918; as well as railway master Sergejew Timotej Iwanowitch, born 1901, who also lives with Kisselew at the farmstead. The injuries inflicted upon Kisselew by the Gestapo (injured shoulder, significant hearing loss) were confirmed by forensic examination report. In the search for 'witnesses', the Germans then took an interest in the workers at Gnesdowo railway station, located two and half kilometres away >from Kosji Gori. The Polish prisoners of war first arrived at this station in the spring of 1940, and the Germans obviously wished to obtain corresponding testimony >from railway workers. To this purpose, the Germans, in the spring of 1943, ordered the former station master of Gnesdowo, IWANOW S.W., and the duty officer SAWWATEJEW I.W., among others, to report to the Gestapo. Regarding the circumstances of his visit to the Gestapo, Iwanow S.W., born 1882, stated: "...It was in March 1943. A German officer interrogated me in the presence of an interpreter. He asked me through the interpreter what I did, and what my job was at Gnesdowo before the occupation of the area by the Germans; the officer asked me whether I knew that the Polish prisoners of war arrived by railway in early 1940 in Gnesdowo in large groups. "I said, that I knew nothing about it. "The officer then asked me whether I knew that the Polish officers were shot by the Bolsheviks in the year in question, the spring of 1940, soon after their arrival. "I answered that I knew nothing about it, and that this could not be true, since I had seen the Polish officers who arrived at Gnesdowo in the spring of 1940 doing road construction work in 194041, until the city of Smolensk was taken by the Germans. "The officer then told me: 'If a German officer says that the Poles were shot by the Bolsheviks, then that corresponds to the facts. Therefore', the officer continued, 'you need have no fear; you may sign the statement with a clear conscience, stating that the Polish prisoners of war were shot by the Bolsheviks, and that you were an eyewitness to it.'" "I answered that I was an old man, 61 years old, and didn't want to burden my soul with sins. I could only testify that the Polish officers actually arrived in the spring of 1940 in Gnesdowo. "The German officer then attempted to convince me to make the desired statement by promising to transfer me from my present job as intermediate station master to another post, and to make me station master at Gnesdowo, which is what I was under the Soviets, as well as taking care of me from a financial point of view. "The interpreter emphasized that the German command placed great value on my testimony as former railway employee at Gnesdowo, the station nearest the Katyn forest, and that I would not be sorry if I made the desired statement. "I saw that I was in an extremely difficult position and that a sad fate awaited me, but I still refused to make the perjured statement to the German officer. "The officer then tricked me. He threatened me to have me beaten or shot, declaring that I did not understand my best interests. But I stood resolutely by my refusal. "The interpreter then wrote a short statement in the German language, one page long, and told me what it said. The interpreter told me it only contained the fact that the Poles arrived in Gnesdowo. But when I asked to sign my statement not only in German, but in Russian as well, the officer lost his temper, beat me with a rubber truncheon, and threw me out." SAWWATEJEW I.W. born 1880, testified: "...In the Gestapo, I said that the Polish prisoners actually arrived in the spring of 1940 at Gnesdowo with their own railway transport, and that they continued by motor transport, where, I don't know. I also added that I later saw the Poles several times on the MoscowMinsk highway doing highway repair work in small groups. "The officer told me that I was mistaken, and that I could not have seen the Poles on the highway, since they had been shot by the Bolsheviks. He asked me to make a statement about this. I refused. After many threats and attempts at persuasion, the officer consulted with the interpreter about something, speaking in the German language. The interpreter then wrote a short statement and presented it to me for signature, saying that it contained <only' the statements I had made. I asked the interpreter if I could read it through for myself, but he interrupted me with insults and ordered me to sign the document immediately and to get out. I hesitated a minute; the interpreter grabbed a rubber truncheon hanging on the wall and raised it to hit me. I then signed the statement which had been placed before me. The interpreter told me to get out, and not to blab anything to anybody or they would have me shot..." In their search for "witnesses", the Germans did not stop at the above mentioned persons. They tried to find former NKWD employees and force them to make the perjured statements desired by the Germans. The Germans then arrested the former NKWD garage worker for the region of Smolensk, IGNATIUK E.L., and tried very hard, through threats and beatings, to force a statement out of him saying that he was not a garage worker, but a driver, and had personally driven the Polish prisoners of war to the location of the shootings. IGNATIUK E.L., born 1903, stated: "During my first interrogation by police chief ALFERTSCHIK, he accused me of antiGerman slander activity, and asked me what my job was with the NKWD. I answered that I was employed in the NKWD office, region of Smolensk, as a worker. During the same interrogation, Alfertschik asked me to make a statement saying that was I employed in the NKWD office not as a worker, but as a driver. When Alfertschik failed to obtain the desired statement, he became enraged and tied me up, him and his adjutant, whom he addressed by the name "Schorsch", tying a rag around my head and mouth; they took down my pants, laid me on a table and beat me with rubber truncheons. They then called me to interrogation once again, and Alfertschik asked me to make the perjured statement that the Polish prisoners of war were shot in the Katyn forest in 1940 by the Bolsheviks, and that I knew all about it since I had driven the Polish officers to the Katyn forest and was present during the shootings. If I agreed to make such a statement, Alfertschik promised to release me from prison and give me a job in the police, where living conditions were very good; otherwise, he would have me shot. The last time, I was interrogated in the police station by the examining magistrate ALEXANDROW, who, like Alfertschik, demanded the desired perjured statement >from me. But I refused. "After this interrogation, they beat me repeatedly and brought me to the Gestapo. In the Gestapo, they demanded that I make the perjured statement about the shooting of the Polish officers in the Katyn forest in 1940, that it was done by the Soviets, and that as a driver I allegedly had to know all about it." In the book published by the German Foreign Office, containing material falsified by the Germans on the "Katyn affair", the above mentioned KISSELEW P.G., among others, is presented as a "witness". The following persons are also cited as "witnesses": GODOSOW (identical with GODUNOW), born 1877; SILWERSTOW GRIGORI, born 1891; ANDREJEW IWAN, born 1917; SHIGULEW MICHAIL, born 1915; KRIWOSERZEW IWAN, born 1915, and SACHAROW MATWEJ, born 1893. It has been proven by investigation that the first two of the above mentioned persons (GODOSOW and SILWERSTOW) died in 1943 before the liberation of the region of Smolensk by the Red Army; the three following persons, ANDREJEW, SHIGULEW, and KRIWOSERZEW), either fled with the Germans or were taken away with the Germans by force. The last named SACHAROW MATWEJ, former railway carriage coupler at Smolensk railway station, who worked as village elder in Nowye Bateki, was found and interrogated by the Special Commission. Sacharow explained the manner in which the Germans obtained the perjured statement on the "Katyn affair". "In early March 1943," Sacharow stated, "a Gestapo worker >from Gnesdowo, whose name I can no longer remember, came to my house and said that a German officer wanted to see me. When I got to the Gestapo, the officer told me through an interpreter: 'We know that you worked as a railway carriage coupler at Smolensk railway station, and therefore you must testify that the railway carriages with the Polish prisoners of war came through the city of Smolensk to Gnesdowo station in 1940, and that the Poles were then shot in the forest in the region of Kosji Gori'. To this, I answered that the carriages with the Poles in them actually came through the city of Smolensk in 1940 headed west, but which station they got off at, was not known to me. The officer told me that if I didn't make the statement of my own free will, he would force me to. With these words, he took a rubber truncheon from the wall and began to beat me. Then they laid me on a bench, and the officer and interpreter both beat me. I no longer know how many times they hit me, because I lost consciousness. When I came to, the officer asked me to sign the statement. I allowed myself to be intimidated by their blows and threats to shoot me, made perjured testimony, and signed the statement. I was then released by the Gestapo. A few days after my order to report to the Gestapo, it was about midMarch 1943, the interpreter came to my house and said I had to go to a German general and confirm my statement. When we got to the general, the general asked me whether I confirmed my statement. I said yes, because the interpreter had told me on the way that if I didn't confirm my statement, I would get even worse than the first time I went to the Gestapo. Out of fear of torture, I answered that I did confirm my statement. The interpreter ordered me to raise by right arm and told me that I had just sworn an oath, and could go home." It has been proven that the Germans attempted to obtain the desired statements >from other persons as well, including the former assistant director of Smolensk prison, KAWERSNEW N.S.; a worker in the same prison, KOWALEW W.G.; and others, by persuading, threatening and mistreating the above mentioned persons. Since the search for for "witnesses" failed to bear fruit, the Germans distributed the following leaflet in the neighbouring villages, an original of which is contained in the files of the Special Commission: "NOTICE TO THE CIVIL POPULATION "Who can testify to the mass shootings of Polish prisoners of war and priests'!!??' committed by the Bolsheviks in 1940 in the Kosji Gori forest on the GnesdowoKatyn highway? Who saw motor transports from Gnesdowo to Kosji Gori? Who heard about the shootings or was personally an eyewitness? Who knows residents capable of testifying in this regard? All information in this connection will be rewarded. All communications should be sent to the German police, Museumstrasse 6, or, in Gnesdowo, to the German police, House no. 105 (at the railway station). 3 May 1943 FOSS Lieutenant, Field Police The same notice was published in the newspaper "DER NEUE WEG" (no. 35 (157) of 6 May 1943, published by the Germans, in the city of Smolensk. That the Germans promised a reward for the desired testimony about the "Katyn affair" was proven by the Special Commission through the interrogation of witnesses and residents of the city of Smolensk: SOKOLOWA O.E., PUSCHTSCHINA E.A., BYTSCHKOW J.J., BONDAREW G.T., USTINOW E.P., and many others. The falsification of the graves at Katyn Simultaneously to the search for "witnesses", the Germans began a corresponding falsification of the graves in the Katyn forest. They began to remove all documents dated later than April 1940, i.e., originating from the time at which, according to the German provocative slanders, the Poles had been shot by the Bolsheviks from the clothing of the Poles shot by the Germans, that is, all exhibits able to disprove these provocative slanders. The investigations of the Special Commission have proven that the Germans used approximately 500 Russian prisoners of war recruited from camp no. 126 for this purpose. The Special Commission has numerous witness testimonies at its disposal relating to this matter. The testimonies of the doctors from the above named camp merit special attention; the doctor of medicine TSCHISCHOW A.T., who worked in camp no. 126 during the occupation of Smolensk, stated: From Thu Sep 12 19:37:01 PDT 1996 Article: 64868 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!n3ott.istar!ott.istar!!van.istar!west.istar!n1van.istar!van-bc!!!!!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: NOT GUILTY AT NUREMBERG [1/2] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:58:25 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 1456 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 WAR CRIMES TRIALS The German Defense Case By Carlos Porter Introduction The re-writing of history is as old as history itself. The Annals of Tacitus, for example, (xv 38), mentions a "rumour" that Nero burned Rome; this "rumour" was repeated by later Roman historians as "fact" (Seutonius, Nero, 38; Dio Cassius, Epistulae, Ixii 16; Pliny, Naturalis Historia xvii 5). Later writers called this "fact" into question, and demoted the "fact" to mere "rumour". In 1946, it was a "proven fact" that Nazis made human soap (Judgement, Nuremberg Trial, IMTI 152; VII 597-600; XIX 506; XXII 496). This "fact" has since become, apparently, merely "rumour" (Hilberg, "revised definitive" Destruction of the European Jews, Holmes and Meier, NY, page 966: "To this day, the origin of the soap making rumour has not been traced"). The forensically untested "rumour" of Soviet origin (Exhibit USSR 393) is in the Peace Palace of The Hague. Peace Palace officials show it to eager visitors and tell them it is authentic; but do not, apparently, answer letters from persons asking to have it tested. In 1943, it was a "rumour" that Nazis were steaming, frying, parboiling, electrocuting, vacuuming and gassing Jews; by 1946, the "gassings" had become "fact", while the steamings, fryings, parboilings, electrocutions and vacuumings remained mere "rumour". (Note: the "steamings" were "proven" in the Pohl Trial, Fourth Nuremberg Trial, NMT IV, 1119-1152). The "evidence" that Nazis "gassed" Jews is qualitatively no better than the "evidence" that they steamed, fried, parboiled, electrocuted, or vacuumed them; it appears legitimate to call this "evidence" into question. This book contains, not a re-writing of history, but a simple guide to historical material which has been forgotten. The 312,022 notarized defense affidavits presented at the First Nuremberg Trial have been forgotten, while the 8 or 9 prosecution affidavits which "rebutted" them are remembered (IMT XXI 437). This book contains a great many references to page numbers. They are not there to confuse, impress, or intimidate the reader, or to prove the truth of the matter stated, but to help interested people find things. Whether the statements of the defense are more credible than the human soap, socks and hamburgers of the prosecution, is for the reader to decide. BORMANN Bormann was accused of "persecution of religion" and many other crimes. Bormann's attorney, Dr. Bergold, pointed out that many modern countries (meaning the Soviet Union) are avowedly atheist, and that orders forbidding priests from holding high Party offices (that is, offices in the Nazi Party) could not be called "persecution". In Dr. Bergold's words: The party is described as criminal - as a conspiracy. Is it a crime to exclude certain people from membership in a criminal conspiracy? Is that considered a crime? (V 312). Documents were produced in which Bormann prohibited persecution of religion and expressly allowed religion to be taught (XXI 462-465). A condition of this order was that the full Bibilical text had to be used; deletions, manipulations or distortions of the text were forbidden. Churches received government subsidies until the end of the war. Due to wartime paper shortages, restrictions were placed upon the printing of all newspapers, not just religious ones (XIX 111-124; XXI 262-263; 346, 534, 539; XXII 40-41). Bormann's attorney had little difficulty in showing that Bormann could not be convicted of a criminal offense under the laws of any country, since it is clear that stenographers are not criminally responsible for every document they sign. It was not clear to what extent Bormann acted merely as stenographer or secretary. To the prosecution, however, law was irrelevant, and Bormann was sentenced to be hanged. Sentence was to be carried out immediately, ignoring extensive testimony that he had been killed by the explosion of a tank and was unlikely to be in one piece, presenting certain problems of a practical nature. (XVII 261-271). CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS The defense evidence for the "criminal organizations" consists of the testimony of 102 witnesses and 312,022 notarized affidavits. (XXII 176) The term "criminal" was never defined (XXII 310; see also XXII 129-135). Nor was it defined when these organizations became "criminal" (XXII 240). The Nazi Party itself was criminal dating back to 1922 (XXII 251) or then again maybe only 1938 (XXII 113) or maybe even not at all (II 105). The 312,022 notarized affidavits were presented to a "commission", and evidence before this "commission" does not appear in the transcript of the Nuremberg Trial. The National Archives in Washington do not possess a copy of the commission transcript, had never heard of it, and do not know what it is. Of the 312,022 affidavits, only a few dozen were ever translated into English, so the Tribunal could not read them. (XXI 287, 398). The President of the Tribunal, Sir Geoffrey Lawrence, understood no German; neither did Robert Jackson. Due to a last-minute rule change (XXI 437-438, 441, 586), many more affidavits were rejected on technical grounds (XX 447-448). The "commission" prepared "summaries" which were presented to the Tribunal (x-thousand affidavits alleging humane treatment of prisoners, etc). These summaries were not considered to be in evidence. The Tribunal promised to read the 312,022 affidavits before arriving at their verdict (XXI 175); 14 days later it was announced that the 312,022 affidavits were not true (XXII 176-178). Then a single affidavit from the prosecution (Document D-973) was deemed to have "rebutted" 136,000 affidavits from the defense (XXI 588; 437, 366). The 102 witnesses were forced to appear and testify before the "commission" before appearing before the Tribunal. Then, 29 of these witnesses (XXI 586), or 22 of these witnesses (XXII 413) were allowed to appear before the Tribunal, but their testimony was not permitted to be 'cumulative', that is, repetitive of their testimony before the 'commission'. (XXI 298, 318, 361). Then, six affidavits from the prosecution were deemed to have "rebutted" the testimony of the 102 witnesses (XXI 153, XXII 221). One of these affidavits was in Polish, so the defense could not read it (XX 408). Another was signed by a Jew named Szloma Gol who claimed to have dug up and cremated 80,000 bodies, including that of his own brother (XXI 157. XXII 220).(1) (1) In the British transcript he has only dug up 67,000 bodies. The prosecution had already rested its case when this occurred (XX 389- 393; 464; XXI 586-592). The prosecution then claimed in its final summation that 300,000 affidavits had been presented to the Tribunal and had been considered during the trial, giving the impression that these are prosecution documents (XXII 239). In fact, the prosecution got through the entire trial with no more than a few really important affidavits of their own. (See, for example, XXI 437, where eight or nine affidavits were presented for the prosecution against three hundred thousand for the defense; see also XXI 477-478; 585-586; 615). In the various concentration camp trials, such as the Trial of Martin Gottfried Weiss, a simpler expedient was agreed upon: mere employment in the camp, even if only for a few weeks, was deemed to constitute "constructive knowledge" of the "Common Plan". "Common Plan", of course, was not defined. It was not necessary to allege specific acts of mistreatment, or to show that anyone had died as a result of mistreatment.(2) (2) 36 of the 40 defendants were sentenced to death. The transcript of the Nuremberg commission is in The Hague, and fills half of one fire-proof floor-to-ceiling vault. The testimony of each witness was typed with a pagination beginning with page 1, then re-typed, with consecutive pagination running to many thousands of pages. The first drafts and clean copy are in folders, together, stapled, on very brittle paper, with rusty staples. It is absolutely certain that, at least at The Hague, no one has ever read this material. Summation relating to the testimony of the 102 witnesses appears mostly in fine print in volumes XXI and XXII in the Nuremberg Trial transcript. The fine print means that the passages were deleted from the final defense summation (otherwise the trial would have been much too long). This material runs to several hundred pages. In the transcript published in the United Kingdom, every word of this material is gone. In English, 11 pages in fine print are missing between paragraphs 1 and 2 on page 594 from volume XXI. These appear in the German volumes (XXI 654-664). Most of the rest of it appears to be there. The material covers, for example: Total War XIX 25 Reparations XIX 224-232 German trade unions XXI 462 Gestapo and concentration camps XXI 494-530 Rohm Putsch XXI 576-592 Crystal Night XXI 590-592 Resettlement XXI 467-469; 599-603 SD XXII 19-35 Armaments XXII 62-64 The 312,022 affidavits are probably on deposit with a German archive. The judgment of the Nuremberg trial is printed twice, in Volumes I and XXII. It is important to obtain the German volumes and read the juudgment in volume XXII in German. Bad German, mistranslations, etc, written by the Americans have been corrected, with footnotes. Mistakes of this kind in documents may be taken as proof of forgeries. Generally, the German IMT volumes are preferable to the American ones. Frequent footnotes throughout these volumes alert the reader to mistranslations, missing documents, and falsified copies (for example, XX 205, 405, English volumes). The German volumes are available in paperback from Delphin Verlag, Munich. (Transcript only; transcript and document volumes in English are available >from Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry NY. on microfilm). In the German paperback volumes, XVII 463-479 of the English text are missing. DOCUMENTS The standard version of events is that the Allies examined 100,000 documents and chose 1,000 which were introduced into evidence, and that the original documents were then deposited in the Peace Palace at The Hague. This is rather inexact. The documents used in evidence at Nuremberg consisted largely of "photocopies" of "copies". Many of these original documents were written entirely on plain paper without handwritten markings of any kind, by unknown persons. Occasionally, there is an illegible initial or signature of a more or less unknown person certifying the document as a 'true copy'. Sometimes there are German stamps, sometimes not. Many have been 'found' by the Russians, or 'certified authentic' by Soviet War Crimes Commissions. Volume XXXIII, a document volume taken at random, contains 20 interrogations or affidavits, 12 photocopies, 5 unsigned copies, 5 original documents with signatures, 4 copies of printed material, 3 mimeographed copies, 3 teletypes, 1 microfilm copy, 1 copy signed by somebody else and 1 unspecified. The Hague has few, if any, original documents. The Hauge has many original postwar 'affidavits', or sworn statements, the Tribunal Commission transcripts, and much valuable defense material. They have the 'human soap', which has never been tested, and the 'original human soap recipe' (Document USSR- 196), which is a forgery; but apparently no original wartime German documents. The Hague has negative photostats of these documents, on extremely brittle paper which has been stapled. To photocopy the photostats, the staples are removed. When they are re-stapled more holes are made. Most of these documents have not been photocopied very often, and officials at The Hague say it is very unusual for anyone to ask to see them. The National Archives in Washington (see Telford Taylor's Use of Captured German and Related Documents, A National Archive Conference) claim that the original documents are in The Hague. The Hague claims the original documents are in the National Archives. The Stadtsarchiv Nurnberg and the Bundesarchiv Koblenz also have no original documents, and both say the original documents are in Washington. Since the originals are, in most cases, 'copies', there is often no proof that the documents in question ever existed. Robert Jackson got the trial off to a start by quoting the following forged or otherwise worthless documents (II 120-142): 1947-PS; 1721-PS; 1014- PS; 81-PS; 212-PS; and many others. 1947-PS is a 'copy' of a 'translation' of a letter from General Fritsch to the Baroness von Schutzbar-Milchling. The Baroness later signed an affidavit stating that she never received the letter in question (XXI-381). The falsified 'letter' from General Fritsch to the Baroness von Schutzbar-Milchling was recognized as such during the trial and is not included in the document volumes, where it should appear at XXVIII 44. Jackson was not, however, admonished by the Tribunal. (XXI 380) The enthusiastic Americans apparently forged 15 of these 'translations', after which the original documents all disappeared (See Taylor, Captured Documents). 1721-PS is a forgery in which an SA man writes a report to himself about how he is carrying out an order which is quoted verbatim in the report. Handwritten markings on page 1 (XXI-137-141; 195-198; 425; XXII 148-150. See also Testimony Before the Commission, Fuss, 25 April, and Lucke, 7 May 1946). The National Archives have a positive photostat of 1721-PS, and The Hague has a negative photostat. The 'original' is a photocopy (XXVII 485). 1014-PS is a falsified 'Hitler Speech' written on plain paper by an unknown person. The document bears the heading 'Second Speech' although it is known that Hitler gave only one speech on that date. There are four versions of this speech, 3 of them forgeries: 1014-PS, 798-PS, L-3, and an authentic version, Ra-27 (XVII-406-408; XVIII 390-402; XXII 65). The third forgery, Document L-3, bears an FBI laboratory stamp and was never even accepted into evidence (II 286), but 250 copies of it were given to the press as authentic (II 286). This document is quoted by A.J.P. Taylor on page 254 of The Origins of the Second World War (Fawcett Paperbacks, 2nd Edition, with Answer to his Critics) giving his source as German Foreign Policy, Series D vii, No 192 and 193. L-3 is the source of many statements attributed to Hitler, particularly "who today remembers the fate of the Armenians?" and "our enemies are little worms, I saw them at Munich". 'Hitler' also compares himself to Genghis Khan and says he will exterminate the Poles, and kick Chamberlain in the groin in front of the photographers. The document appears to have been prepared on the same typewriter as many other Nuremberg documents, including the two other versions of the same speech. This typewriter was probably a Martin from the Triumph-Adler-Werke, Nuremberg. 81-PS is a 'certified true copy' of an unsigned letter on plain paper prepared by an unknown person. If authentic, it is the first draft of a letter never sent. This is invariably spoken of as a letter written by Rosenberg, which Rosenberg denied (XI 510-511). The document lacks signature, initial, blank journal number (a bureaucratic marking) and was not found among the papers of the person to whom it was addressed. (XVII 612). 81-PS is a 'photocopy' with a Soviet exhibit number (USSR-353, XXV 156-161). 212-PS was also prepared by an unknown person, entirely on plain paper, without any handwritten markings, date, address, or stamp (III 540, XXV 302-306; see also photocopies of negative photostats from The Hague). This is, unfortunately, only typical. Document 386-PS, the 'Hossbach Protokoll', Hitler's supposed speech of 5 November 1938, is a certified photocopy of a microfilm copy of a re-typed 'certified true copy' prepared by an American, of a re-typed 'certified true copy' prepared by a German, of unauthenticated handwritten notes by Hossbach, of a speech by Hitler, written from memory 5 days later. This is not the worst document, but one of the best, because we know who made one of the copies. The text of 386-PS has been 'edited' (XLII 228-230). Thus 'trial by document' works as follows: A, an unknown person, listens to alleged 'oral statements' made by B, and takes notes or prepares a document on the basis of those alleged oral statements. The document is then introduced into evidence, not against A, who made the copy, but against B, C, D, E and a host of other people, although there is nothing to connect them with the document or the alleged statements. It is casually stated as fact that 'B said', or that 'C did', or that 'D and E knew'. This is contrary to the rules of evidence of all civilised countries. Nor are the documents identified by witnesses. The forgery of original documents was rarely resorted to at Nuremberg, because the documents were not brought to court. The "original document" - that is, the original unsigned "copy" - was kept in a safe in the Document Centre (II 195, 256-258). Then, 2 "photocopies" of the "copy" (V 21) or 6 photocopies (II 251-253) were prepared and brought to court. All other copies were re-typed on a mimeograph using a stencil (IX 504). In the transcript, the word "original" is used to mean "photocopy" (II 249-250, XIII 200, 508, 519; XV 43, 169, 171, 327) to distinguish the photocopies from the mimeograph copies (IV 245-246). "Translations" of all documents were available from the beginning of the trial (II 158-161, 191, 195, 215, 249-250, 277, 415, 437) but the "original" German texts were not available until at least two months later. This applies not just to the trial briefs and indictment, etc. but to ALL DOCUMENTS. The defense received no documents in German until after January 9, 1946 (V 22-26). Documents which appear to have been prepared on the same typewriter include Document 3803-PS, a letter from Kaltenbrunner to the Mayor of Vienna, and the cover letter from this same Mayor sending Kaltenbrunner's letter to the Tribunal (XI 345-348). This letter from Kaltenbrunner contains a false geographical term (XIV 416). DONITZ [Photograph] DOnitz was imprisoned for waging "illegal submarine warfare" against the British. In international law, everything is a matter of reciprocity and international agreements, which can only be enforced through reciprocity. In warfare, the best defense against a weapon is a vigorous counterattack with the same weapon. The British, due to their mastery of the seas, fought both world wars through blockade, and the so-called Navicert system. Neutral ships were stopped at sea, and forced to pull into British ports where they were searched according to complicated formulae: if Holland imported more cement than was believed to be necessary for her own needs in 1915, it was believed that the difference was intended for re-shipment to Germany, and the entire cargo was confiscated. Neutrals, including the United States, complained that this violated their neutrality (1), but complied, again, in violation of their own neutrality. A nation which allows its neutrality to be violated may be treated as a belligerent. (1) The British never ratified the Fifth Hague Convention of 18 October 1907 on the Rights of Neutrals, but considered its terms binding on the Germans and Japanese, despite an all-participation clause. In 1939, the Germans possessed only 26 Atlantic-going submarines, one fifth of the French total alone. Moreover, German submarines were much smaller than those of other nations. A counterblockade against the British could only be enforced by warning neutrals not to sail in waters surrounding the British Isles. To the British, this was a "crime". Of these 26 submarines, many were, at any one time, under repair; so that during some months only 2 or 3 were seaworthy. It is obvious that submarines cannot carry out search and seizure in the same manner as a surface navy; a submarine, once it has surfaced, is almost defenseless against the smallest gun mounted on a merchant vessel, not to mention radio, radar, and aircraft. It was demanded by the British at Nuremberg that German submarines should have surfaced, notified the surface vessel of their intention to search; waited for the surface vessel to commence hostilities; then sink the vessel, presumably with the submarine's deck guns; then take the dozens of hundreds of survivors on board the submarine (where they would be in far greater danger than in any lifeboat), and take them to the nearest land. When British aircraft appeared and sank the submarine, killing the survivors, they had, of course, been "murdered" by the Germans. No international convention requires this, and no nation fought in this manner. Since rescuing survivors rendered the submarine unfit for duty and frequently resulted in the loss of submarine and crew, DONITZ prohibited any act of rescue. This was called an order to "exterminate survivors". This was not upheld in the judgment, however. DONITZ was also accused of encouraging the German people to hopeless resistance, a crime also committed by Winston Churchill, DONITZ replied. It was very painful that our cities were still being bombed to pieces and that through these bombing attacks and the continued fight more lives were lost. The number of these people is about 300,000 to 400,000, the largest number of whom perished in the bombing of Dresden, which cannot be justified from a military point of view, and which could not have been predicted. Nevertheless, this figure is relatively small compared with the millions of German people we would have lost in the East, soldiers and civilians, if we had capitulated in the winter. XII 247-406: XVII 312-372. FRANK [Photograph] Frank was accused of making hundreds of anti-Semitic statements in a 12,000 page document called his "diary". The "diary" contains only one page signed by Frank, and hundreds of humane statements, which were ignored (XII 114-156). The anti-Semitic statements were selected by the Russians and typeset in a short document which was introduced into evidence as Document 2233-PS, invariably called "Frank's Diary". The actual "diary" of 12,000 pages consists of summaries (not verbatim transcripts or stenographic notes) of conferences in which 5 or 6 people often spoke at once in circumstances of great confusion; it was not clear to whom which statements should be attributed (XII 86). Frank gave his "diary" to the Americans in the belief that it would exonerate him; he had protested Hitler's illegality in public speeches at great personal risk, and tried to resign 14 times (XII 2-114; XVIII 129-163). Frank became convinced that atrocities had occured after reading about the Soviet Maidenak Trial in the foreign press (XII 35). Auschwitz was not in territory controlled by Frank. Frank saw his task as the creation of an independent judiciary in a National Socialist State, a task which he found impossible. In a speech on November 19, 1941, Frank said, Law cannot be degraded to a position where it becomes an object of bargaining. Law cannot be sold. It is either there, or it is not there. Law cannot be marketed on the stock exchange. If the law finds no support, then the State too loses its moral stay and sinks into the depths of night and horror. Hitler's illegalities never included the passing of an ex post facto law; in 3 cases, punishment was increased retroactively (XVII 504). Frank's alleged looting of art treasures will be discussed together with that of Rosenberg. FRICK Frick was hanged for "Germanizing" the inhabitants of Posen, Danzig, West Prussia, Eupen, Malmedy, the Sudetenland, the Memelland, and Austria. With the exception of Austria, these were fomer parts of the Prussian Reich, separated from Germany by the Versailles Treaty. Malmedy is French- speaking - the other areas are all German speaking. Austria was unable to subsist as an economic unit after 1919, and had demanded to be united with Germany by vote. The Allied victors responded by threatening to cut off all food supplies (XVIII 55, XIX 360). Another crime committed by Frick was killing 275,000 feeble-minded persons, according to the "report" of a Czech "War Crimes Commission". Frick, like GORING, was accused of responsibility for the existence of the concentration camps. In Frick's defense it was pointed out that "protective custody" pre-dated the National Socialist accession to power in both Germany and Austria. In Austria, it was called Anhaltehaft, and was used to imprison thousands of National Socialists (XXI 518-521). "Protective custody" exists in West Germany today and is called U-haft. In the final judgment of one of the most important Dachau Trials (Trial of Martin Gottfried Weiss and Thirty-Nine Others, Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, volume XI, p. 15, published by the United Nations), the following sentence appears: In the Mathausen Concentration Camp case . . . the facts were basically the same - though the casualty figures were much higher as mass extermination by means of a gas chamber was practised --- Is this an admission that no gas chamber existed at Dachau? According to Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, no Dachau trial ever "proved" the existence of a gas chamber at Dachau. At Nuremberg, a "certified true copy" of the judgment of the Trial of Martin Gottfried Weiss and Thirty Nine Others was introduced into evidence with that sentence deleted as Document 3590-PS (V 199) along with 3 other documents alleging mass extermination by gassing at Dachau (Document 3249-PS, V 172-173, XXXII 60; Document 2430-PS, XXX 470; and 159-L, XXXVII 621). Frick was accused by the deponent of the "mass gassings at Dachau" affidavit, Document 3249-PS, (written by Lt. Daniel L. Margolies, also involved in the forgery of 3 Hitler speeches, XIV 65, and signed by Dr. Franz Blaha) of having visited Dachau. Frick denied this, and demanded to take the stand to be confronted with Blaha and to testify in his own defense. [Photograph] This request was denied, and Frick apparently gave up. He never testified. His defense summation appears at XVIII 164-189. The deponent, Dr. Franz Blaha, a Communist, was President of the International Dachau Association in 1961, still claiming to have witnessed mass gassings and to have made trousers and other leather goods out of human skin. The trial of Martin Gottfried Weiss is available on 6 reels of microfilm (MII 74, National Archives). The pre-trial gas chamber exhibits (report, diagrams, shower nozzle, reel 1) were never introduced into evidence and are missing from the trial exhibits (reel 4). The transcripts (reels 2 & 3) contain no mention of any gas chamber at Dachau except for a few sentences in the testimony of Dr Blaha (Volume 1 pp. 166-169). The human skin came >from moles (Volume 4, pp. 450, 462, 464). FRITZCHE [Photograph] Fritzsche became convinced from a letter that mass killings were being carried out in Russia and attempted to verify this. He was, however, unable to find any evidence of it (XVII 172-175). Fritzsche is an important defendant because it was admitted in his case that foreign newspapers printed much false news about Germany (XVII 175- 176; see also XVII 22-24). Yet, these same newspaper stories and radio reports constituted the "facts of common knowledge" which the Tribunal alleged needed no proof (Article 21 of rules of evidence, I 15, II 246). It was pointed out in Fritzsche's defense that no international convention exists regulating propaganda or atrocity stories, true or false, and that only one national law of one state (Switzerland) made it unlawful to insult foreign Heads of State. That Fritzsche could be guilty of no crime, was, at Nuremberg, simply irrelevant. It was deemed undesirable to have a "trial" in which all defendants were convicted. In the horse-trading which preceeded the final verdict, it was agreed that Fritzsche should be released (XVII 135-261; XIX 312-352). FUNK Funk was a classical pianist from a highly respected artistic family, married for 25 years at the time of the trial, and former financial editor. Like most of the defendants, Funk was accused of performing "immoral acts" such as accepting birthday gifts from Hitler, proving "willing participation in the Common Plan". (Obviously, such acts are not illegal.) Funk claimed that the British and the Poles had conspired to provoke Germany into war in the belief that the generals would overthrow Hitler (XIII 111-112). Funk was accused of conspiring with the SS to murder concentration camp inmates in order to finance the war effort by pulling their teeth out. The gold teeth were stored in a vault at the Reichsbank, along with shaving kits, fountain pens, large alarm clocks, and other more or less useless junk. Forgotten was Rudolf Hoess's testimony that the teeth were melted at Auschwitz (XI 417). [Photograph] Funk testified that the amounts and kinds of loot were "absurd" and pointed out that the SS acted as customs police and enforced exchange control regulations, including a prohibition against the ownership of gold, silver, and foreign coins or currency. It was quite natural that the SS should confiscate large amounts of valuables, and that the SS, as a government agency, should have financial accounts, and that these accounts would contain valuables. Germans kept valuables in the same vaults as well, to which the Reichsbank had no access, since they were private safety deposit accounts. With the increased bombing raids, more and more valuables were deposited in the vaults by ordinary German citizens. Finally, after a particularly damaging raid on the bank, the valuables were removed to a potassium mine in Thuringen. The Americans found the valuables there, and falsified a film of it. Funk and his attorney showed the falsity of the film using an opposing witness, in some of the shrewdest testimony and cross examination in the entire trial (XIII 169; 203-204; 562-576; XXI 233-245). Also given short shrift was the ridiculous Oswald Pohl affidavit, Document 4045-PS, in which Funk was accused of discussing the use of gold teeth from dead Jews to finance the war at a dinner party attended by dozens of people, including waiters (XVIII 220-263). This affidavit is in German and is witnessed by Robert Kempner. Pohl was later convicted of "steaming" people to death in 10 "steam chambers" at Treblinka, and making doormats out of their hair (NMT IV 1119-1152) (Fourth National Military Tribunal, Nuremberg). Funk believed, like other defendants, that crimes had occurred, but maintained that he knew nothing about it. His belief that crimes had occurred does not, in itself, prove that that belief was true. KURT GERSTEIN Kurt Gerstein is often referred to as a Holocaust "witness"; however, this is not correct. By "witness", one normally understands a person who has seen something and who appears to testify as to his personal knowledge; Gerstein did not do that. Gerstein was an unworn affiant or deponent, which means that he is simply a name appearing at the end of a "statement" typewritten in French, which he may or may not have written. (Document 1553-PS rejected at Nuremberg). One of the stories current about Gerstein is that he wrote the statement in Cherche-Midi prison, in France, and committed suicide, after which his body disappeared. It is far more probable that the statement was written in French by a German Jewish interrogator-"interpreter", and that some of the inconsistencies (such as winter occuring in August, or being in a car in one sentence, and a train in the next) resulted from imperfect transcription of the notes of interrogation into affidavit form. In minor war crimes trials and Japanese war crimes trials, unsworn "statements" of this kind are fairly common, on the theory that they possess "probative value" but less "weight" than sworn statements. It is also possible that Gerstein died of injuries sustained during "interrogation"; or perhaps he hanged himself with the typewriter ribbon. This document was later extensively quoted in the Pohl Trial, where it was "proven" that Treblinka had 10 'gas chambers' and 10 'steam chambers' in the same camp at the same time. G.M. GILBERT One of the most famous accounts of the behavior and psychology of the Nuremberg Trial defendants is that of the German-born psychologist, G.M. Gilbert, in his book Nuremberg Diary. Much of the material consists of conversations which the defendants and other persons, such as Rudolf Hoess, allegedly had with Gilbert or each other(!) and which Gilbert allegedly wrote down from memory afterwards. A comparison of texts with the Nuremberg trial transcript will show that the defendants did not speak in the style attributed to them by Gilbert. Gilbert took no notes. No witnesses were present. Persons who believe that Documents 1014-PS, 798-PS, and L-3 are "Hitler speeches", at least in comparison with Document Ra-27, may continue believing that Gilbert's book contains "statements of the Nuremberg Trial defendants". This does not rule out, of course, that they may have made statements similar to those allegedly "remembered" by Gilbert. Gilbert believed that the defendants gassed millions of Jews. If they felt no guilt for their actions, this proved that they were "schizoid". It is obvious that such a belief on Gilbert's part would influence his perception and memory to some extent, even if he is telling the truth as he remembers it. If he lied, he was not the only "American" at Nuremberg who did so. Telford Taylor, for example, was incapable of repeating the simplest statement truthfully. (See XX 626, the statements of General Manstein, compared with Taylor's "quotation" from Manstein, XXII 276). Gilbert's dishonesty is best proven by the entry for December 14, 1945: "Major Walsh continued reading documentary evidence of the extermination of the Jews at Treblinka and Auschwitz. A Polish document stated: 'All victims had to strip off their clothes and shoes, which were collected afterwards, whereupon all victims, women and children first, were driven into the death chambers . . . small children were simply thrown inside" (p.69, 1st edition). The "documentary evidence" is, of course, a Communist "War Crimes Report" and the "death chambers", of course, are "steam chambers". (III 567-568). GORING [Photograph] GORING was accused of creating the concentration camp system and plotting "aggressive war" against Poland. GORING's defense was that Germany was a sovereign state, recognized by every government in the world (XXI 580-581); that Hitler was legally elected; that every nation has the right to legislate and to organize its affairs as it sees fit; that General von Schleicher had attempted to rule illegally and unconstitutionally without the support of the National Socialists; that Germany was on the verge of civil war in 1933; that concentration camps were invented by the British during the Boer War, and that internment of aliens and political opponents was practiced by both Britain and the United States during WWII. The order to create the camps was unquestionably legal under an emergency clause in the Weimar Constitution, and was signed by Hindenberg (Reich President's Decree of 28 February 1933), under the authority of Article 48, paragraph 2, of the Weimar Constitution (XVII 535, XIX 357). According to a prosecution document, Document R-129 (III 506-507) there were 21,400 inmates in all German concentration camps put together in 1939. 300,000 persons were confined in ordinary prisons (XVII 535-536, XX 159). One year after the war, 300,000 Germans were held in Allied prison camps under "automatic arrest" clauses in Allied agreements (such as Point B-5 of the Joint Declaration of Potsdam) (XVIII 52). The majority of prisoners in German concentration camps were Communists and common criminals (XVII 535-536; XXI 516-521; 607-614). During the war, due to the Allied blockade, the camp system was expanded to utilize the labour of enemy aliens, criminals, Jehova's Witnesses and Communists. It was pointed out that America imprisoned 11,000 Jehova's Witnesses (XI 513). Britain fought both world wars in defiance of international law by reducing Germany and any occupied territories to literal starvation through blockade (XIII 445-450; XVIII 334-335). It was this which necessitated requisitions and labour conscription in occupied territories, legal under Article 52 of The Hague Convention(1). It was this which made people happy to work in Germany and remit wages to their families (between two and three billion Reichsmarks during the war). (1) Fourth Hague Convention on Land Warfare 18 October 1907. The "slaves" paid German taxes on their wages, and were disciplined through fines, which could not exceed a week's wages (V 509). For gross indiscipline, they could be sent to a work camp (not a concentration camp) for a period not exceeding 56 days (XXI 521). It was strictly forbidden to beat or mistreat them. Prisoners of war could volunteer to be released from prisoner of war camps and work in industry, in which case they were treated like any other industrial workers (XVIII 496-498), but lost protection under the Geneva Prisoner of War Convention. They could not be forced to do so. The Vichy Regime in France obtained the release and immediate return home of 1 prisoner of war for every 3 workers sent to Germany under contract for a period of 6 months (XVIII 497). It was not possible to violate the Geneva Prisoner of War Convention by forcing French, Belgian or Dutch prisoners to participate in hostilities against their own countries, because their own countires were no longer fighting (XVIII 472-473). As for the attack on Poland, the Polish crisis existed for over a year prior to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the German and Soviet attack. During this entire time, the Poles never called for an impartial international Court of Arbitration; never called on the League of Nations; because they did not wish an equitable solution. They were content to continue to violate their international agreements by expelling Polish citizens of German descent, as well as many hundreds of thousands of Jews (XVI 275). The influx of Polish Jews into Germany was the principal immediate cause of German anti-Semitism, according to many defendants and defense witnesses (XXI 134-135; XXII 148). Polish Jews were involved in many financial scandals and swindling schemes, such as the Barnat affair (XXI 569). As for "conspiracy to wage war in defiance of the laws of war", of course it was the British who did that, with mass aerial bombings. German soldiers went into battle with detailed written instructions that property was to be respected; prisoners must be humanely treated; women must be respected; and so on (IX 57-58, 86; XVII 516). Frequent trials resulting in many death penalties against Germans were carried out by the German armed forces against members of their own armed forces for rape or looting, even if the value of the property involved was slight. (XVIII 368; XXI 390; XXII 78). Requisition of government property was legal under the Hague Convention. The Soviet Union was not a signatory to this convention. In any case, in Communist countries there was no private property. GORING said he had been to Russia, and the people there had nothing to steal (IX 349-351). Furthermore, the Allies were presently engaged in everything they accused the Germans of doing (XXI 526; XXII 366-367). GORING demolished the "pressure chamber medical experiment" accusation by saying that every airman had to test his physical reactions to high altitude; there was nothing sinister about a so-called "pressure chamber" (XXI 304-310). Americans carried out medical experiments resulting in death while the Nuremberg trial was still going on (XIX 90-92, see also XXI 356, 370). Ironically, it was alleged that "defensive war" included preventive attack (XXII 448) or to protect citizens of a foreign country from their own government (XIX 472; XXII 37), except when Germans did it (X 456). Protests that Germans did just that were ignored. The Soviets had 10,000 tanks and 150 divisions massed along the border of eastern Poland, and had increased the number of airports in their section of the country from 20 to 100. Detailed maps were later found which would not have been necessary for defensive purposes. It was believed that to await an attack upon the oil fields of Roumania or the coal fields of Silesia would be suicidal (XIX 13-16, XX 578; XXII 71). It seems unlikely that nations with vast colonial empires (Britain, France) or claims upon entire hemispheres (the United States) could agree upon a workable definition of "aggressive war". Indeed it was admitted in the judgment of Nuremberg that "defense", "aggression", and "conspiracy" were never defined (XXII 464, 467). No doubt "defensive war" is the medieval "bellum justum" dressed up in liberal jargon (IX 236-691; XVII 516-550; XXI 302-317). [Photograph] RUDOLF HESS According to the report of Robert H. Jackson, (quoted by Judge Bert A. Roling of the Tokyo Tribunal, writing in A Treatise on International Criminal Law, vol. 1., pp. 590-608, edited by M. Cherif Bassiouni and Ved. F. Nanda, Chas Thomas Publisher), the British, French, and Soviets at Nuremberg did not wish to charge the Germans with "aggressive war" at all, for obvious reasons. This accusation was invented by the Americans for the sole, express, and admitted purpose of justifying American violations of international law. These violations of international law would include the Lend Lease Program; convoying and repairing British wartime ships for two years prior to Pearl Harbor; allowing British ships to disguise themselves as American while the U.S. was officially neutral; the illegal declaration of a 300 mile limit; the occupation of Iceland; reporting the movements of German and Italian submarines; bombing and ramming attacks against German and Italian submarines beginning as early as July of 1941, and other actions obviously indicative of "aggressive war". Thus Hess was imprisoned for 47 years not only for actions which were not illegal (attempting to stop the war, save millions of lives and prevent the destruction of Europe and the British Empire), but for "crimes" which were invented to cover the crimes of his accusers. It was not alleged at Nuremberg that Germany had committed "aggression" against Britain or France; the question of whether Britain and France had, thereofre, committed "aggression" against Germany was left unanswered. (IX 473; XVII 580). Hess was accused of plotting with Hitler to take Britain out of the war so that Hitler could attack Russia. His defense was that his action was dictated by sincerity; that he knew nothing of any attack on Russia. Hess's defense summation appears at XIX 353-396. From his final (and only) statement (XXII 368-373) Hess appears to have been a man who could be totally insane one moment, and brilliantly lucid, sane and logical a moment later. It is possible that this condition was acquired in Britain. [Photograph captioned, "The wreckage of the plane that Rudolf Hess flew to Britain in an attempt to stop the war, leading to his conviction for crimes against peace."] RUDOLF HOESS; Rudolf Hoess was the Auschwitz commandant whose "confessions" have "proven" that Hitler gassed six million Jews (or five million, the figure usually used at Nuremberg). His best-known "confession" is the one quoted by William L. Shirer on pages 968-969 of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. This document, Document 3868-PS, should be seen in its context. The ex parte written "statement" or affidavit was a principal prosecutor's tool in the witchcraft trials of the Middle Ages, only to disappear for several centuries, then reappear in Communist show trials and war crimes trials. These documents violate many standard rules of legal procedure, such as the rule against asking leading questions, the rule against prior consistent statements, the right to confront and cross-examine one's accuser, and the privilege against self-incrimination. Nor would the "evidence" in war crime trials be admissable in a court martial. Even in 1946, the introduction of depositions by the prosecution in capital cases before a court martial was forbidden by Article 25 of the US Articles of War. Article 38 required the use of standard Federal rules of evidence. At Nuremberg, there was never the slightest pretense that Hoess wrote this document. If that had been the case, it would not state, "I understand English as it is written above", but rather, "I have written this statement myself". In the minor trials (Hadamar, Natzweiler, etc.) it is common to find confessions written entirely in the handwriting of the interrogator, in English, with a final statement in the prisoners handwriting, in German, stating that these are his statements and that he is satisfied with the translation into English! Another formula occurs on page 57 of the Hadamar volume of Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe's book, War Crimes Trials, "I certify that the above has been read to me in German, my native tongue" (in English). The pretense was that the prisoner was interrogated through an interpreter in question and answer form, after which the questions were deleted, and the answers were run together in the form of an affidavit, usually written by a different person from the interrogator who conducted the questioning. At Belsen, for example, every affidavit was written by one officer, Major Smallwood. In this trial, a combination Auschwitz-Belsen trial, the court-appointed British and free Polish defense team demolished the prosecution case - including the "selections for mass gassings" - but were overruled on the grounds that involuntary statements and oral and written hearsay were admissable, "not to convict the innocent, but to convict the guilty" (Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, Vol. II, (This thin volume must be read in its entirety.)) After the affidavit was prepared by the officer who did nothing but write affidavits, it was presented in its finished form to the prisoner for signature. If it was not signed, it was introduced into evidence anyway. Objections went to "weight", in the jargon of war crimes proceedings, rather than to "admissibility". An example of an unsigned affidavit by Rudolf Hoess is Document NO-4498- B. The B means that this document is a "translation" with typewritten signature of an "original" document, Document NO-4498-A, written in Polish, and allegedly signed by Hoess. There is also a Document NO- 4498-C, in English. Affidavits A and C are not attached to Affidavit B, the "true copy". Document 3868-PS, quoted by Shirer, was signed in English, 3 times, but not in the "translation" into German. The document contains a minor change initialled by Hoess, with a small "h", and an entire sentence written entirely in the interrogator's handwriting (compare capital "W"s) not initialled by Hoss. The initial, of course, is there to "prove" that he has "read and corrected" the document. The content of this handwritten sentence is refuted elsewhere (XXI 529). When the affidavit was presented to the prisoner, it was sometimes corrected extensively, leading to two or more versions of the same document. In these cases, the longer ones are "quoted", and the shorter ones are "lost". An example of this practice is Document 948-949, the affidavit of Dr. Wilhelm Jager (See Albert Speer.) Jager testified that he signed 3 or 4 copies of the same document, a much shorter one. The shorter one was originally presented against the elder Krupp, before charges against him were dropped. In this document, the longer one, the translation into English is dated prior to the signature date on the "original". Jager's court appearance was an unmitigated disaster, but that is forgotten (XV 264-283). If the affiant appeared to testify, he invariably contradicted the affidavit, but contradictions are ignored. Other affidavit signers whose court appearances were catastrophic include General Westhoff, who contradicted his unsworn "statement" 27 times (XI 155-189); and a "germ warfare witness", Schreiber (XXI 547-562); Paul Schmidt's affidavit (Schmidt was Hitler's interpreter), Document 3308-PS - presented to him for signature when he was too sick to read it carefully - was partially repudiated by him (X 222), but used in evidence against Von Neurath, despite Schmidt's repudiation (XVI 381; XVII 40-41). Ernst Sauckel signed an affidavit written prior to his arrival at Nuremberg (XV 68) and signed under duress (his wife and 10 children were to be handed over to the Poles or Russians). Since the affiants almost never (if ever) wrote their own "statements", it is common to find identical or nearly identical phrases or even entire paragraphs occurring in different documents, even when they have been prepared on different days by supposedly different people; for example, affidavits 3 and 5 of Blaskovitz and Halder (Exhibits 536-US and 537-US); Documents USSR-471 and USSR-472 and 473; and Documents USSR-264 and 272 (human soap affidavits). Other affidavits signed by Hoess include Document NO-1210, in which the English was written first, with extensive interpolations, additions and corrections, including 2 different first drafts of page 4, and 2 different first drafts of page 5, then translated into German and signed by Hoess. That is, the "translation" is the "original", and the "original" is the "translation". Document 749(b)D was "translated orally" into German from English for Hoess prior to signature. The signature is faint to the point of illegibility, indicating possible ill health, fatigue or torture. The torture has been described by Rupert Butler in Legions of Death (Hamlyn Paperbacks) The "confession" quoted by Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe on April Fool's Day, April 1, 1946, in which Hoess "confessed" to killing 4 million Jews (X 389), instead of the usual 2.5 million of April 5, 1946, has either never existed or has gotten "lost". It is not true that Hoess's court appearance at Nuremberg consisted chiefly of assenting to his affidavit; this is true only of his cross- examination by Col. John Amen of the U.S. Army. Instead, Hoess appeared to testify, and, as usual, contradicted his affidavit and himself as much as possible (XI 396-422). For example, where the affidavit states (XI 416) "we knew when the people were dead because their screaming stopped", (a crudely obvious toxicological impossibility), his oral testimony claims (XI 401, in response to grossly improper leading questions posed by Kaltenbrunner's "defense attorney"), that the people became unconscious; leaving unsolved the problem of just how he knew when they were, in fact, dead. He forgot to mention that killing insects with Zyklon took two days, a fact he mentioned elsewhere (Document NO-036, p. 3, German text, answer to Question 25, and Kommandant in Auschwitz, p. 155). With such a slow-acting poison, the people would suffocate first. Hoess claimed that the order to kill the Jews of Europe was given orally (XI 398), but that orders to keep the killings secret were given in writing (XI 400). He claimed that persons were cremated in pits at Auschwitz, a notorious swamp (XI 420), and that gold teeth were melted down on the spot (XI 417), but an evacuation of the concentration camps to avoid capture would have led to unnecessary deaths (XI 407), and, almost, that there was no killing program at all! This is worth quoting: Until the outbreak of war in 1939, the situation in the camps regarding feeding, accomodation, and treatment of detainees, was the same as in any other prison or penitentiary in the Reich. The detainees were treated strictly, yes, but methodical beatings or ill-treatment were outof the question. The Reichsfuhrer gave frequent warnings that every SS man who laid violent hands on a detainee would be punished; and quite often SS men who did ill-treat detainees were punished. Feeding and accomodation at that time were in every respect put on the same basis as that of other prioners under legal administration. The accomodation in the camps during those years was still normal because the mass influxes at the outbreak of and during the war had as yet not taken place. When the war started and when mass deliveries of political detainees arrived, and, later on, when detainees, who were members of resistence movements, arrived from the occupied territories, the construction of buildings and the extensions of the camps could no longer keep up with the number of detainees who arrived. During the first years of the war this problem could still be overcome by improvising measures; but, later, due to the exigencies of the war, this was no longer possible, since there were practically no building materials any longer at our disposal" - (Note: the bodies are supposed to have been burnt using wood for fuel.) - "This led to a situation where detainees in the camps no longer had sufficient powers of resistence against the ensuing plagues and epidemics . . . the aim wasn't to have as many dead as possible or to destroy as many detainees as possible. The Reichsfuhrer was constantly concerned with the problems of engaging all forces possible in the armament industry . . . These so-called ill-treatments and torturing in concentration camps, stories of which were spread everywhere amongst the people, and particularly by detainees who were liberated by the occupying armies, were not, as assumed, inflicted methodically, but by individual leaders, sub-leaders, and men who laid violent hands on them . . . If in any way such a matter was brought to my notice, the perpetrator was, of course, immediately relieved of his post or transferred somewhere else. So that, even if he wasn't punished because there wasn't evidence to prove his guilt, he was taken away and given another position . . . The catastrophic situation at the end of the war was due to the fact that as a result of the destruction of railways and of the continuous bombings of the industrial works, it was no longer possible to properly care for these masses, for example, at Auschwitz, with its 140,000 detainees. Improvised measures, truck columns, and everything else tried by the commandants to improve the situation, were of little or no avail. The number of sick became immense. There were next to no medical supplies; plagues raged everywhere. Detainees who were capable of work were used continuously by order of the Reichsfuhrer, even half-sick people had to be used wherever possible in industry. As a result, every bit of space in the concentration camps which could possibly be used for lodging was filled with sick and dying detainees . . . At the end of the war, there were still thirteen concentration camps. All the other points which are marked here on the map means so-called labour camps attached to the armament factories situated there . . . If any ill-treatment of detainees by guards occurred - I myself have never observed any - then this was possible only to a very small degree, since all officers in charge of the camps took care that as few SS men as possible had immediate contact with the inmates, because in the course of the years the guard personnel had deteriorated to such an extent that the former standards could no longer be maintained . . . We had thousands of guards who could hardly speak German, who came from all leading countries of the world as volunteers and joined these units; or we had elder men, between 50 and 60, who lacked all interest in their work, so that a camp commandant had to take care continuously that these men fulfilled even the lowest requirements of their duties. Furthermore, it is obvious that there were elements among them who would ill-treat detainees, but this ill-treatment was never tolerated. Furthermore, it was impossible to have these masses of people working or when in the camp directed by SS men, so that everywhere detainees had to be engaged to give instructions to the detainees and set them to work, and who almost exclusively had the administration of the inner camp in their hands. Of course, a great deal of ill-treatment occured which couldn't be avoided, because at night there was hardly any member of the SS in the camps. Only in specific cases were the SS men allowed to enter the camp, so that the detainees were more or less exposed to the detainee supervisors. Question (by defense attorney for Kaltenbrunner, Dr. Kaufmann): You have already mentioned regulations which existed for the guards, but there was also a standing order in all the camps. In this camp order there were laid down the punishments for detainees who violated the camp rules. What punishments were these? Answer: First of all, transfer to a "penal company" (Strafkompanie), that is to say, harder work, and their accomodation restricted; next, detention in the cell block, detention in a dark cell; and in very serious cases, chaining or strapping. Punishment by 'strapping' (anbinden) was prohibited in the year 1942 or 1943, I can't say exactly when, by the Reichsfuhrer. Then there was the punishment of standing to attention during a long period From Thu Sep 12 23:07:13 PDT 1996 Article: 64893 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!hookup!!!!!!!!!!!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: BELSEN Myths and Facts Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:00:31 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 616 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 Bergen-Belsen Camp: The suppressed story by Mark Weber Fifty years ago, on April 15, 1945, British troops liberated the Bergen- Belsen concentration camp. The anniversary was widely remembered in official ceremonies and in newspaper articles that, as the following essay shows, distort the camp's true history. Largely because of the circumstances of its liberation, the relatively unimportant German concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen has become -- along with Dachau and Buchenwald -- an international symbol of German barbarism. The British troops who liberated the Belsen camp three weeks before the end of the war were shocked and disgusted by the many unburied corpses and dying inmates they found there. Horrific photos and films of the camp's emaciated corpses and mortally sick inmates were quickly circulated around the globe. Within weeks the British military occupation newspaper proclaimed: "The story of that greatest of all exhibitions of 'man's inhumanity to man' which was Belsen Concentration Camp is known throughout the world." (note 1) Ghastly images recorded by Allied photographers at Belsen in mid-April 1945 and widely reproduced ever since have greatly contributed to the camp's reputation as a notorious extermination center. In fact, the dead of Bergen-Belsen were, above all, unfortunate victims of war and its turmoil, not deliberate policy. It can even be argued that they were as much victims of Allied as of German measures. The Bergen-Belsen camp was located near Hannover in northwestern Germany on the site of a former army camp for wounded prisoners of war. In 1943 it was established as an internment camp (Aufenthaltslager) for European Jews who were to be exchanged for German citizens held by the Allies. More than 9,000 Jews with citizenship papers or passports from Latin American countries, entry visas for Palestine, or other documents making them eligible for emigration, arrived in late 1943 and 1944 from Poland, France, Holland and other parts of Europe. During the final months of the war, several groups of these "exchange Jews" were transported from Axis-occupied Europe. German authorities transferred several hundred to neutral Switzerland, and at least one group of 222 Jewish detainees was transferred from Belsen (by way of neutral Turkey) to British-controlled Palestine. (note 2) Until late 1944 conditions were generally better than in other concentration camps. Marika Frank Abrams, a Jewish woman from Hungary, was transferred from Auschwitz in 1944. Years later she recalled her arrival at Belsen: "... We were each given two blankets and a dish. There was running water and latrines. We were given food that was edible and didn't have to stand for hours to be counted. The conditions were so superior to Auschwitz we felt we were practically in a sanitarium." (note 3) Inmates normally received three meals a day. Coffee and bread were served in the morning and evening, with cheese and sausage as available. The main mid-day meal consisted of one liter of vegetable stew. Families lived together. Otherwise, men and women were housed in separate barracks. (note 4) Children were also held there. There were some 500 Jewish children in Belsen's "No. 1 Women's Camp" section when British forces arrived. (note 5) During the final months of the war, tens of thousands of Jews were evacuated to Belsen from Auschwitz and other eastern camps threatened by the advancing Soviets. Belsen became severely overcrowded as the number of inmates increased from 15,000 in December 1944 to 42,000 at the beginning of March 1945, and more than 50,000 a month later. (note 6) Many of these Jewish prisoners had chosen to be evacuated westwards with their German captors rather than remain in eastern camps to await liberation by Soviet forces. (note 7) So catastrophic had conditions become during the final months of the war that about a third of the prisoners evacuated to Belsen in February and March 1945 perished during the journey and were dead on arrival. (note 8) As order broke down across Europe during those chaotic final months, regular deliveries of food and medicine to the camp stopped. Foraging trucks were sent to scrounge up whatever supplies of bread, potatoes and turnips were available in nearby towns. (note 9) Epidemic Disease was kept under control by routinely disinfecting all new arrivals. But in early February 1945 a large transport of Hungarian Jews was admitted while the disinfection facility was out of order. As a result, typhus broke out and quickly spread beyond control. (note 10) Commandant Josef Kramer quarantined the camp in an effort to save lives, but SS camp administration headquarters in Berlin insisted that Belsen be kept open to receive still more Jewish evacuees arriving from the East. The death rate soon rose to 400 a day. (note 11) The worst killer was typhus, but typhoid fever and dysentery also claimed many lives. Aggravating the situation was a policy during the final months of transferring already sick inmates from other camps to Belsen, which was then officially designated a sick or convalescence camp (Krankenlager). The sick women of Auschwitz, for example, were transferred to Belsen in three groups in November-December 1944. (note 12) When SS chief Heinrich Himmler learned of the typhus outbreak at Bergen- Belsen, he immediately issued an order to all appropriate officials requiring that "all medical means necessary to combat the epidemic should be employed ... There can be no question of skimping either with doctors or medical supplies." However, the general breakdown of order that prevailed on Germany by this time made it impossible to implement the command. (note 13) 'Belsen Worst' Violette Fintz, a Jewish woman who had been deported from the island of Rhodes to Auschwitz in mid-1944, and then to Dachau and, finally, in early 1945, to Belsen, later compared conditions in the different camps: (note 14) Belsen was in the beginning bearable and we had bunks to sleep on, and a small ration of soup and bread. But as the camp got fuller, our group and many others were given a barracks to hold about seven hundred lying on the floor without blankets and without food or anything. It was a pitiful scene as the camp was attacked by lice and most of the people had typhus and cholera ... Many people talk about Auschwitz -- it was a horrible camp. But Belsen, no words can describe it ... From my experience and suffering, Belsen was the worst. Belsen's most famous inmate was doubtless Anne Frank, who had been evacuated from Auschwitz in late October 1994. She succumbed to typhus in March 1945, three or four weeks before liberation. Kramer Reports a 'Catastrophe' In a March 1, 1945, letter to Gruppenführer (General) Richard Glücks, head of the SS camp administration agency, Commandant Kramer reported in detail on the catastrophic situation in the Bergen-Belsen, and pleaded for help: (note 15) If I had sufficient sleeping accommodation at my disposal, then the accommodation of the detainees who have already arrived and of those still to come would appear more possible. In addition to this question a spotted fever and typhus epidemic has now begun, which increases in extent every day. The daily mortality rate, which was still in the region of 60-70 at the beginning of February, has in the meantime attained a daily average of 250-300 and will increase still further in view of the conditions which at present prevail. Supply. When I took over the camp, winter supplies for 1500 internees had been indented for; some had been received, but the greater part had not been delivered. This failure was due not only to difficulties of transport, but also to the fact that practically nothing is available in this area and all must be brought from outside the area ... For the last four days there has been no delivery [of food] from Hannover owing to interrupted communications, and I shall be compelled, if this state of affairs prevails till the end of the week, to fetch bread also by means of truck from Hannover. The trucks allotted to the local unit are in no way adequate for this work, and I am compelled to ask for at least three to four trucks and five to six trailers. When I once have here a means of towing then I can send out the trailers into the surrounding area ... The supply question must, without fail, be cleared up in the next few days. I ask you, Gruppenführer, for an allocation of transport ... State of Health. The incidence of disease is very high here in proportion to the number of detainees. When you interviewed me on Dec. 1, 1944, at Oranienburg, you told me that Bergen-Belsen was to serve as a sick camp for all concentration camps in north Germany. The number of sick has greatly increased, particularly on account of the transports of detainees that have arrived from the East in recent times -- these transports have sometimes spent eight or fourteen days in open trucks ... The fight against spotted fever is made extremely difficult by the lack of means of disinfection. Due to constant use, the hot-air delousing machine is now in bad working order and sometimes fails for several days ... A catastrophe is taking place for which no one wishes to assume responsibility ... Gruppenführer, I can assure you that from this end everything will be done to overcome the present crisis ... I am now asking you for your assistance as it lies in your power. In addition to the above-mentioned points I need here, before everything, accommodation facilities, beds, blankets, eating utensils -- all for about 20,000 internees ... I implore your help in overcoming this situation. Under such terrible conditions, Kramer did everything in his power to reduce suffering and prevent death among the inmates, even appealing to the hard-pressed German army. "I don't know what else to do," he told high-ranking army officers. "I have reached the limit. Masses of people are dying. The drinking water supply has broken down. A trainload of food was destroyed by low-flying [Allied] war planes. Something must be done immediately." (note 16) Working together with both Commandant Kramer and chief inmate representative Kuestermeier, Colonel Hanns Schmidt responded by arranging for the local volunteer fire department to provide water. He also saw to it that food supplies were brought to the camp from abandoned rail cars. Schmidt later recalled that Kramer "did not at all impress one as a criminal type. He acted like an upright and rather honorable man. Neither did he strike me as someone with a guilty conscience. He worked with great dedication to improve conditions in the camp. For example, he rounded up horse drawn vehicles to bring food to the camp from rail cars that had been shot up." (note 17) "I was swamped," Kramer later explained to incredulous British military interrogators: (note 18) The camp was not really inefficient before you [British and American forces] crossed the Rhine. There was running water, regular meals of a kind -- I had to accept what food I was given for the camp and distribute it the best way I could. But then they suddenly began to send me trainloads of new prisoners from all over Germany. It was impossible to cope with them. I appealed for more staff, more food. I was told that this was impossible. I had to carry on with what I had. Then as a last straw the Allies bombed the electric plant that pumped our water. Loads of food were unable to reach the camp because of the Allied fighters. Then things really got out of hand. During the last six weeks I have been helpless. I did not even have sufficient staff to bury the dead, let alone segregate the sick ... I tried to get medicines and food for the prisoners and I failed. I was swamped. I may have been hated, but I was doing my duty. Kramer's clear conscience is also suggested by the fact that he made no effort to save his life by fleeing, but instead calmly awaited the approaching British forces, naively confident of decent treatment. "When Belsen Camp was eventually taken over by the Allies," he later stated, "I was quite satisfied that I had done all I possibly could under the circumstances to remedy the conditions in the camp." (note 19) Negotiated Transfer As British forces approached Bergen-Belsen, German authorities sought to turn over the camp to the British so that it would not become a combat zone. After some negotiation, it was peacefully transferred, with an agreement that "both British and German troops will make every effort to avoid battle in the area." (note 20) A revealing account of the circumstances under which the British took control appeared in a 1945 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association: (note 21) By negotiations between British and German officers, British troops took over from the SS and the Wehrmacht the task of guarding the vast concentration camp at Belsen, a few miles northwest of Celle, which contains 60,000 prisoners, many of them political. This has been done because typhus is rampant in the camp and it is vital that no prisoners be released until the infection is checked. The advancing British agreed to refrain from bombing or shelling the area of the camp, and the Germans agreed to leave behind an armed guard which would be allowed to return to their own lines a week after the British arrival. The story of the negotiations is curious. Two German officers presented themselves before the British outposts and explained that there were 9,000 sick in the camp and that all sanitation had failed. They proposed that the British should occupy the camp at once, as the responsibility was international in the interests of health. In return for the delay caused by the truce the Germans offered to surrender intact the bridges over the river Aller. After brief consideration the British senior officer rejected the German proposals, saying it was necessary that the British should occupy an area of ten kilometers round the camp in order to be sure of keeping their troops and lines of communication away from the disease. The British eventually took over the camp. Brutal Mistreatment On April 15, 1945, Belsen's commanders turned over the camp to British troops, who lost no time mistreating the SS camp personnel. The Germans were beaten with rifle butts, kicked, and stabbed with bayonets. Most were shot or worked to death. (note 22) British journalist Alan Moorehead described the treatment of some of the camp personnel shortly after the takeover: (note 23) As we approached the cells of the SS guards, the [British] sergeant's language become ferocious. "We had had an interrogation this morning," the captain said. 'I'm afraid they are not a pretty sight.' ... The sergeant unbolted the first door and ... strode into the cell, jabbing a metal spike in front of him. "Get up," he shouted. "Get up. Get up, you dirty bastards." There were half a dozen men lying or half lying on the floor. One or two were able to pull themselves erect at once. The man nearest me, his shirt and face spattered with blood, made two attempts before he got on to his knees and then gradually on to his feet. He stood with his arms stretched out in front of him, trembling violently. "Come on. Get up," the sergeant shouted [in the next cell]. The man was lying in his blood on the floor, a massive figure with a heavy head and bedraggled beard ... "Why don't you kill me?" he whispered. "Why don't you kill me? I can't stand it any more." The same phrases dribbled out of his lips over and over again. "He's been saying that all morning, the dirty bastard," the sergeant said. Commandant Kramer, who was vilified in the British and American press as "The Beast of Belsen" and "The Monster of Belsen," was put on trial and then executed, along with chief physician Dr. Fritz Klein and other camp officials. At his trial, Kramer's defense attorney, Major T.C.M. Winwood, predicted: "When the curtain finally rings down on this stage Josef Kramer will, in my submission, stand forth not as 'The Beast of Belsen' but as 'The Scapegoat of Belsen'." (note 24) In an "act of revenge," the British liberators expelled the residents of the nearby town of Bergen, and then permitted camp inmates to loot the houses and buildings. Much of the town was also set on fire. (note 25) Postwar Deaths There were some 55,000 to 60,000 prisoners in Bergen-Belsen when the British took control of the camp. The new administrators proved no more capable of mastering the chaos than the Germans had been, and some 14,000 Jewish inmates died at Belsen in the months following the British takeover. (note 26) Although still occasionally referred to as an "extermination camp" or "mass murder" center, the truth about Bergen-Belsen has been quietly acknowledged by scholars. (note 27) In his 1978 survey of German history, University of Erlangen professor Helmut Diwald wrote of (note 28) ... The notorious Bergen-Belsen concentration camp where 50,000 inmates were supposedly murdered. Actually, about 7,000 inmates died during the period when the camp existed, from 1943 to 1945. Most of them died in the final months of the war as a result of disease and malnutrition -- consequences of the bombings that had completely disrupted normal deliveries of medical supplies and food. The British commander who took control of the camp after the capitulation testified that crimes on a large scale had not taken place at Bergen-Belsen. Martin Broszat, Director of the Institute for Contemporary History in Munich, wrote in 1976: (note 29) ... In Bergen-Belsen, for example, thousands of corpses of Jewish prisoners were found by British soldiers on the day of liberation, which gave the impression that this was one of the notorious extermination camps. Actually, many Jews in Bergen-Belsen as well as in the satellite camps of Dachau died in the last weeks before the end of the war as a result of the quickly improvised retransfers and evacuations of Jewish workers from the still existing ghettos, work camps and concentration camps in the East (Auschwitz) ... Dr. Russell Barton, an English physician who spent a month in Bergen- Belsen after the war with the British Army, has also explained the reasons for the catastrophic conditions found there: (note 30) Most people attributed the conditions of the inmates to deliberate intention on the part of the Germans in general and the camp administrators in particular. Inmates were eager to cite examples of brutality and neglect, and visiting journalists from different countries interpreted the situation according to the needs of propaganda at home. For example, one newspaper emphasized the wickedness of the "German masters" by remarking that some of the 10,000 unburied dead were naked. In fact, when the dead were taken from a hut and left in the open for burial, other prisoners would take their clothing from them ... German medical officers told me that it had been increasingly difficult to transport food to the camp for some months. Anything that moved on the autobahns was likely to be bombed ... I was surprised to find records, going back for two or three years, of large quantities of food cooked daily for distribution. I became convinced, contrary to popular opinion, that there had never been a policy of deliberate starvation. This was confirmed by the large numbers of well-fed inmates. Why then were so many people suffering from malnutrition?... The major reasons for the state of Belsen were disease, gross overcrowding by central authority, lack of law and order within the huts, and inadequate supplies of food, water and drugs. In trying to assess the causes of the conditions found in Belsen one must be alerted to the tremendous visual display, ripe for purposes of propaganda, that masses of starved corpses presented. Gas Chamber Myths Some former inmates and a few historians have claimed that Jews were put to death in gas chambers at Bergen-Belsen. For example, an "authoritative" work published shortly after the end of the war, A History of World War II, informed readers: "In Belsen, [Commandant] Kramer kept an orchestra to play him Viennese music while he watched children torn from their mothers to be burned alive. Gas chambers disposed of thousands of persons daily." (note 31) In Jews, God and History, Jewish historian Max Dimont wrote of gassings at Bergen-Belsen. (note 32) A semi-official work published in Poland in 1981 claimed that women and babies were "put to death in gas chambers" at Belsen. (note 33) In 1945 the Associated Press news agency reported: (note 34) In Lueneburg, Germany, a Jewish physician, testifying at the trial of 45 men and women for war crimes at the Belsen and Oswiecim [Auschwitz] concentration camps, said that 80,000 Jews, representing the entire ghetto of Lodz, Poland, had been gassed or burned to death in one night at the Belsen camp. Five decades after the camp's liberation, British army Captain Robert Daniell recalled seeing "the gas chambers" there. (note 35) Years after the war, Robert Spitz, a Hungarian Jew, remembered taking a shower at Belsen in February 1945: "... It was delightful. What I didn't know then was that there were other showers in the same building where gas came out instead of water." (note 36) Another former inmate, Moshe Peer, recalled a miraculous escape from death as an eleven-year-old in the camp. In a 1993 interview with a Canadian newspaper, the French-born Peer claimed that he "was sent to the [Belsen] camp gas chamber at least six times." The newspaper account went on to relate: "Each time he survived, watching with horror as many of the women and children gassed with him collapsed and died. To this day, Peer doesn't know how he was able to survive." In an effort to explain the miracle, Peer mused: "Maybe children resist better, I don't know." (Although Peer claimed that "Bergen-Belsen was worse than Auschwitz," he acknowledged that he and his younger brother and sister, who were deported to the camp in 1944, all somehow survived internment there.) (note 37) Such gas chamber tales are entirely fanciful. As early as 1960, historian Martin Broszat had publicly repudiated the Belsen gassing story. These days no reputable scholar supports it. (note 38) Exaggerated Death Estimates Estimates of the number of people who died in Bergen-Belsen have ranged widely over the years. Many have been irresponsible exaggerations. Typical is a 1985 York Daily News report, which told readers that "probably 100,000 died at Bergen-Belsen." (note 39) An official German government publication issued in 1990 declared that "more than 50,000 people had been murdered" in the Belsen camp under German control, and "an additional 13,000 died in the first weeks after liberation." (note 40) Closer to the truth is the Encyclopaedia Judaica, which maintains that 37,000 perished in the camp before the British takeover, and another 14,000 afterwards. (note 41) Whatever the actual number of dead, Belsen's victims were not "murdered," and the camp was not an "extermination" center. Black Market Center >From 1945 until 1950, when it was finally shut down, the British maintained Belsen as a camp for displaced European Jews. During this period it achieved new notoriety as a major European black market center. The "uncrowned king" of Belsen's 10,000 Jews was Yossl (Josef) Rosensaft, who amassed tremendous profits from the illegal trading. Rosensaft had been interned in various camps, including Auschwitz, before arriving in Belsen in early April 1945. (note 42) British Lieutenant General Sir Frederick Morgan, chief of "displaced persons" operations in postwar Germany for the United Nations relief organization UNRRA recalled in his memoir that (note 43) under Zionist auspices there had been organized at Belsen a vast illegitimate trading organization with worldwide ramifications and dealing in a wide range of goods, principally precious metals and stones. A money market dealt with a wide range of currencies. Goods were being imported in cryptically marked containers consigned in UNRRA shipments to Jewish voluntary agencies ... Legacy A kind of memorial center now draws many tourists annually to the camp site. Not surprisingly, Bergen's 13,000 residents are not very pleased with their town's infamous reputation. Citizens report being called "murderers" during visits to foreign countries. (note 44) In striking contrast to the widely-accepted image of Belsen, which is essentially a product of hateful wartime propaganda, is the suppressed, albeit grim, historical reality. In truth, the Bergen-Belsen story may be regarded as the Holocaust story in miniature. Notes Walter Laqueur, The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth about Hitler's 'Final Solution' (Boston: Little Brown, 1980), p. 1. Testimony of Commandant Kramer in: Raymond Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others (The Belsen Trial) (London: William Hodge, 1949), p. 160; "Bergen-Belsen," Encyclopaedia Judaica (New York and Jerusalem: Macmillan and Keter, 1971), Vol. 4, p. 610. According to this source, one group of 136 of these "exchange Jews" was deported from Belsen during the war to neutral Switzerland, and another group of 222 was transferred to Palestine.; According to an Israeli newspaper report, a group of 222 "exchange" Jews reportedly left Bergen-Belsen on June 29, 1944, and, by way of Istanbul, arrived in Palestine on July 10. (Israel Nachrichten, quoted in: D. National-Zeitung, Munich, Sept. 23, 1994, p. 5) Sylvia Rothchild, ed., Voices from the Holocaust (New York: NAL, 1981), p. 190. Josef Kramer statement (1945) in: R. Phillips, Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 731-737. This is also in: Arthur Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century (Newport Beach: Institute for Historical Review, 1993), pp. 272-274. R. Phillips, Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 19, 32, 33; Roman Hrabar, with Zofia Tokarz and J. E. Wilczur, The Fate of Polish Children During the Last War (Warsaw: Interpress, 1981), p. 76. Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 4, p. 610; Gedenkbuch: Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft (Koblenz: Bundesarchiv, 1986; 2 vols.), pp. 1761-1762. Testimony of Dr. Russell Barton, Feb. 7, 1985, in the first "Holocaust" trial of Ernst Zündel. Official trial transcript, pp. 2916-2917; See also Barton's testimony during the second, 1988 Zündel trial in: Barbara Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die? (Toronto: Samisdat, 1992), p. 175, and, Robert Lenski, The Holocaust on Trial: The Case of Ernst Zündel (Decatur, Ala.: Reporter Press, 1990), p. 159. Testimony of Commandant Kramer in: R. Phillips, Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, p. 162. Josef Kramer statement (1945) in: R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 731-737. Also in: A. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, p. 274. Derrick Sington, Belsen Uncovered (London: 1946), pp. 117-118. Quoted in: A. Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century, pp. 34-35; Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution (London: Sphere Books, pb., 1971), p. 504 (note). R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 152- 153, 166-167, 734, 736; Tom Bower, Blind Eye to Murder (London: Granada, 1983), p. 224; Dr. Ernst von Briesen, "Was passierte in Bergen-Belsen wirklich?," D. National-Zeitung (Munich), Jan. 13, 1984, pp. 4, 5, 8. G.Reitlinger, The Final Solution, p. 497 (and 638, n. 23). Andre Biss, A Million Jews to Save (New York: A.S. Barnes, 1975), pp. 242, 249-250; Felix Kersten, The Kersten Memoirs, 1940-1945 (New York: Macmillan, 1957), p. 276. Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1986), pp. 722, 785-786. R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 163- 166. Signed report by retired Colonel (Oberst a.D.) Hanns Schmidt to Kurt Mehner and Lt. Colonel Bechtold, Braunschweig, March 3, 1981. Photocopy in author's possession. Signed report by Hanns Schmidt to Kurt Mehner and Lt. Colonel Bechtold, March 3, 1981. Photocopy in author's possession. Essay by Alan Moorehead, "Belsen," in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1953), pp. 109-110. Josef Kramer statement (1945) in: R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, p. 737. Also quoted in: A. Butz, Hoax, p. 275; Essay by Alan Moorehead, "Belsen," in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon, pp. 109-110; Dr. Russell Barton, "Belsen," History of the Second World War (Editor: Barrie Pitt, Copyright BPC publications, 1966), Part 109, 1975, p. 3025. R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 396- 397. "Typhus Causes a Truce," The Journal of the American Medical Association (Chicago), May 19, 1945, p. 220. Leonard O. Mosley, Report from Germany (1945). Quoted in: Montgomery Belgion, Victor's Justice (Regnery, 1949), p. 80 (and p. 81); Time magazine, April 29, 1985, p. 21; See also essay by A. Moorehead, "Belsen," in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon (London: 1953), pp. 105-106. Essay by A. Moorehead, "Belsen," in: Cyril Connolly, ed., The Golden Horizon, pp. 105-106. R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others), p. 156. "Bergen-Belsen," Der Spiegel (Hamburg), Nr. 30, 1985, pp. 71, 72. "Holocaust," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 8, p. 859; M. Gilbert, The Holocaust (1986), pp. 793-795; See also: R. Phillips, ed., Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty-Four Others, pp. 20, 46-47; According to a 1992 Associated Press report, more than 60,000 prisoners were held in Belsen camp when it was liberated. Then, "in the first five days of liberation, 14,000 prisoners died and another 14,000 perished in the following weeks." Graham Heathcote, AP from Tostock, England, "2 hours changed me for the rest of my life," Orlando Sentinel (Florida), Dec. 20, 1992, p. A 29, and, "Journey into hell," The Spokesman-Review (Spokane, Washington), Dec. 20, 1992. Time magazine, April 29, 1985, p. 21, referred to Belsen as a camp created for the "extermination" of "the Jewish people." Helmut Diwald, Geschichte der Deutschen (Frankfurt: Propyläen, first ed., 1978), pp. 164-165. M. Broszat, "Zur Kritik der Publizistik des antisemitischen Rechtsextremismus," Supplement B 19/76 of May 8, 1976, to the weekly newspaper Das Parlament (Bonn), p. 6. Revised from issue No. 2, 1976, of the Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (Munich). Dr. R. Barton, "Belsen," History of the Second World War, Part 109, 1975, pp. 3025-3029; Barton confirmed this evaluation in testimony given in the 1985 and 1988 Toronto trials of German-Canadian publisher Ernst Zündel. On Barton's testimony in the first, 1985 trial, see: "View of Belsen was propaganda, trial told," The Globe and Mail (Toronto), Feb. 8, 1985, pp. M1, M5, and, "Disease killed Nazis' prisoners, MD says," Toronto Star, Feb. 8, 1985, p. A2; On Barton's testimony in the second, 1988 Zündel trial, see: Barbara Kulaszka, ed., Did Six Million Really Die?, pp. 175-180, and, R. Lenski, The Holocaust on Trial (1990), pp. 157-160; Among his other positions after the war, Barton was superintendent and consultant psychiatrist at Severalls Hospital (Essex, England), and director of the Rochester Psychiatric Center (New York). Francis Trevelyan Miller, Litt.D., LLD, A History of World War II (Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 1945), p. 868. M. Dimont, Jews, God and History (New York: Signet/NAL, pb., 1962?), p. 383. R. Hrabar, et al, The Fate of Polish Children During the Last War (Warsaw: 1981), p. 76. The Associated Press News Annual: 1945, p. 404. M. Holland, "The horrors of Belsen," Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne, Australia), Jan. 22, 1995, p. 93; M. Holland, "Man who uncovered the horror of Belsen," Sunday Times (Perth, W. Australia), Feb. 5, 1995, p. 2. S. Rothchild, ed., Voices From the Holocaust, p. 197. K. Seidman, "Surviving the horror," The Gazette (Montreal, Canada), August 5, 1993. Facsimile reprint in: The Journal of Historical Review, Nov.-Dec. 1993, p. 24. Die Zeit (Hamburg), August 19, 1960, p. 16. (U.S. edition: August 26, 1960.) Facsimile and translation in The Journal of Historical Review, May-June 1993, p. 12. "Bergen-Belsen," Daily News (New York), April 20, 1985, p. 3. "Ceremony Recalls Victims of Bergen-Belsen," The Week in Germany (New York: German Information Center), April 27, 1990, p. 6; A figure of 50,000 is also given in Time magazine, April 29, 1985, p. 21; According to a stone memorial at the Belsen camp site, 30,000 Jews were "exterminated" there; A semi-official Polish account published in 1980 reported 48,000 Belsen "victims." Czeslaw Pilichowski, No Time Limit for These Crimes (Warsaw: Interpress, 1980), pp. 154-155. "Bergen-Belsen," Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 4, pp. 610-612; Colonel Schmidt, the German officer who worked to alleviate conditions in Belsen during the final weeks and also arranged for the camp's surrender to the British, estimated that "altogether about 8,000 people" died in the camp. (This figure may, however, only include victims of the final chaotic weeks under German control.) Source: Signed report by Oberst a.D. Hanns Schmidt to Kurt Mehner and Lt. Colonel Bechtold, Braunschweig, March 3, 1981. (Cited above.) Photocopy in author's possession. L. Dawidowicz, "Belsen Remembered," Commentary (New York: American Jewish Comm.), March 1966, pp. 84, 85; D. National-Zeitung (Munich), March 21, 1986, p. 4; M. Gilbert, The Holocaust, pp. 690, 793. F. Morgan, Peace and War (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1961), p. 259. "Bergen-Belsen," Der Spiegel, Nr. 30, 1985, pp. 71, 72. For the current IHR catalog, with a complete listing of books and audio and video tapes, send two dollars to: Post Office Box 2739 Newport Beach, California 92659 CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 01:07:41 PDT 1996 Article: 64928 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!imci4!!!btnet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: photo NO 1 [z.gif] SEE KEY TO THE PHOTOS [2/3] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:14:33 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 927 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> References: <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 [ Section: 2/3 File: z.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ] MX1$201`(07H>L/\>(9P$H0O```UF`T&F@`JL@`S"`--8IP0B#P:8P`B&X#)4 M@PSN8)JJP/:V@`J8X`O>L0EV@`=VA`9H(`=H``8R8P98@`1VC9)(0`5$(`=8 M@`AVH`=Z0`9$X,T^($SDZ`&0D.LH@`'\:@,Z@`3BH`/HI@78S`)6Z!#RP!"2+1'\ M^$`2%H$0^H`*XN`$1*`(PH`_Z.L11"9![F`/Y+$/_*`/UJ#P^*`-I!(KIH8`)JL`&C*`'GL`, MBN`)PBAF?9`#V0##]B`-@6A$A8D,A[A6)K)$)P-#^+`"4X`"OR` MA0AAI^L;I#S9/#`.X"YSL5:3S[YDA$@"3D)`YZ0`L"DR+/DU$L%`RT@`W4H`IX@`Y* MP`5*5`A.=`=T``AT=6"%0`@*%@[.H`[J@`\*80\4@;RTC1#\X%X0<2\K@1'^ MP`NP8`N(8,[49"PCP`2`8`S>X`O>P%C>(`_LP`R\@@_V`%#$@//Z`!'"I1"> M:0WJ(`U45@\`@0_B``E2P`?,P`X"3!$DH1$N(G@`)G,`/<>`J4`!:,P`$XE-/EC`%5(`W;0(+?V(#($`^ M+F`(>I,'IN8( M@B!17@`.FB`-`B%D&`'&H`ED[*`O)&,1UL""_J`+C.@*5N!U+<`!)N`"7N`, M%D$1+NJB[``,4+$0Q#81](`/T,`,_`B!#8XE$!H!A1P!$"15G0SA#>*@"#X@ M"-*@4AUA$]@Q?TC&$E0Q%@DE^.BW#S(&$OS@#4@/#=1`#_1@$/H`&0U("\Q` MO!3A#R+W"!0/"@:JF"Q!$S8!$S0V$BSN$!(A]^CW#^Q@#U#1#Z[`"9@`"#`C M0]3H*F2`!\1@4]O@#/)`:D=C$IKK#+#@"J"`#=@@X^K`#*2@"'C@!'+@0UD` M;2Q`3>3JT%2@!"0";\XF233@=R%``S!``B*9"4$`!=P(H'KR`_8$3CX)"&8@ M`TH``]J"!5R`!-B6!V3@S<:$!7SP[I+`"[*@?(M`"H1@"%8D":Q@"]R`#*J@ ME2K"!_QZ50=T"0B00`F6P`=X``C*Z@;@H`W\`%*K#XO?%&1P=&)LHPX@H1,* MH0VT0`R8@`7D*$`W8$_&0'K40"#>+P\.!&8'`0_TH`^NN7J2I>$(@0&[^';\ M`+1:P`AP:FY1K1#@:]0FAMG4(#K48%/[(`W"H'.X(`O&(**:P`BF@`E$"PA, M;`FR0`S.$1#R@`IF#012P`A"!1(X`1(\81+6B3_N)Q*.Q1#R`!$FMPW`H!#, MH`ZZH`BZH`JR``A@0`9(%"V4APM:K4G_P/F"&`\`[@R:X`[88`W$P`T"@0VX MX`I<@`=4P`5@H$@XH`7@:%R9T`6&5P9\;@CH4$E*-Y+\+`"@,(`"-J`"0.`! 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M1IPD-$5'2UK"A$_@],LU^R>C$E7.F7`YX:!`]TG((;,[V\23-H.G.$3&TX'D MA!GY:OA"6L$2G_>D6S?;J$^FQ>V6U?.>))5IN'(B\V+#["5AZIE/0;KBC+D, M:-88FD"*&E2C2"RH-`T9-)(*\)6)-"-(US30EH('G0/:W))$6;3E-(AY=HF: M`9TGR6(^;6RZYD3A..\Y5"S6-*59A$S MR]4%.::I,(H<7Z\GV"D"]K3CB1D/4^42P\(SLF']Z6+/ZL;T5!6E:4T=9661 1V%*6-J66Y"PN@_79&!0``#L` ` end sum -r/size 52494/38844 section (from first encoded line to "end") sum -r/size 46292/69677 entire input file CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 09:38:31 PDT 1996 Article: 64971 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!imci2!!!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: SOVIETS MANUFACTURE the "FACTS" for Katyn [2/2] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:24:17 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 998 Distribution: world Message-ID: References: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 "In early March 1943, a group totalling 500 men of the strongest prisoners of war were selected in the prisoner of war camp no. 126 in Smolensk in order, it was stated, to send them to construction work. Not one of these prisoners of war ever returned to the camp." The doctor of medicine CHMYROW W.A., who also worked in the camp during the German occupation, stated: "It is known to me that, approximately in the second half of February or the beginning of March 1943, approximately 500 Red Army prisoners of war from our camp were transported in an undisclosed direction. These prisoners of war were said to be going to do construction work, and therefore the Germans selected the most powerfully built men." Similar statements were made by the nurses SENKOWSKAJA O.G., TIMOFEJEWA A.J., the female witnesses ORLOVA P.M., DOBROSERDOVA E.G., and the witness KOTSCHETKOW W.S.. Where these 500 Soviet prisoners of war were actually sent from camp no. 126 is clear from the testimony of the female witness MOSKOWSKAJA A.M.. MOSKOSKAJA ALEKSANDRA MICHAILOWNA, who live on the outskirts of the city of Smolensk and worked in the kitchen of one of the German troop divisions during the occupation, made a statement on 5 October 1943 to the Special Commission for the Examination of the Atrocities of the German Invaders, with the request to be called upon to give important eyewitness testimony. She told the Special Commission that once, in March 1943, upon entering her shed, located in the farm on the banks of the Dnjepr, she found an unknown person, who, as it turned out, was a Russian prisoner of war. MOSKOWSKAJA A.M. (born 1922) stated: "From conversation with him, I learned the following: "His name was JEGOROW, first name Nikolai, from Leningrad. "Since the end of 1941, he had lived in German concentration camps for prisoners of war in the city of Smolensk. "In early March 1943, he was sent to the Katyn forest with a column of 100 prisoners of war from the camp. There they were all ordered, including Jegorow, to excavate graves containing corpses in Polish officers's uniforms, to drag these corpses out of the graves, and to remove all documents, photographs, and other objects from their pockets. It was strictly prohibited to leave anything in their pockets. Two prisoners of war were shot because the German officer found some papers on the corpses after the prisoners had already examined them. All objects, documents, and letters removed from the clothing were examined by the German officers. Then the prisoners of war were ordered to put some of these papers back in the pockets of the corpses; the rest were thrown onto a pile of objects and documents removed from the corpses, and burnt soon afterwards. Furthermore, other papers were produced from a chest or box that the Germans had brought with them; these papers were placed in the pockets of the corpses of the Polish officers. All the prisoners of war lived in the Katyn forest under fearful conditions and under strict guard. "In early April 1943, all the work planned by the Germans was finished; the prisoners of war were not forced to go to work for three days. "In the night, the Germans woke them all up and took them somewhere. The guard was reinforced. Jegorow was suspicious, and took particular note of everything that happened. They walked 3 to 4 hours in an unknown direction. They stopped in a meadow in the forest in front of a ditch. Jegorow watched as the Germans separated a group of prisoners of war from the rest of the human mass, forced them to the ditch, and then shot them. "The prisoners of war were excited, and started shouting and moving about. Not far from Jegorow, a few prisoners jumped a guard, and the other guards ran to this spot. "Jegorow took advantage of the momentary confusion to run into the darkness of the woods; at the same time, he heard shouts and shots behind him. "After this fearful tale, which will remain seared into my memory for an entire lifetime, I felt sorry for Jegorow and invited him into my apartment so he could warm up and hide until he regained his strength. But Jegorow refused. He said he absolutely had to leave that night in order to cross the front line. But he didn't leave that night. The next morning, I found him still in the shed. As it turned out, he had made repeated attempts to go away during the night, but after he had gone fifty steps he felt weak and was forced to return. It was probably the result of the continual malnutrition in the camp and the starvation during the last few days. We agreed that he would stay one or two days with me, in order to recover his strength. I gave him food and went to work. "When I came back that evening, my neighbours, BARANOWA MARIA IWANOWNA and KABANOWSKAJA KATHERINA VIKTOROWNA, told me that the German police had discovered a Red Army prisoner of war in my shed during their patrol, whom they took away with them." Since a prisoner of war had been found in Moskowskaja's shed, she was told to report to the Gestapo, where she was accused of hiding a prisoner of war. During her interrogation by the Gestapo, Moskowskaja denied her relations with this prisoner of war and claimed that she knew nothing of his presence in her shed. Since Moskowskaja did not admit her guilt and the prisoner of war Jegorow did not betray her, she was released by the Gestapo. Jegorow also told Moskowskaja that a group of prisoners of war working in the Katyn forest, in addition to digging up the bodies were further occupied with bringing corpses from other locations. The corpses transported to the Katyn forest were piled up in the graves, together with the corpses which had previously been dug up. The fact that a great number of corpses of persons shot by the Germans at other locations were transported to the graves at Katyn is also confirmed by the testimony of the mechanic SUCHATSCHEW. SUCHATSCHEW P.F. (born 1912), a mechanical engineer from "Roskglawchjleb", who worked for the Germans as a machinist in the city mills of Smolensk, filed a request on 8.10.43 to be permitted to testify. When he appeared, he stated: "In the mill, during the second half of March 1943, I once talked to a German driver who spoke a little Russian. After it came out that he was carrying meal for a division in the village of Sawenky and would be coming back to Smolensk the next day, I asked him to take him with me in order that I might have the opportunity to buy fats. In so doing, I was calculating that riding in a German truck would eliminate the risk of my being stopped at a checkpoint. "The German driver agreed for a sum of money. We left the same day at about 10:00 P.M., taking the SmolenskWitebsk highway. "There were two of us in the truck: me and the German driver. It was a bright night; the moon was shining, but the fog hindered visibility. About 2223 kilometres from Smolensk, there was a curve at a destroyed bridge with a rather steep embankment. We left the highway and travelled down the embankment; then a truck suddenly appeared out of the fog. Either our brakes were not very good or the driver was not very experienced; we could not brake the truck, and, since the road was rather narrow, we had a collision with the truck coming in the opposite direction. The collision was not a bad one, since the driver of the oncoming truck succeeded in swerving out of the way, as a result only scraping the sides of both trucks. The oncoming truck turned over however, and fell down the embankment. Our truck stayed where it was. The driver and I got out of the driver's seat and went to the overturned truck. "I immediately smelt a very strong stench of corpses, which probably came from the truck. I came closer, and saw that the truck was loaded with a cargo covered with tarpaulins and tied down with ropes. The ropes broke due to the fall, and part of the cargo fell out. It was a cruel cargo. "They were human corpses in military uniforms. As I remember, 67 men, including a German driver and 2 Germans armed with machine guns, stood around the truck. The others were Russian prisoners of war, since they spoke Russian and were clothed correspondingly. "The Germans began to curse my driver, then they tried to get the truck back up onto its wheels again. After two minutes, another two trucks arrived at the scene of the accident and stopped there. From these trucks came a group of Germans and Russian prisoners of war, a total of 10 men, and came up to us. Using our combined strength, we began to lift the truck. I took the opportunity and quietly asked one of the Russian prisoners of war: 'What's that?' Just as quietly, he answered: 'I don't know how many nights we've already spent transporting corpses into the Katyn forest'." "The overturned truck was still not upright when a German noncommissioned officer approached me and my driver, and ordered us to drive on immediately. "Since we had not suffered any real damage during the collision, my driver turned the truck back onto the highway and then drove on. "As we drove past the two trucks that had arrived later and were covered with tarpaulins, I smelt a fearful stench of corpses." SUCHATSCHEW's testimony is confirmed by the testimony of Jegorow Wladimir Afansjewitsch, who served in the police during the occupation. Jegorow testified that, at the end of March and the early days of April 1943, as he guarded the bridges in the line of duty at the intersection of the MoscowMinsk and SmolenskWitebsk highways, he repeatedly observed large trucks covered with tarpaulins, exuding the stench of corpses, passing in the direction of Smolensk. Several persons, some of who carried weapons and doubtlessly were German, always sat in the truck cabins and on top of the tarpaulins. Jegorow mentioned his observations to the chief of police at the police station in the village of Archipowka, Golownew Kuzma Demjanowitsch, who advised him to keep quiet about it and added: "That has nothing to do with us, we don't need to get mixed up in German affairs." That the Germans transported corpses by truck to the Katyn forest was also stated by JAKOWLEWSOKOLOW FLOR MAKSINOWITSCH, born 1896, former supply agent for the canteen of the Smolensk Trusts for dining rooms, and chief of the police district of Katyn during the German occupation. He reported that, in early April 1943, he personally observed four trucks covered with tarpaulins on which sat several men armed with machine guns and weapons, turning off the highway into the Katyn forest. A strong stench of corpses was perceptible from the trucks. All the above mentioned eyewitness testimony permits the conclusion that the Germans also shot Poles at other locations. In bringing the corpses to the Katyn forest, the Germans pursued a triple objective: first, to wipe out all traces of their own crimes; second, to blame all their crimes on the Soviets, and third, to multiple the number of "victims of Bolshevism" in the graves in the Katyn forest. "Visits" to the graves at Katyn In April 1943, after the German invaders had finished all preparatory measures at the graves in the Katyn forest, they began a widespread agitation in the press and radio, attempting to blame the Soviets for the atrocities which they had themselves committed against the Polish prisoners of war. One of their methods of provocative agitation consisted of organizing "visits" to the graves at Katyn by the residents of Smolensk and neighbouring areas, as well as by "delegations" from the countries occupied by the German invaders and in a position of subservience to them. The Special Commission interrogated a number of witnesses who participated in the "visit" to the graves at Katyn. The witness, SUBKOW K.P., an anatomical pathologist working in Smolensk in his capacity as forensic expert, testified to the Special Commission: "...The clothing on the corpses, especially the officers' greatcoats, boots, and belts, held together rather well. The metallic parts of their clothing, such as belt buckles, buttons, hooks, boot nails, etc. were not completely rusted and still retained their metallic lustre at places. The tissue of the corpses made available for examination, the tissue of the face, neck, and hands, was chiefly grey in colour, in individual cases greenish brown; but there was no complete decomposition of the tissues, there was no putrefaction. In individual cases, tendons lay exposed, whitish in colour; a number of muscles were visible. During my stay at the excavations, people were working on the floor of a deep ditch, separating the bodies and carrying them up out of the grave. They used spades and other tools to do so, grabbing the corpses with their hands, and dragging them by the arms, feet, and clothing >from one place to another. In no individual case could one observe that the bodies fell apart, or that individual parts of them came away. "With respect to the above, I came to the conclusion that the period of time during which the corpses had remained in the earth absolutely could not amount to three years, as the Germans claimed, but must be much less. Since I know that the decomposition of bodies in mass graves, especially without coffins, occurs much more rapidly than in individual graves, I came to the conclusion that the mass shootings of the Poles must have been carried out about one and a half years ago, and must date from the autumn of 1941 or early 1942. "As a result of visiting the excavations, I became firmly convinced that this gigantic atrocity was the act of the Germans." Testimonies that the clothing on the corpses, the metal parts, the shoes and the corpses themselves, were well preserved, were offered by all the witnesses who had participated in "visits" to the graves at Katyn and were then heard by the Special Commission, i.e.,: the foreman of the Smolensk water pipeline network, KUTZEW J.S.; the female head of the school at Katyn, WETROVA E.N.; the female telephonist of the Smolensk transport office, SCHTSCHEDROVA N.G.; the resident of the village of Borok, ALEZEJEW M.A.; the resident of the village of Nowye Bateki, KRISWOSERZEW N.G.; the duty officer at Gnesdowo station, SAWWATEJEW J.W.; the female resident of Smolensk, PUSCHTSCHINA E.A.; the doctor of medicine from the 2nd hospital at Smolensk, SIDORUK T.A.; the doctor of medicine from the same hospital, KESSAREW P.M., and others. German attempts to wipe away the traces of their crime The "visits" organized by the Germans failed to achieve their aim. All persons who visited the graves became convinced that they were witnessing the gross and obvious provocation of the German fascists. Therefore measures were taken by the Germans to silence all doubters. The Special Commission interrogated a number of witnesses who have reported how the Germans persecuted persons who doubted the truth of the provocation or did not believe it. They were fired from their jobs, arrested, and threatened with shooting. The Commission has established two cases of shooting of persons who "couldn't keep their mouths shut". This tactic of violence was carried out against the former German policeman SAGAINOW and against JEGOREW A.M., who participated in the excavations in the Katyn forest. Testimonies relating to the persecution by the Germans of those persons who expressed doubt after visiting the graves in the Katyn forest were offered by: The female attendant at pharmacy no. 1 of Smolensk, SUBAREWA M.S.; the assistant to the doctor of hygiene for the Health Division of the Stalinist District of Smolensk, KOSLOWA W.F.; and others. The former head of the Katyn police district, JAKOWLEWSOKOLOW F.M. testified: "A situation arose which caused the most serious disquiet among the German command, and urgent instructions were issued to all local police offices to prohibit all harmful talk and to arrest all those persons who expressed mistrust regarding the 'Katyn affair'". "Such instructions were personally issued to me, as head of the police district, by the following persons: at the end of May 1943, by the German commander of the Katyn village, Lt. Col. BRAUN, and, at the beginning of June, by the head of the police district of Smolensk, KAMANEZKII. "I issued instructions to the police in my district stating that all persons expressing mistrust, and all doubters of the truthfulness of the German communications on the shooting of the Polish prisoners of war by the Bolsheviks, were to be arrested and brought to police headquarters. "In forwarding these instructions from the German authorities, I hypocritically concealed the fact that I was myself convinced that the 'Katyn affair' was a German provocation. I became completely convinced of it after participating in the 'excursion' in the Katyn forest." When the German occupation troops noticed that the "excursions" by the local populace to the graves at Katyn were not successful, they issued an order in the summer of 1943 to fill in the graves. Before their withdrawal from Smolensk, the Germans hastily began to wipe away the traces of their atrocities. The country house occupied by the "Staff of the Construction Battalion 537" was burnt to the ground. The Germans searched for the three girls, Aleksejewa, Michailowa, and Konachowskaja, in the village of Borok, in order to take them with them or to annihilate them. They also sought their "chief witness" KISSELEW P.G., who was, however, successful in concealing himself and his family. The Germans burnt his house. They also attempted to arrest other "witnesses": the former foreman of Gnesdowo station, IWANOW S.W.; the former duty officer of the same station, SAWWATEJEW J.W.; and the former railway carriage coupler at the station at Smolensk, SACHAROW M.D. . During the very last days before the withdrawal from Smolensk the German fascist occupiers also searched for the professors Basilewski and Jefimow. These only succeeded in escaping kidnapping or death by hiding themselves in the nick of time. But the German fascist invaders were still not successful in covering their traces and concealing their crime. Forensic examination of the exhumed corpses proves with irrefutable clarity that the shooting of the Polish prisoners of war was committed by the Germans themselves. We proceed now to the files of the forensic expert Commission Files of the forensic expert Commission By order of the Special Commission for the examination and investigation of the circumstances of the shooting of the Polish officer prisoners of war by the German fascist invaders in the Katyn forest (in the vicinity of the city of Smolensk), the forensic investigative commission, consisting of: the superior forensic expert of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Director of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, W.J. PROZOROWSKI; Professor for Forensic Medicine of the 2nd Moscow State Medical Institute, Dr. W.M. SMOLJANINOW; Professor of anatomical pathology, Dr. D.N. WYROPAIJEW; the eldest Scientific Official of the anatomical medical division of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Dr. P.S. SEMENOWSKI; the eldest Scientific Official of the anatomical medical division of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Professor Ph.D. SCWAIKOW; with the participation of: the head forensic medical expert of the West front, Major of the medical services, NIKOLSKI; the forensic medical expert for Army N., Captain of the medical services, BUSSOEDOW: the chief of the anatomical pathology laboratory 92, Major of the medical services, SUBBOTIN; the Major of the medical services, OGLOBIN; Doctor of medicine and Lt. Col. of Medicine, SADYKOW; Lt. of Medicine PUSCHKARJOWA; The exhumation and forensic examination of the corpses of the Polish prisoners of war from the grounds of Kosji Gori in the Katyn forest, 15 kilometres >from the city of Smolensk, was carried out in the period from 16 to 23 January 1944. The bodies of the Polish prisoners of war were buried in a common grave measuring 60 x 60 x 3 m, in addition to another grave measuring 7 x 6 x 3.5 m. From the graves, 925 bodies were exhumed and examined. The exhumation and forensic examination of the bodies were carried out to determine the following: a) the identity of the dead b) the cause of death c) the length of time they had been in the ground. The circumstances of the matter (see document of the Special Commission); Objective data: (see the record of the forensic medical examination of the bodies). CONCLUSION The forensic medical expert commission, based on the findings of the forensic medical examination of the bodies, came to the following conclusion: Following the excavation of the graves and exposure of the corpses, it was established that: a) among the great number of bodies of the Polish prisoners of war were corpses in civilian clothing, the number of which, compared to the total number of the examined bodies (2:925 of the exhumed bodies) is slight; the bodies wore military footwear; b) the clothing of the dead prisoners of war testifies to their belonging to the officers and noncommissioned officers of the Polish army; c) incisions in the pockets, which were turned inside out, as well as in the boots, were discovered during the examination, revealing, as a rule, traces of previous examination of the articles of clothing (military greatcoats, trousers, etc.) on the bodies; d) in some cases, the pockets of the articles of clothing bore no incisions. In these cases, just in the pockets which had been cut or torn open, inside the jacket linings, trouserbands, foot rags and socks, newspaper clippings, brochures, prayer books, postage stamps, opened and unopened letters, receipts, medals, and other documents such as valuables (1 gold piece, golden dollars, tobacco pipes, pocket knives, cigarette paper, handkerchiefs and other articles, were discovered; e) some of the documents (which were not subjected to any particular examination) exhibited dates from the period between 12 November 1940 to 20.6.1941; f) the material of the clothing, especially the military greatcoats, jackets, trousers, and underwear, are well preserved and could only be torn by hand with difficulty; g) a small number of bodies (20:925 of the exhumed bodies) had their hands tied behind their backs with white braided cord; h) the condition of the clothing on the bodies, particularly the fact that the jackets, shirts,military belts, trousers, and underwear were buttoned up, boots or shoes tied, neckerchiefs and neckties bound around the necks, suspenders buttoned up and the shirts tucked into the trousers, shows that no exterior examination of the torso and limbs had been undertaken; The wellpreserved condition skin tissues of the head, and the nonexistence of any incisions therein or in the skin tissues of the chest or abdomen (except for 3:925 cases), or other signs of expert activity, shows that the bodies had not been subjected to forensic examination, a conclusion confirmed by an examination of the bodies exhumed by the forensic expert commission. The exterior and interior examination of the 925 bodies justifies the statement that the bodies exhibit gunshot wounds on the head and neck. In four cases, these are accompanied by damage to the skull caused by a hard, heavy object. In addition, some cases of injury to the abdomen, together with injuries to the head, were established. As a rule, there was one entry hole, more rarely two, in the back of the head near the nape of the neck, in the cavity in the nape of the neck, or the edge of the same cavity. In some cases, the entry wounds are on the back of the neck, at the height of the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd cervical vertebra. Most frequently, the exit holes are in the forehead, but, more rarely, in the temple or crown of the head, or in the face or neck. In 27 cases, the bullets remained in the body (without exit holes). At the terminus of the entry wound channel, under the soft tissues of the skull or bones thereof, in the cerebral membranes, or in the cerebral matter, deformed, slightly deformed, or severely deformed jacketed bullets were discovered, such as are used as ammunition for submachine guns, mostly of 7.65 m, The number of entry holes in the bones of the neck justifies the conclusion that, during the shooting, firearms of two different calibres were used, most frequently, of less than 8 mm, i.e, 7.65 mm or less; in a few cases, calibres of more than 8 mm, i.e., 9 mm, were used. The state of the fractures of the bones of the skull, and, in many cases, residues of gunpowder discovered on the exit holes or immediately close by, show that the shots were fired at point blank range, or very close range. The superimposition of the entry and exit holes shows that the holes must have been fired from behind when the head was bent down. The entry channel traversed vital parts of the brain, or immediately adjacent to these, so that the destruction of the tissues of the brain must have caused death. The injuries observed in the bones of the top of the skull, caused by a blunt, hard, and heavy object inflicted simultaneously with the gunshot wounds to the head, could not, by themselves, come into question as the cause of death. The forensic examinations, carried out during the period >from 16 to 23 January 1944, revealed that the 925 bodies were neither in a state of decomposition nor putrefaction, i.e., they were in the initial stages of the loss of moisture (most frequently and particularly visible in the chest or abdominal regions; fat and wax separation was most particularly visible in bodies which had lain in direct contact with the ground); i.e, the tissues of the bodies exhibited a loss of moisture and a separation of fat and wax. Particularly worthy of note is the fact that the muscles of the torso and limbs retained their macroscopic condition perfectly, while their former colour was almost perfectly retained; the interior organs of the chest and abdomen were also well preserved in relation to their configuration; the heart muscle, upon incision, clearly retained its usual structure and colour. The brain exhibited characteristic structural conditions, with a clearly recognizable border between white and grey matter. In addition to their macroscopic investigation of the tissues and bodily organs, the Forensic Expert Commission took material for the subsequent microscopic and chemical laboratory examination. The condition of the earth at the burial site must have played a certain role in the preservation of the tissues and bodily organs. After the excavation of the graves and exposure of the corpses, the condition of the bodies, following exposure to the air for a period, began to influenced by the warmth and moisture of the spring and summer of 1943, a factor which could strongly encourage the process of decomposition. But the degree of moisture loss, and the fat and wax separation in the bodies, the especially good preservation of the muscles and interior organs, as well as the articles of clothing, justify us in stating that the bodies had only been buried a short time. If we compare the condition of the bodies in the graves at Kosji Gory with the bodies found at other burial sites in the city of Smolensk and the near vicinity (GEDEONOWKA, MAGALENSCHTISCHINA, READOWKA, camp 126 at KRASNYI BOR, etc.) (see the Report of the Forensic Medical Expert Commission of 22 October 1943), we must conclude that the bodies of the Polish prisoners of war in the Kosji Gory region were interred about 2 years ago. This is also confirmed by the findings of the documents in the articles of clothing, indicating that an earlier point in time for burial cannot be considered (see point e, page 48, and documentary table of contents). Based on the findings of the examination, the Forensic Medical Expert Commission has established that: 1) the killings of the officer and noncommissioned officer prisoners of war took place by shooting; 2) that the shootings took place during a period approximately 2 years ago, that is, in the months of SeptemberDecember 1941; 3) that the valuables and documents dating from 1941 and discovered by the Forensic Expert Commission in the articles of clothing on the bodies, are proof that the German fascist authorities failed to carry out a thorough examination of the bodies in the spring and summer of 1943; the documents discovered prove that the shootings took place after the month of June 1941; 4) that the Germans dissected only a very small number of the bodies of Polish prisoners of war in 1943; 5) that the manner and type of shooting of the Polish prisoners of war is identical with the shooting of peaceful Soviet citizens and Soviet prisoners of war. This type of shooting was practised by the German fascist authorities on a broad scale in the temporarily occupied regions of the USSR, including the cities of Smolensk, Orel, Kharkow, Krasnodar, and Woronesch. The Superior Forensic Official of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Director of the State Scientific Research Institute for Health Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, W.J. PROZOROWSKI; Professor of forensic medicine at the 2nd Moscow State Medical Institute, Dr. W.M. SMOLJANINOW; Professor of anatomical pathology, Dr. D.N. WYROPAEW; The eldest scientific official of the Thanatological Division of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Dr. P.S. SEMENOWSKI; The eldest scientific official of the forensic medical division of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Prof. M.D. SCHWAIKOWA. Smolensk, 24 January 1944. Documents found on the corpses In addition to the information proven in the documents of the forensic medical report, the time of the shootings of the Polish prisoners of war by the Germans (autumn 1941, not the spring of 1940, as claimed by the Germans), was also established by documents discovered during the excavation of the graves, dating not only from the second half of 1940, but also from the spring and summer (March -June) of 1941. Among the documents discovered by the forensic experts, the following merit particular attention: 1) on body 92: A letter from Warsaw in the Russian language addressed to the Central Office for Prisoners of War, Moscow, Kuibuschewstreet no. 12. In the letter, "Sophie" asks "Sigon", to let her know the whereabouts of her husband, Thomas Sigon. The letter is dated 12.9.1940. The envelope bears German postage cancellation "Warsaw IX40", and cancellation "Moscow Post Office 9 Expedition 28/IX40", as well a notice written in red ink, in the Russian language, reading "Find camp and deliver 15/XI40" (signature illegible). 2) on body 4: A registered postcard no. 0112 from Tarnopol with cancellation "Tarnopol 12/X40". The manuscript text and address are obliterated. 3) on body 101: Receipt no. 10293 dated 19.XII.1939, issued in camp Koselsk, for pawn of a gold watch accepted by LEWANDOWSKY EDUARD ADAMOWITSCH. The reverse of this receipt bears a note dated 14 March 1941, stating that the watch had been sold to "Juwelirtorg". 4) on body 46: A receipt issued in Starobelskyi camp on 16.XII.1939 for the pawn of a gold watch accepted by ARASCHKEWITSCH WLADIMIR RUDOLPHOWITSCH. The reverse of the receipt bears a note dated 25 March 1941, stating that the watch had been sold to "Juwelirtorg". 5) on body 71: A devotional image of paper with a picture of Jesus, discovered between pages 144 and 145 of a Catholic prayer book. The reverse of the devotional image bears a legible note with signature "Jadvinja" and date "4 April 1941". 6) on body 46: A receipt issued in camp no. 1ON on 5 May 1941 for the deposit of a sum of money in the amount of 225 rubles accepted by ARASCHKEWITSCH. 7) on the same body (46): A receipt issued in camp no. 1ON on 6 April 1941 for the deposit of a sum of money in the amount of 102 rubles accepted by ARASCHKEWITSCH. 8) on body 101: A receipt issued in camp no. 1ON on 18 May 1941 for the deposit of a sum of money in the amount of 175 rubles accepted by LEWANDOWSKY. 9) on body 53: An unforwarded postcard in the Polish language with the address: Warsaw, Bagatelja 15, house 47, Irene Kutschinskaja, date: 20 June 1941. Sender: Stanislav Kutschinskij. Conclusions >From the totality of material available to the Special Commission, particularly >from the testimonies of the 100 witnesses interrogated by the Commission, the facts of the case as examined by the forensic experts, and the documents and valuables taken from the graves in the Katyn forest, the following conclusions may be drawn with irrefutable clarity: 1. The Polish prisoners of war in the three camps west of Smolensk were housed there until the beginning of the war, were engaged in road construction work, and remained there even after the invasion of Smolensk by the German conqueror, until September 1943. 2. In the autumn of 1941, mass shootings of Polish prisoners of war taken >from the above mentioned camps were carried out by the German occupying power in the Katyn forest. 3. The mass shootings of the Polish prisoners of war in the Katyn forest was carried out by the German armed forces under the cover name "Staff 537 of the Construction Battalion", led by Lt. Col. Arnes and his associates Lt. Reckst and Lt. Hott. 4. As a result of the deterioration of the general military situation for Germany in early 1943, the German occupier took measures, provocative in nature and intended to attribute their own crime to the Soviets, with a view to causing hostility between the Russians and the Poles; 5. To this purpose, a) the German fascist invaders attempted, through the use of persuasion, threats, and barbaric tortures, to find "witnesses" among the Soviet citizens from whom perjured statements were extorted to the effect that the Polish prisoners of war had been shot by the Soviets in the spring of 1940; b) the German occupation authorities, in the spring of 1943, transported the corpses of Polish prisoners of war from other locations and shot by them at other sites, and laid them in the excavated graves of the Katyn forest in an attempt to wipe away the traces of their own bestiality and to increase the number of the "victims of Bolshevism" in the Katyn forest; c) while the German occupation authorities spread their provocation, they used approximately 500 Russian prisoners of war for the job of excavating the graves at Katyn in order to remove all documents and exhibits which might prove German authorship of the crime. The Russian prisoners of war were shot immediately after termination of this work. 6. The findings of the Forensic Expert Commission have established beyond doubt: a) the time of the shootings: the autumn of 1941; b) the German executioners, in shooting the Polish prisoners of war, used the same methods (pistol shots in the back of the neck), as in the mass shootings of Soviet citizens in other cities, particularly, Orel, Woronesch,Krasnodar, and Smolensk. 7. The conclusions drawn from the statements of eyewitnesses and the forensic report on the shootings of the Polish prisoners of war by the Germans in the autumn of 1941 are fully confirmed by the exhibits and documents discovered in the graves at Katyn. 8. In shooting the Polish prisoners of war in the Katyn forest, the German fascist invaders were pursuing a consistent policy of the physical extermination of the Slavic peoples. President of the Special Commission, Member of the Special State Commission, Academician BURDENKO; Member of the Special State Commission, Academician ALEKSEJ TOLSTOI; Member of the Special State Commission, Mythropolitos NIKOLAI; President of the AllSlavic Committee, Lieutenant General GUNDOROW A.S.; President of the Executive Committee of the Association of the Red Cross and Red Half Moon, S.A. POLESNIKOW; People's Commissar for Education of the RSFSR, Academician W.P. POTEMKIN; Chief of the Forensic Head Office of the Red Army, CoronelGeneral E.J. SMIRNOW; President of the Executive Committee for the Region of Smolensk, R.E. MEINIKOW. Smolensk, 24 January 1944 CODOH can be reached at: Post Office Box 3267 Visalia CA 93278 CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 09:38:32 PDT 1996 Article: 64979 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: ZYCLON B - USED TO DESTROY VERMIN Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 19:14:22 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 173 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 Zyklon B Note: The fact file series is intended to present facts of history, free >from the polemics and misinformation so often presented in this medium. Hopefully the facts contained herein will serve the cause of truth in history. Note to educators and students: Fact File No. 5 presents background and technical information regarding Zyklon B. Zyklon B or in English, Cyclone B was a trade name of the German firm Degesch which supervised the distribution of this product during World War II. The product was designed as a fumigant for the purpose of pest and vermin control. Zyklon B was a special preparation which contained hydrocyanic acid (HCN). HCN was used as a fumigant even prior to World War I by the United States. Zyklon B was HCN absorbed in a carrier, typically wood pulp or diatomaceous earth. This preparation of pellets was sealed in an airtight can to make handling and transportation safer. Zyklon B would be a forgotten footnote of World War II except for the allegation that it was used as a poisonous gas to execute millions of concentration camp inmates. Much was made of the bills of lading for deliveries of this fumigant at the Nuremberg Trials. It is reasoned that most of the concentration camps used Zyklon to kill vermin and fight disease thereby reducing the camp death rates. Other camps, designated by "experts" as extermination camps used the same Zyklon to kill inmates and thereby increase the camp death rates. Therefore, deliveries of Zyklon to Dachau was beneficial and humane while delivery of Zyklon to Auschwitz was criminal. Specifications For HCN Name: HCN, hydrocyanic acid; prussic acid Boiling point: 25.7 C / 78.3 F at 760 mm Hg Specific gravity: 0.69 at 18 C / 64 F Vapor density: 0.947 (air = 1) Melting point: -13.2 C / 8.2 F Vapor pressure: 750mm Hg at 25 C / 77 F 1200mm Hg at 38 C /100F Solubility in water: 100% Appearance: clear Color: slightly bluish Odor: bitter almond, very mild, non-irritating (odor is not considered a safe method of determining presence of the poison) Hazards Unstable with heat, alkaline materials and water. Will explode if mixed with 20% sulfuric acid. Polymerization (decomposition) will occur violently with heat, alkaline material or water. Once started, reaction is autocatalytic and uncontrollable. Will explode. Flash point: -18 C / 0 F Autoignition temperature: 538 C / 1000 F Flammable limits in air (by volume): lower 6%, upper 41% Source: Hydrogen Cyanide , Dupont Publication 7-83. History As long as 80 years ago it was recognized that hydrocyanic acid could be useful in pest control but it took half this time to popularize the method. Deficiencies and disadvantages had first of all to be eliminated from the method of application. First this had been done in such a way that hydrocyanic acid was no more developed on the spot by mixing cyanides and acid, but this process already took place in the factory: The so- called "pot method" was replaced by liquid hydrocyanic acid. The few deficiencies of this procedure were removed in the early twenties by the ZYKLON method: One added liquid HCN to a "carrier substance", thus simplifying handling whilst all favourable properties of liquid HCN were maintained. At the same time, danger to the operator was reduced to a minimum. Hydrocyanic acid in the form of ZYKLON can be safely stored for considerable periods and under all climatic conditions, any quantity of gas can be easily measured, quickly and cleanly released. Any residures are completely harmless. Composition In ZYKLON pure (98%-99%) liquid hydrocyanic acid is chemically stabilized and absorbed in a porous, inert material. It is supplied in snippets or discs prepared from wood pulp. Snippets generally are preferred as in view of their larger surface they give off the gas more rapidly. Upon request also discs can be supplied. The aborbent material can easily be collected at the end of the fumigation. Packing ZYKLON is packed in handy, gas-tight tins of various sizes which are packed in strong wooden cases. One case, measuring 72 x 50 x 36 cm contains: Imperial - units 16 tins, each containing 40 ozs. HCN - total 40 lbs HCN or 30 tins, each containing 16 ozs. HCN - total 30 lbs HCN. Toxicity No thoroughly effective pesticide is known to exist which could be considered to be harmless to human beings or mammals. Fatal concentrations of HCN impede or completely cut off the oxygen supply to the cells. The poison can enter the body in three ways: through the mouth, the respiratory organs, or the pores of the skin. The latter will occur in particular if the body is exposed to high concentration for any length of time and in unfavourable conditions (great heat). Methods Prior to fumigation, the tins must be distributed about the building. The tins are opened, and the ZYKLON is scattered so as to reach even the remotest parts of the building. If this is done correctly the gas will develop evenly and instantaneously throughout the premises. Spaces difficult to reach may be charged separately. In multi-storied buildings one begins with the top floor, and then works towards the exit, taking care that nobody re-enters rooms already charged. Even under mask protection it is not advisable to expose oneself to the gas more than is absolutely necessary. The exit door is sealed after everybody has left the building; warning notices must be put up before gassing commences and a guard placed near the building to prevent unauthorised persons >from entering. Time of exposure depends on the type of pests to be attacked; for the destruction of the various types of moths and their pre-adult stages 24 hours will suffice, against other kinds of insect pests one should fumigate for 48 hours. If there are any dense stowages or bulkss of commodities to penetrate, the time of exposure may need to be extended to 72 hours. Ventilation During this operation gas-masks must be worn. The ventilation takes place in the reverse direction to the gassing. All windows near the entrance are opened first, then gradually those in the rest of the building. It is advisable to work only for 10 to 15 minutes at a time and then to make interruptions of half an hour, as a precaution against skin poisoning. Depending on concentration, outdoor tempature and weather conditions, ventilation will take at least 10 hours. Clearing of tins and residues may be commenced before the end of airing. Windows and doors must remain open, and gas-masks kept available. ZYKLON tins and absorbent material must always be collected and cleared away before the resumption of work. Source: Zyklon for Pest Control, Degesch Publication A short list of books for further reading The following are works by Fred A. Leuchter Jr., unquestionably an expert in the design and fabrication of execution hardware. Mr. Leuchter's career and personal life have been destroyed due to the publication of these works. Every slander, every weapon has been used to silence Fred Leuchter. Prior to the defamation, Fred Leuchter was featured on Prime Time Live where he was called, "the country's reigning expert on execution." The New York Times ran a first page story with photo. According to the Times, Mr. Leuchter is "a consultant to 16 states on executions." The Leuchter Report: The First Forensic Examination of Auschwitz (Focal Point Publications - 81 Duke Street, London W1M 5DJ The Second Leuchter Report: Dachau, Mauthausen, Hartheim The Third Leuchter Report: A Technical Report on the Execution Gas Chamber - Mississippi State Penitentiary Parchman, Mississippi The Fourth Leuchter Report: An Engineering Evaluation of Jean-Claude Pressac's Book "Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers" (All are published by :History Buff Books and Video - P.O. Box 3061, Station C - Hamilton, Ontario - Canada L8H 7J3) The above mentioned items can be obtained by writing to : Samisdat Publ. 206 Carlton St. Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5A 2L1 Institute of Forensic Research, An Official Polish Report on the Auschwitz Gas Chambers- Journal of Historical Review, Vol XI, No. 2 Summer 1991. Walter Lueftl, The Lueftl Report: An Austrian Engineer's Report on the Gas Chambers of Auschwitz and Mauthausen - Journal of Historical Review, Vol XII, No. 4 Winter 92-93.(Published by the IHR P.O. Box 2719 Newport Beach, CA 92659) Germar Rudolf, Gutachten uber die Bildung und Nachweisbarkeit von Cyanidverbindungen in den Gaskammern von Auschwitz (Technical Report on the formation and detection of cyanide compounds in the gas chambers of Auschwitz) (Cromwell Press, 27 Old Gloucester St., London WC1N 3XX, England, UK) One should also obtain the Translation of Document No. NI-9912 Office of Chief Counsel for War Crimes: Directives for the use of Prussic Acid (Zyklon) for the Destruction of Vermin (Disinfestation). For the current IHR catalog, with a complete listing of books and audio and video tapes, send one dollar to: Post Office Box 2739 Newport Beach, California 92659 Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 09:38:33 PDT 1996 Article: 65006 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!!!!!!uknet!!uknet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Holocaust the musical Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:45:56 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 69 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 And now it's Holocaust the musical.... [from the "Times" November 17th 1995.] Rock against the Nazis Kaddish, a multimedia spectacular about the Holocaust, is on its way to this country. David Sinclair caught the show in Vienna.: >From a shadowy stage in a grand, decaying theatre in the heart of Vienna come fragile snatches of ambient and neo -classical music. The faces of two Hungarian vocalists are caught in pencil-thin shafts of light: the folk singer Marta Sebestyen who sings an air as pure and delicate as birdsong, and the poet Endre Szkartisi, vho declaims lines such as "The wind blows through me" in dark world-weary tones. Suddenly, the ,tranquil mood is shattered by a titanic , piston-like guitar moif overlaid with sinister washes of synthesized industrial noise. Meanwhile, on three vast screens hung at either side of the Stage and behind the small knot of musicians responsible for making this alternatively aching and brutish noise, images of a burning bush and a burning Star of David are intercutt with archive footage of Nazi youth rallies, marching troops and Aryan athletes leaping and twisting. As the aggressive, stabbing bursts of music build up to an apocalyptic climax, the screens show a dark field full of people carrying flaming torches, gradually forming themselves into a huge, human swastika. The show. called Kaddish after the jewish prayer for the dead, is the creation of the English music and film group Towering Inferno. A dramatic and at times provocative peice of work, it is an impressionistic essay about the social cultural history of the jews in Europe which inevitably turns on the horrific legacy of the Holocaust. The show is not short of impact under any conditions, but in Austria, where it is still illegal to display or represent the shape of a swastika for anything other than educational purpose, Kaddish has caused quite a stir. If we weren't Jewish and English we'd be arrested for doing this here," says Andy Saunders, who co-wrote the work with Richard Wolfson. In fact, the Austrian police did look in before the start of the event — which was staged last Sunday and Monday, as part of of Judische Kultur in Wien, a month-long festival of Jewish culture in the arts— but only to make a routine security check of the hall. [More waffle, but cut because I'm bored with this rubbish,] If you want the recording as I am sure you do..... • Kaddish is available on Island records (CIDX 8039) . The work will be performed by Towering Inferno at Shepherds Bush Empire on December 3. But we've missed it, what a shame. Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 09:38:34 PDT 1996 Article: 65008 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!!!!btnet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: PHOTO NO 2 [f.gif] see KEY TO THE PHOTOS [3/5] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:14:08 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 927 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> References: <> <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 [ Section: 3/5 File: f.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ] M`$2/PO&PPY`[&HGMD$8L(20/+YY"0W(Z;')J"1PVF&`%,;HPXZ^Y.""CD40H2,-.1;1XPX_`/LY9*D]!*&Y?$4>^821C1!R))(] M+#E_D$TZH8./0`KI8P]BV`,>ZI"'-*!A"U08PQO0,(8O')`.DN"*%L;0!BD8 M(0EBT,(:MM`%,WA!"E9XPA."L((3;$`!#X`!%:BPA3I\04E<@`,NC,0, M(`$&4C``!94``(L``-0<@`#'G`!78SA#'70`A?&Z(06L&@!#"B` M`A#`3`M$`0VX\L$,3E`$(1Q!""\H`1!ZU00PP*$.>_"#`,?@A2J800YL>($' M+-"`!5C`!3OP`A*L(`4L-*$,@8B+M3X6AC!X(0I:Z`(9^M`%,)0!$'3P0QCX MT(,5D*`"%L!`E"20`17XP`M6B((:]F`F+WB!!S!`5AF#`'(=:004MT$(>_!"%"RB`DM")0`O84+D^]$$/ M4G`"%[R`AC<\0A)^<(,4DF3["-8F`A.,$`,6UG`&/H"!#=M=Q"(`<0='*&4T M7K2$:`BAB$FP-J%_",H>9+,'1SPB$81`Q"3\0!1(E`$/BXA%)-J@$$<4H0@? 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M*^R"+/"B([P"++#"*%1"*9Q")3`"*-R"*F0"*7S"*62"*>P!%!B;&U3")!"7 M*K!"*7`")BR"JF:"("`!!CA`!(#`$MB%&]`!5<3!'-R!(8A6'4#!""S;!DS7 M$#3!$B`!"^C`&JK!'.!!^'!!%#2![Y2!'/2!&V@!$T0!%^C``T0<-P7`XX$` M%/3!("2"4F%"(EP!QB9*0/P90)I\$PE$P1R0+,BMK\20`02T7\I*OH)*`4@+=$@`100Y40`-XJ%&PEDOT$0)\ M@!1T013$UW**)YU,!`(T@`MX0)J02]S`#`$>*`)^U($C44DL$$%T!;X)4G2!%0?04`'5`#Q]FS: M&`#IE,(@J`$A%)9<_,$>S,&/&D(;>.X:(,(=A$$8J,$?D,\H7*L(>$,0AY($<`!82B)$Q"*'1B)RA")J!")>C!(D@"*$""(70")DA" MERF"(]B!&R35MSZ")2Q"K75")\#"+(R"?+3"*8B1*I`"+?R"+&SB+K1"+&P" M*)0"+-P"*[#"+O2",:C">(P"*GS"(F1")W@")(""*Y@"(5A"HDI"*21"%LPO M'"C"WU0"*=3"*&@")QR"*:#")03"$!!%"!P!&S`"(3!"V"`"60S")7=")KB! M$9S`\#A&"\B`#1R'%OS!:-6!SQP"&[0A�!$5!8$LA`"]R`$.P`!*3-UIW$ sum -r/size 37920/57226 section (from first to last encoded line) From Fri Sep 13 09:38:35 PDT 1996 Article: 65009 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!hookup!!!!!!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: PHOTO NO 2 [f.gif] see KEY TO THE PHOTOS [1/5] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:14:04 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 927 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 [ Section: 1/5 File: f.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ] begin 644 f.gif CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 09:38:42 PDT 1996 Article: 65022 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: NOT GUILTY AT NUREMBERG [2/2] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 21:58:28 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 1223 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> References: <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 at the entrance to the camp (strafstehen), and finally punishment by beating. However, this punishment of beating could not be decreed by any commandant independently. He could apply for it. -Oral testimony of Rudolf Hoess, 15 April 1946 (XI 403-411) Hoess's motivation appears to have been to protect his wife and 3 children, and to save the lives of others by testifying that only 60 people knew of the mass killings. Hoess attempted to save Kaltenbrunner by implicating Eichmann and Pohl, who had not yet been apprehended. (For a similar case, see Heisig's affidavit implicating Raeder, XIII 460-461). Hoess appeared as a "defense witness", and his cross-examination by the prosecution was cut short by the prosecution itself (XI 418-419). Perhaps they were afraid he would spill the beans. Hoess's famous "autobiography" Kommandant in Auschwitz, probably prepared in question and answer from through interrogation like a gigantic "affidavit", then written up to be copied in his handwriting, is not much better. In this book, German text, cremation fires were visible for miles (p. 159). Everyone in the area knew of the exterminations (p. 159) the victims knew they were going to be gassed (pp. 110, 111, 125), but it was possible to fool them (pp. 123-124; Document 3868-PS), and his family never knew a thing (pp. 129-130). Hoess was a chronic drunkard who "confessed" these things when he had been drinking (p. 95) or was being tortured (p. 145). It is not true that, according to p. 126 of this text, bodies were removed >from gas chambers by Kapos eating and smoking and/or not wearing gas masks; the text does not say that. The Polish "translation" of this book, published prior to the publication of the German "original text", seems to agree with the German text, except that place names and dates are missing. The uncut, unexpurgated complete writings of Rudolf Hoess(?) (in Polish) are available through international library loan (Wspomnienia Rudolfa Hoessa, Komendanta Obozu Oswiecimskiego). JODL Jodl was hanged for complicity in the Commando Order, an order to shoot British soldiers who fought in civilian clothes and strangled their own prisoners of war (XV 316-329). Jodl's defense was that international law is intended to protect men who fight as soldiers. Soldiers are required to bear arms openly, wear clearly recognizable emblems or uniforms, and to treat prisoners in a humane manner. Partisan warfare and the activities of British commando units were prohibited. Trial and execution of such people is legal if carried out under the terms of Article 63 of the Geneva Prisoner of War Convention of 1929 (1). In fact, almost no one was shot as a result of the Commando Order. (55 in Western Europe, according to Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, XXII 284). The intention was to deter men from fighting in this manner, thinking they could simply surrender afterwards. (1) See dissentient opinion of Judge Rutledge, U.S. v. Yamashita; Habeas Corpus action of Field Marshall Milch. Another "crime" was notifying the Commander in Chief of the Army that Hitler had repeated an already previously issued order that an offer of surrender from Leningrad was not to be accepted. Like so many German crimes, this remained an idea without effect, since no offer of surrender ever came. The intention was to force the population to withdraw to the rear, since it would be impossible to feed millions of people or to prevent epidemics. Gaps were left in German lines to the East in order to enable the population to do this. Kiev, Odessa, and Kharkov had capitulated but were mined, killing thousands of German soldiers with delayed-action detonator devices. The docks were required for military purposes; Russian railroads were on a different guage from German ones, and supplies could not be brought forward to feed millions of half-starved prisoners or Jews. The Soviet propaganda lie that Germans killed millions of Russian prisoners has been taken seriously by David Irving in his pre- revisionist days. The order concerning Leningrad, Document C-123, is not signed. The case against Jodl illustrates the absurdity of the entire trial. In the words of his defense attorney, Dr. Exner: Murder and revolution - in peacetime this would have meant civil war; in wartime, the immediate collapse of the front and the end of the Reich. Should he then have cried, 'fiat justia, pereat patria? It really appears that the prosecution holds the view that such conduct could be demanded of the defendants. An astonishing idea! Whether murder and treason can ever be justified ethically had better be left to moralists and theologians. At all events, jurists cannot even discuss such an idea. To be obliged on pain of punishment to murder the head of state? A soldier should do that? And in wartime? Those who have committed such deeds have always been punished, but to punish them for not doing so would indeed be something new." (XIX 45; XXII 86-90). [Photograph] At another point, Dr. Exner exclaimed, "On one single page of the Anglo-American trial brief the phrase 'Jodl was present at' occurs six times. What does this mean legally?" (XIX 37). Jodl was asked by one of the Soviet prosecutors, Col. Pokrovsky, "Do you know that the German troops . . . quartered, hanged upside down, and roasted Soviet captives over the fire? Did you know that?" To which Jodl replied, "Not only did I not know it, but I do not even believe it" (XV 545). This is the entire vast subject of war crimes trials boiled down into 3 sentences. (XV 284-561; XVIII 506-510; XIX 1-46). KALTENBRUNNER [Photograph] During Kaltenbrunner's cross examination, he was indignantly asked how he had the nerve to pretend he was telling the truth and that 20 or 30 witnesses were lying (XI 349). The "eyewitnesses", of course, did not appear in court; they were merely names on pieces of paper. One of these names is that of Franz Ziereis, commandant of Mauthausen concentration camp. Ziereis "confessed" to gassing 65,000 people; making lampshades out of human skin; manufacturing counterfeit money; and supplied a complicated table of statistical information containing the exact number of inmates in 31 different camps. He then accused Kaltenbrunner of ordering the entire camp (Mauthausen) to be killed upon the approach of the Americans. Ziereis had been dead for 10 and a half months when he made this "confession". Fortunately, the "confession" has been "remembered" by someone else: a concentration camp inmate named Hans Marsalek, who never appeared in court, but whose signature appears on the document (Document 3870-PS, XXXIII 279-286). Pages 1 through 6 of this document are in quotation marks(!), including the statistical table, which states, for example, that there were 12,000 inmates at Ebensee; 12,000 at Mauthausen; 24,000 at Gusen I and II; 20 inmates at Schloss-Lindt, 70 inmates at Klagenfurt-Junkerschule, etc, for all of 31 camps in the table. The document is not signed by anyone else alleged to have been present at Ziereis's "confession", and no notes alleged to have been taken at the time are appended to the document. The document bears two signatures only: that of Hans Marsalek, the inmate; and that of Smith W. Brookhart Jr. U.S. Army. The document bears the date 8 April 1946. Ziereis died 23 May 1945. The pretense was that Ziereis was too seriously injured (he died of multiple gunshot wounds through the stomach) to sign anything at the time, but he was healthy enough to dictate this lengthy and complex document, which was then "remembered" exactly and verbatim by Marsalek for 10 and a half months. Marsalek would, of course, have had no motivation to lie. The document is in German. Brookhart was a confession ghostwriter who also wrote the "confessions" of Rudolf Hoss (in English, Document 3868-PS) and Otto Ohlendorf (in German, Document 2620-PS). Ziereis's "confession" continues to be taken seriously by Reitlinger, Shirer, Hilberg, and other itinerant peddlars of Holo-Schlock. Kaltenbrunner claimed that there were 13 central concentration camps or "Stammlager" during the war (XI 268-269). The prosecution total of 300 concentration camps was achieved by including perfectly normal work camps. The 13th camp, Matzgau, near Danzig, was a special camp whose prisoners were SS guards and police who had been sentenced to imprisonment for offenses against prisoners in their charge: physical mistreatment, embezzlement, theft of personal property, etc. This camp with its inmate SS men fell into the hands of the Russians at the end of the war (XI 312, 316). Kaltenbrunner claimed that sentences passed by SS and police courts were far more severe than sentences passed by other courts for the same offenses. The SS carried out frequent trials of their own men for offenses against inmates and violations of discipline. (XXI 246, 291, 369-370). Third degree methods of interrogation were permitted by law for the sole purpose of obtaining information relating to future resistence activity; it was forbidden for the purpose of obtaining confessions. These interrogators required the presence of a doctor, and allowed a total of 20 blows with a stick once only, on the bare buttocks, a process which could not be repeated later. Other forms of legal "Nazi torture" included confinement in a dark cell, or standing during lengthy interrogations (XX 164, 180- 181; XXI 502-510; 528-530). Kaltenbrunner and many other defense witnesses claimed that similar methods were used by police all over the world (XI 312) and that respected police officials visited Germany to study German procedures (XXI 373). Defense evidence on this and related topics amounts to many thousands of pages divided between the Tribunal and "commission", and 136,000 affidavits. (XXI 346-373; 415, 444). [Photograph -- court scene] Kaltenbrunner was convicted of conspiring to "lynch" Allied airmen who committed mass bombings of civilians. The lynchings would have been illegal, but did not occur. Many airmen were saved from mobs by German officials. The Germans refused to contemplate such a matter, fearing it would lead to a general slaughter of parchuted fliers. Like so many other German crimes, this remained an idea without effect. (XXI 406-407, 472-476). Another crime committed by Kaltenbrunner was responsibility for the so- called "Bullet Order". THis is supposed to have been an order to shoot prisoners of war using a measuring contraption (probably inspired by the Paul Waldmann pedal-driven brain bashing machine, Document USSR-52, VII 377). The "Bullet Order", Document 1650-PS, if it is an authentic document, which it probably is not (XVIII 34-36) is a mistranslation: the sense of the order is that prisoners who attempt to escape should be chained to an iron ball (Kugel), and not that they should be shot with a "bullet" (also Kugel). The word "chained" appears in the document, but the word "shot" does not (III 506; XXI 514; Gestapo affidavit 75; XXI 299). The document is a "teletype" thus, without a signature (XXVII 424-428). Sonderbehandlung (special treatment) is an example of the ugly jargon used in all bureaucracies, and is probably best translated as "treatment on a case by case basis". Kaltenbrunner was able to show that it meant, in the context of one document, the right to drink champagne and take French lessons. The prosecution got a winter resort mixed up with a concentration camp (XI 338-339); (XI 232-386; XVIII 40-68). (The winter resort document is Document 3839-PS, XXXIII 197-199, an "affidavit"). KEITEL [Photograph] Keitel was hanged for alleged responsibility in atrocities said to have been committed in Russia, and for the Commissar and Night and Fog Decrees. The evidence against Keitel consists largely of the "reports" of Soviet War Crimes Commissions (XVII 611-612, XXII 76-83). These are summaries containing final judgments, conclusions, and generalizations without any underlying evidence or documents. In these reports, military agencies are wrongly named and confused. Among the Soviet documents used to convict Keitel are Documents USSR-4; 9; 10; 35; 38; 40; 90; 364; 366; 407; and 470. USSR-4 is a "report" which alleges intentional spreading of typhus epidemics to exterminate the Russian population. Responsibility for this crime is attributed to the "Hitler Government and the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces"(1). (1) See also "Report on U.S. Crimes in Korea", Peking (1952) (American Germ Warfare). Documents USSR-9, 35, and 38 are also Soviet War Crimes Reports. Document USSR-90 is the judgment of a Soviet military court, and states that "German fascist intruders committed bestial crimes", and attributes these crimes to the "German Armed Forces Command". Original documents are not appended, and specific orders are not mentioned. Keitel's name is not mentioned. The other documents are "certified true copies" (XVIII 9-12) of documents supposedly possessed by the Russians. The "Night and Fog Decree" (XVIII 19-22) was intended as an alternative to shooting resistence members. It was conceded by the prosecution that such people could be legally shot (V 405) but the Germans considered it undesirable to sentence everyone to death. Prison sentences were felt to have little deterrent value, since everyone expected the war to end in a few years (XXI 524). The Commissar Order had little if any practical effect, partly due to the difficulty of determining who was a Commissar. (XXI 404-405; XXII 77). Keitel is accused to this day of blocking access to Hitler, that is, shielding Hitler from certain information. This accusation, absurd in the extreme, is refuted on pages 645-661 of volume XVII. Also used against Keitel was Document 81-PS, quoted in Jackson's opening speech, and Document USSR-470, a "true copy" (meaning the document has been re-typed to make the copy) of an "original document" written entirely in Serbo Croat, and supposedly located in Yugoslavia, with a typewritten signature by Keitel. It was not alleged that Keitel understood Serbo-Croat, rather that this was a "translation" of a document written in German which the Yugoslavians did not find (XV 530-536). Keitel's case appears at X 468-652; XI 1-28; XVII 603-661; and XVIII 1- 40. VON NEURATH [Photograph] Von Neurath was the victim of a major forgery, Document 3859-PS. The Czechs re-typed an authentic document, making extensive alterations and additions, and presented a "photocopy" of their "copy" (with typewritten signatures) to the Tribunal. The original document was in Czechoslovakia. On this document, nearly everything is wrong: German bureaucracy was extremely complex, and many prosecution documents bear wrong addresses, false references, and incorrect procedural markings which are not immediately obvious. In relation to this document, Von Neurath said, "I regret to say that you are lying" (XVII 67; 373-377). Von Neurath was convicted of closing Czech universities (not a crime under international law when performed by an occupation government) and shooting 9 Czech student leaders after a demonstration. These crimes were "proven" with various documents: USSR-489, a "certified true copy", certified by the Czechs; USSR-60, a "report" of a "War Crimes Commission", quoting the "statements" of Karl Hermann Frank, which were not appended to the report; and USSR-494, an "affidavit" signed by Karl Hermann Frank 33 days before his execution. The statements attributed to Frank in the War Crimes Report were, of course, not signed or dated, and the original documents were in Czechoslovakia (XVII 85-90). Much of the "evidence" concocted against Von Neurath, Schacht, Von Papen, Raeder, and others came from the affidavits of an elderly American diplomat living in Mexico (Documents 1760-PS; 2385-PS; 2386-PS; EC-451). The diplomat, Messersmith, was claimed to be too old to come to court (II 350); it was denied, however, that he was senile (II 351-352). The "evidence" consists of Messersmith's personal opinions as to the motivations and character of other people. Von Neurath's case appears at XVI 593-673; XVII 2-107; XIX 216-311. VON PAPEN [Photograph] Von Papen was accused of conspiring with Hitler to induce Hindenberg to take Hilter into government as Reichschancellor. According to this view, Hindenberg was deceived by Von Papen into believing that civil war would ensue if this was not done. The Reichschancelor at that time, General Von Schleicher, had attempted to rule illegally and unconstitutionally for some time without the support of the National Socialists, who enjoyed the largest majority in the history of the Reichstag. Many of Hitler's illegalities actually date back to the period of Von Schleicher's rule (XXII 102-103). This was the only alternative to the chaos of 41 political parties, each representing some private financial interest. The democratic victors demanded of Von Papen, in 1946, that he should ahve foreseen Hitler's intent to wage "aggresive war" in 1933, and conspired with Von Schleicher to rule through military dictatorship. Von Schleicher was later shot following the Rohm Putsch. These shootings were considered legal by Hindenberg, as was evidenced by a telegram congratulating Hitler (XX 291; XXI 350; 577-578; XXII 117). Von Papen also considered the shooting of Rohm and his followers to have been justified by emergency (XVI 364), but considered that many other murders took place which were not justified, and that it was Hitler's duty to conduct an investigation and punish these acts. This was not done. It was conceded by the prosecution at Nuremberg that the Nazi Part Program contained nothing illegal, and was indeed almost laudable (II 105). The National Socialists were declared legal by the occupation authorities in the Rheinland in 1925 (XXI 455) and by the German Supreme Court in 1932 (XXI 568) and by the League of Nations and Polish Resident General in Danzig in 1930 (XVIII 169). It was not clear in 1933 that the Army would unanimously support Von Schleicher against the National Socialists, who had a legal right to govern. Hindenberg's refusal to violate the Constitution at the risk of civil war brought Hitler into government in an entirely legal manner (see also XXII 111-112). Von Papen was accused of "immoral acts in furtherance of the Common Plan", such as the use of the intimate "du" form in conversation with the Austrian Foreign Minister, Guido Schmidt: Von Papen remarked, "Sir David, if you had ever been in Austria in your life, you would know that in Austria almost everyone says 'du' to everyone else". (XVI 394). Acts of Von Papen's which could not be called "criminal" were used to prove the defendant's "duplicity" (no pun intended). A mental construction was placed on Von Papen's acts with the benefit of hindsight. It is sometimes alleged that since Von Papen, Fritzsche and Schacht were acquitted, Nuremberg was a "fair trial". The contrary does not apply to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, or other trials in which there were no acquittals; it is forgotten that the witchcraft trials of the XVIIth Century averaged 5-10% in acquittals. Von Papen's case appears at XVI 236-422; XIX 124-177. RAEDER Raeder was accused of "conspiring" with the Japanese to attack the United States. Other crimes committed by Raeder included listening to speeches, being present at conferences, having knowledge of contingency plans, and accepting birthday gifts. Raeder proved that the Americans knew of the impending Pearl Harbour attack 10 days before it occured, while the Germans knew nothing (XIV 122). Raeder's discussion of German military preparedness and Hitler speeches will be discussed together with Von Ribbentrop's. (XIII 595-599; 617- 631; XIV 1-246; XVIII 372-430.) [Photograph] VON RIBBENTROP Von Ribbentrop was hanged for signing the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which preceeded and made possible the attack on Poland. Ribbentrop defended his actions on the grounds that one million Germans had been expelled from Polish territory over a 20-year period, accompanied by numerous atrocities, and that complaints to the World Court in The Hague and the League of Nations in Geneva had been ignored for just as long. These were ethnic Germans with Polish citizenship living in lands given to the new Polish state under the Versailles Treaty. On October 23, 1938, Ribbentrop made an offer to the Poles which the British ambassador, Sir Neville Henderson, admitted was reasonable, calling it a "pure League of Nations proposal": Ribbentrop asked for a plebiscite in the Polish corridor; the return of Danzig (a 100% German city) to the Reich, and the construction of an extra-territorial double-track railway and highway across the Corridor to East Prussia, which had previously been separated from the rest of Germany and could only be reached by sea, in defiance of all common sense, that is, a land bridge to East Prussia. (X 260-269; 280-281; 367-369). In return, the Poles were to receive an advantageous financial settlement: a guarantee of port facilities and outlet for Polish goods through the port of Danzig. The future of the Corridor was to be decided according to the principle of self-determination, the Poles would receive an outlet to the sea, and the German-Polish Friendship Pact (signed by Hitler in 1934 in the face of bitter German opposition), would be renewed for an additional period. (XIX 362-369. For the prosecution version of these same events, see III 209-229). [Photograph] This was the "Nazi Plan to conquer the world" which served as a pretext for the entire war, including, eventually, Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima, and Yalta. In reply, the Poles maintained that any change in the status of Danzig would mean war with Poland. A general mobilization was ordered. The expulsions continued, filling refugee camps along the Polish border. The Polish ambassador, Lipski, reportedly stated on August 31, 1939, that he was well aware of conditions in Germany, having served there for many years. He was not interested in any note or proposal from Germany. In the event of war, revolution would break out in Germany, and the Polish Army would march in triumph to Berlin (XVII 520-521; 564-566; XX 607). Ribbentrop claimed that the attitude of the Poles made war inevitable; that the problem of the Corridor and the expulsions had to be solved; that for both Hitler and Stalin the territories involved had been lost to both countries after a disastrous war followed by equally disastrous treaties (X 224- 444; XVII 555-603). To the Germans at Nuremberg, there appeared only one explanation: the Poles and the British were in contact with the so-called German underground, which had grossly exaggerated its own importance (XVII 645-661; XIII 111-112). Hitler's interpreter appeared as a witness, and testified that the Germans could not believe that the British would go to war over something which their ambassador admitted was reasonable. According to the interpreter, Paul Schmidt, there was a full minute of silence when the message of the British declaration of war was delivered, after which Hitler turned to Ribbentrop and said "What shall we do now?" (X 200). Schmidt's testimony shed light on a famous remark attributed to Von Ribbentrop, that Jews should be killed or confined to concentration camps. What happened, according to Schmidt (X 203-204) was that Hitler was putting pressure on Horthy to take stronger measures against Jews. Horthy said, "What am I supposed to do? I can't kill them." Ribbentrop was very irritable and said, "There are two alternatives: either you can do just that, or they can be interned." This appeared in the minutes of the conference as "The Reichs Foreign Minister said that Jews should be killed or confined to concentration camps". The statement was used against Ribbentrop and all other defendants during the trial, despite Schmidt's testimony that the minutes were inaccurate. (X 410-411). According to Ribbentrop, Raeder, Goring, and nearly all defendants except Schacht, the Germans were not prepared for war and did not plan "aggression" (XVII 522, XXII 62, 90). The invasion of Belgium, Holland, and France were not "aggression", because France had declared war on Germany. Belgium and Holland allowed British planes to fly over their countries every night to bomb the Ruhr. The Germans protested in writing 127 times (XVII 581, XIX 10). Goring, Raeder, Milch and many others testified that Germany had only 26 Atlantic submarines with insufficient torpedoes, as opposed to 315 submarines in 1919 (XIV 26) and a "ridiculous" bomb supply (XIX 4-5). Hitler told Field Marshall Milch in May 1939 that there was no need for full bomb production, as there would be no war. Milch replied that full bomb production would take several months to bring to capacity. The order to begin full production of bombs was not given until October 12 or 20, 1939 (IX 50; XVII 522). The German Air Force was designed for defensive, pin-point bombing; the Germans cooperated with both the Russians and the British in exchange of technical information of military value until 1938 (IX 45-133; XIV 298- 350). The Germans never built anywhere near the number of ships and especially submarines (XIV 24) allowed to them under the terms of the Anglo-German Naval Accord of 1935 (XVIII 379-389). This agreement represented a recognition by the British that the Versailles Treaty was out of date. It was also a voluntarily undertaken limitation by Hitler of German naval armament. (XIX 224-232). When war broke out, many large German battleships were still under construction and had to be scrapped, because they would have taken years to finish (XIII 249-250; 620). According to an affidavit signed by her captain, one of Germany's largest battleships, the Gneisenau, was on a training cruise near the Canary Islands when war broke out, without any ammunition supplies (XXI 385). Hitler was a bluffer who loved to terrify politicians with grossly illogical, self-contradictory speeches (XIV 34-48; 329-330), which all contradicted each other (XXII 66-68). For this reason, exact stenographic notes were never taken until 1941 (XIV 314-315). Many "Hitler speeches" are semi-falsifications or forgeries (XVII 406-408; XVIII 390-402; XXII 65). The Germans believed they were no longer bound by the Versailles Treaty because its terms - the preamble to Part V - had been violated by the British, and especially the French. German disarmament was to be followed by general disarmament (IX 4-7; XIX 242, 356). Hitler had offered to disarm to the last machine gun, provided other nations did likewise; but Germany could not remain in a weakened position forever, to be invaded and crushed at any moment. The reoccupation of the Rhineland gave Germany a natural frontier protecting the Ruhr, and would have been a matter of course for any government. Eastern Europe seethed with conflict between heavily armed states; East Prussia was not defensible; the Poles were openly demanding parts of Upper Silesia. (XII 476-479; XIX 224-232; XX 570-571). The French-Soviet Accord of 5 December 1934 violated the Locarno Pact, which the Germans were convicted of violating (XIX 254; 269; 277). It was not clear that the occupation of the remainder of Czechoslovakia violated the Munich Accord (X 259). This was done because the Russians were building airports there, in cooperation with the Czechs. The Czechs hoped to turn the remainder of Czechoslovakia into a "aircraft carrier" >from which Germany could be attacked (X 348; 427-430). Roosevelt had declared that American interest extended to all of the Western Hemisphere, and Britain claimed dominion over half the world; surely German interest could extend as far as Czechoslovakia. From Prague to Berlin by plane is half an hour; Czech actions were plainly threatening to German security. ROSENBERG & SAUCKEL [Photographs] Like Frank, Rosenberg was accused of "looting" and "plundering" works of art. Rosenberg and Frank both pointed out that Germany was required to protect works of art under the terms of The Hague Convention, and that doing so required removing them from the scene of hostilities. The artworks were carefully packed, appraised and repaired. Had it been the German intention to "loot" or to "steal", it would not have been necessary to catalogue these artworks with an exact notation of the name and address of the owner, if that was known. Several works of art were appropriated by Goring, not for Goring's personal use, but for a museum which Hitler intended to create in Linz. Rosenberg protested against this appropriation on the grounds that it was his duty to maintain the collections intact until the end of the war in the hope that a peace settlement could be made regarding these objects. Rosenberg was also accused of stealing thousands of railroad car loads of furniture. The furniture had belonged to Jews who had abandoned their homes upon German arrival in Paris. The Jewish apartments were sealed for 90 days, then the property in them was confiscated as abandoned, since its safekeeping could not be assured. Eventually it was used for the benefit of Germans who had been rendered homeless by bombing raids. Again, it was hoped to make a settlement at the end of the war. Rosenberg's ministry received a large number of complaints, which were investigated. many were found to have no basis in fact. At Nuremberg, it was simply assumed that every complaint was "true". Letters to Rosenberg were used against him in evidence, though his answers to those letters had been lost. The complaints and letters were held to prove "willing membership in the Common Plan". Rosenberg was accused of conspiring with Sauckel to obtain "slaves" for the war effort from the occupied territories. Rosenberg, Sauckel, Speer, Goring, and Seyss-Inquart all protested that had it not been for the Allied blockade such "plundering" and "slavery" would not have been necessary; that the sea blockade was illegal, and caused mass unemployment in the occupied territories; and that occupation governments are allowed to demand payment in services under the Hague Convention. The "slaves" were paid the same wages as German workers, who were also subject to compulsory labour. Funk claimed the "slaves" remitted 2 billion Reichsmarks in wages to their families (XIII 136). Seyss-Inquart claimed there were 500,000 unemployed in Holland as a result of the blockade, and if they were not provided with employment, voluntary or otherwise, they would join the resistence movement, illegal under international law. They were quite happy to work on German fortifications in Holland, because this made it less likely that the Allied invasion would take place in Holland. (The likelihood of Allied invasion was also the reason for the deportation of Dutch Jews). (XV 662-668; XIX 99-102). Fritzsche and others testified that the "slaves" could be seen moving about freely in all German cities (XVII 163-164), had plenty of money, and controlled the black market (XIV 590). Moreover, hundreds of thousands of these "slaves" refused to leave the country after the war, even though their own countries had been "liberated" and Germany was devastated (XVIII 155). Nor did the "slaves" revolt at the end of the war (XVIII 129-163; 466-506; XIX 177-216; XXI 471-472). Sauckel testified that the "slave labour" recruitment in France was carried out by the French government and by French collaborationist organizations. Many persons wished to be "compelled" in order to avoid reprisals by the resistance (XV 1-263) but all were paid the same wages as German workers and enjoyed the same health benefits and terms of contract. Far from "looting" the occupied territories, it was necessary to import much valuable equipment. In Russia, everything had been destroyed during the retreat by the Russians. When Germans imported equipment and withdrew it during their own retreat, this was called "looting" (IX 171-172). An example of a "complaint" which became a "crime" was the case in which theatre goers were reportedly rounded up into "slavery". Sauckel investigated for some months, and found this to have been a case in which a labour contractor interrupted a party of his own workers in order to move them to another workplace (XV 17-18). As conditions worsened, more compulsion became necessary. If the Allies had the right to confiscate property of neutrals at sea, the Germans had the right to utilize the resources of occupied territories on land. Another accusation against Rosenberg was the so-called "Hay Action", in which 50,000 children were "kidnapped" into "slave labour". Rosenberg and Von Schirach both testified that this was an apprenticeship program designed to remove orphans from the war zone (XI 489-490; XIV 501-505). If Rosenberg's ministry did not remove the orphans from the area, the Army would do it. A related accusation is the "Lebensborn" organization, supposedly a plot to kidnap babies after measuring the size of their penises (according to mentally ill Jewish "historians"). The purpose of this organization was to remove the stigma of illegitimacy and to aid families with numerous children (XXI 654-664, German volumes. See also XXI 352, English volumes). Rosenberg's case appears at XI 444-599; XVIII 69-128. SCHACHT Schacht is an anomaly as a defendant because the accusations against him contradict those made against the other defendants. While the others were accused of "acts of moral turpitude" such as accepting birthday gifts; making birthday speeches; being photographed; signing laws legally passed by the Head of State; being in political agreement with the Head of State; or if not, failing in their moral duty to overthrow and murder the Head of State (obviously not a duty that can be opposed by law); Schacht was accused of all these things, and, for good measure, violating his oath of loyalty to Hitler and deceiving Hitler! This was considered proof of particular wickedness (XII 597). [Photograph] Schacht's remark on the necessity of lying has been widely quoted to prove Nazi duplicity; it is forgotten that the person being lied to was Hitler. Schacht ridiculed these accusations with one wisecrack after another, and was even more sarcastic than Goring. Jackson, however, lacked the perspicacity to realize that Schacht was making a fool of him (XII 416-493; 507-602; XIII 1-48; XVIII 270-312). Jackson's lie that he forced Schacht to "admit that he lied" has been taken seriously by many people who should know better. Jackson habitually lied (for example, II 438; IX 500-504). VON SCHIRACH Von Schirach was accused of conspiring with millions of children to conquer the world in imitation Boy Scout uniforms. It was pointed out in his defense that a conspiracy involving millions of members is a logical absurdity (XIV 360-537; XVIII 430-466). To further this aim, the conspirators engaged in target practice with .22 calibre rifles (XIV 381) and sang songs which were sometimes 300 years old (XIV 474). At Nuremberg, crimes could be found anywhere. In the case against the SA, an article on foot care was quoted to prove "intent to engage in aggressive war" (XXI 221-223). Schirach was accused of knowledge of atrocities by Hans Marsalek, whose "recollection" of Ziereis's "confession" (in quotation marks) one year after Ziereis died, was used against Kaltenbrunner (XI 330-333; XIV 436-440). Another crime committed by Schirach was being short and fat (affidavit of Georg Ziemer, 244-PS, XIV 401). Schirach denied this charge. (A "short, fat student leader" had delivered an anti-Semitic speech.) Schirach was supposed to have received Einsatzgruppen reports at his office as Gauleiter of Vienna. These documents are photocopies of "true copies" on plain paper without headings or signature, prepared by unknown persons, and found buried in a salt mine (II 157) by the Russians (IV 245, VIII 293-301). Katyn is listed as a German crime (NMT IX 96-117, Trial of Otto Ohlendorf). The Germans are supposed to have killed 22,000,000 people (XXII 238), or 12,000,000 (XXII 312), after which the bodies were burned and the documents were buried. Documents are combustible and bodies are not. Schirach and Streicher were both taken in by a "photocopy" of a Hitler document in which he "confessed" to mass killings (XIV 432; XII 321). Since Hitler was a genius (X 600), and since geniuses do not kill millions of people with Diesel exhaust and insecticides which take 24 hours to kill moths (Document NI-9912), it appears that the significance of this document has been overrated. In fact, it is typical Hitler: full of violent language, but short of factual content. Nor is it certain that Hitler was of sound mind in 1945 (IX 92). The Hitler 'confession' is a "certified" photocopy (Striecher Defense Document 9, XLI 547). SEYSS-INQUART Seyss-Inquart is an example of the manner in which perfectly legal actions were charged as "crimes" when undertaken by Germans, while identical actions, or actions criminal under the Tribunal's own Statute (such as the Dresden bombings, illegal under Article 6(b). XXII 471, 475) were treated as the minor inconveniences of a great crusade to eradicate evil. Under international law, occupation governments are allowed to legislate as they see fit (a right claimed by the Tribunal itself, XXII 461, but contradicted at XXII 497) and obedience to their authority is required. They are allowed to conscript labour within certian limits, to confiscate government property, levy taxes to cover the costs of occupation, and are not required to tolerate armed resistence, striking, publication of hostile newspapers, or to employ local officials who will not follow orders. Initialling documents or passing on orders are not crimes under international law. Seyss-Inquart prevented much unnecessary destruction at the end of the war which would have been illegal. (XV 610-668; XVI 1-113; XIX 46-111). As Reichskommissar for Holland, Seyss-Inquart passed on orders to execute resistence members after conviction for acts of sabotage or armed resistence, illegal under The Hague Convention. The executions were carried out after renewed acts of sabotage occurred. This was called "execution of hostages". The word "hostage", however, is incorrect (XII 95, XVIII 17-19; XXI 526, 535). For a discussion of international law from the prosecution point of view, conceding the legality of these actions, see V 537. It was conceded by the prosecution that resistence members may be shot (V 405). * The Fourth Hague Convention on Land Warfare of 18 October 1907 contains an all-participation clause (Art. 2); belligerants violating the convention may be required to pay compensation (Art. 3); prohibits bombardments "by whatever means" of undefended cities, cultural monuments (Art. 23). Not ratified by Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia. Ratified by Czarist Russia. SPEER [Photograph] Albert Speer was convicted of conspiring to enslave millions of people for work in German armaments industries, where they were forced to sleep in urinals (Document D-288, Affidavit of Dr. Wilhelm Jager) and were tortured in mass-produced torture boxes disguised as clothes lockers (Documents USA-894, 897.) Regarding this charge, Speer said, I consider this affidavit a lie . . . it is not possible to drag the German people in the dirt in such a way" (XVI 543). Speer was the kind of man who is successful under any system. He always claimed he knew nothing about "exterminations", but said he would have heard about it if prisoners had been cremated using atomic bombs (a Robert Jackson hallucination, XVI 529-530). Speer claimed to have plotted to assassinate Hitler using a highly sophisticated nerve gas (XVI 494-495). The plot failed because the gas could only be produced at high temperatures (XVI 529). Actually, Zyklon presents a similar problem, in that the liquid must evaporate, and does so slowly unless heated. German technical wizardry and industrial advancement in general renders ridiculous any notion of a "Holocaust" using insecticide or Diesel exhaust. It would be more difficult to "drag the German people in the dirt" if it were not for people like Albert Speer. XVI 430-588; XIX 177-216. STREICHER [Photograph] Streicher was hanged for 'incitement to race hatred', a crime which is becoming more popular. The Streicher case is remarkable in that nations which preach separation of church and state and freedom of speech and press should conspire with Jews and Communists to hang a man for expressing opinions which were not alleged to have been untrue. One of Streicher's crimes was the publication of a 'ritual murder' supplement in his anti-Semitic newspaper, Der Sturmer. It was expressly admitted by the prosecution that his illustrations were authentic (V 103) and that the article was referenced correctly. Among Streicher's references was at least one recognised scholar, Dr. Erich Bischof of Leipzig, and modern legal proceedings (IX 696-700). It was felt that to investigate the validity of these references would have unduly prolonged the trial, so the article was not alleged to have been untrue. Rather, an act of mental telepathy was performed, and Streicher was hanged for his alleged mental processes and motivation. Another Streicher crime was calling the Old Testament "a horrible criminal romance . . . this 'holy book' abounds in murder, incest, fraud, theft and indecency". No evidence was introduced to rebut this view (V 96). Streicher is famous as a 'pornographer', 'sex pervert' and 'swindler'. The 'pornography collection', upon further examination, turned out to be the Sturmer archive of Judaica (XII 409). The 'sex pervert' charge, heavily emphasized by the Russians, had as its origin the so-called Goring Report, a Party disciplinary proceeding brought by one of Streicher's many enemies. This charge was dropped at Nuremberg and stricken from the record; Streicher was told he need not answer any questions related to this accusation (XII 330; 339). The 'property swindle' was also drawn from the Goring Report, and related to a single case, involving the Mars Works. The man responsible for the accusations contained in the report was, by some coincidence, the man responsible for the purchase (V 106). The report states that the shares were returned, and that the money that Streicher had paid for them, 5000 Reichsmarks, was returned to Streicher after the investigation. Streicher gave his business managers full power of attorney to do as they liked, saying "Do not worry me with business matters There are other things more important than money". Streicher claimed his newspaper was published in a rented house until the end of the war. It was not a Party newspaper, and Streicher had nothing to do with the war. One of Streicher's employees appeared as a witness and stated, "Whoever knows Herr Streicher as I do, knows that Herr Streicher has never taken anything from a Jew" (XII 385-386). Streicher's second wife, Adele Streicher, appeared and stated, "I consider it quite impossible that Julius Streicher acquired shares that way. I believe that he does not even know what a share looks like". (XII 391). It was not alleged at Nuremberg that Streicher wrote all his own articles and publications. "Trau keinem Fuchs auf gruner Heid, und keinem Jud' bei seinem Eid", translated by the prosecution as "Don't trust a Fox Whatever You Do, Nor Yet the Oath of any Jew" (XXXVIII 129) took its title from Martin Luther. 'Der Giftpilz', (The Poisonous Fungus) was written by one of Streicher's editors, inspired by a famous child molester case, that of the Jewish industrialist, Louis Schloss. (XII 335). Schloss was later murdered in Dachau, which became another 'Nazi atrocity'. In the prosecution discussion of the Schloss murder, it is never mentioned that he was a sexual attacker of children; instead it was implied that Schloss was killed for being Jewish, and for no other reason. (Document 664-PS, XXVI 174-187). No causal nexus was ever shown between Streicher, Frank or Rosenberg's anti-Semitic beliefs and the commission of any crime; nor was it proven that the crime involved (i.e., the so-called "Holocaust") was ever even committed. This was assumed, and Streicher's writings were assumed to have helped 'cause' it. Streicher made several 'highly improper' remarks which were stricken from the record, and for which he was admonished, with the consent of his attorney, Dr Marx. One of these remarks has been deleted after the fifth paragraph of page 310 of volume XII of the typeset transcript, but may be found on pages 8494-5 of the mimeographed transcript. Streicher said: If I might finish now with a description of my own life, it will be with the description of an experience which will show you, gentlemen, of the Tribunal, that without the government's wanting it, things may happen which are not human, not according to the principals of humanity. Gentlemen, I was arrested, and during my internment I experienced things such as we, the Gestapo, have been accused of. For four days I was without clothes in a cell. I was burned; I was thrown on the floor; and an iron chain was put upon me. I had to kiss the feet of Negroes who spit in my face. Two coloured men and a white officer spit in my mouth, and when I didn't open it any more, they opened it with a wooden stick, and when I asked for water I was led to the latrine and I was ordered to drink from there. In Wiesbaden, gentlemen, a doctor took pity, and I state here a Jewish director of the hospital acted correctly. I state here, in order not to be misunderstood, the Jewish officers who are guarding us here in prison have acted correctly, and doctors who also treat me have even been considerate. And you may see >from this statement the contrast from that prison until this moment. Another 'improper remark' has been deleted after the first paragraph on page 349 of volume XII, and appears in the mimeographed transcript on page 8549: So as to avoid a misunderstanding, I have to say that I was beaten in Freising so much and for days without clothes that I have lost forty per cent of my hearing capacity and people are laughing when I ask. I can't help it that I was treated like that. Therefore, I ask to hear the question again. To which Lt. Col. Griffith-Jones replied: I can show it to you and we'll repeat the question as loud as you want it. Since this was a matter within Streicher's personal knowledge, and not hearsay, it is difficult to see why the remarks were stricken, while hearsay favourable to the prosecution was retained (indeed, the prosecution case consists of little else beside oral and written hearsay). If the prosecution did not believe Streicher's testimony that he had been tortured, they were free to cross-examine him for inconsistencies and to show that he was lying; instead, he was simply admonished, and the passages stricken. So much for truth, justice, and a fair trial. Streicher claimed that his demands for the 'extermination' of Jewry were mostly brought about by the bombing raids and calls for extermination of the German people from the other side; If in America an author called Erich Kauffman can publicly demand that all men in Germany capable of fathering children should be sterilised, for the purpose of exterminating the German people, then I say, eye for eye and tooth for tooth. This is a theoretical literary matter. (XII 366). (V 91-119; XII 305-416; XVII 190-220). For the Nuremberg Prosecution Case, see MADE IN RUSSIA - THE HOLOCAUST, edited by Carlos W Porter. >From CODOH CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 09:38:44 PDT 1996 Article: 65024 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!swrinde!!!btnet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: PHOTO NO 3 [bug1] SEE KEY TO THE PHOTOS [1/2] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:15:03 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 927 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 [ Section: 1/2 File: bug1.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ] begin 644 bug1.gif M1TE&.#=A20;(!)```````/___RP`````20;(!``"^XR/F<"M#Z.AZ'Y('.$@(.#3! 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It is not the same type of furnace as the > one used in Birkenau, but this figure obviously means > a lot, assuming the science of cremation has not made > a quantum leap right after the war. Once more, the > revisionazis have failed to do their homework." So let's use Karen's figures to work out the crematory rates for Birkenau, after all, he knows better than Ivan Lagace, an "intellectual zero" who was granted Expert status on Cremation at the Zundel trial, ["Lagace estimated that the 46 retorts at Birkenau could handle about 184 bodies daily, or four apiece." (Holocaust on Trial Page 239)] There was 46 retorts at Auschwitz II (Birkenau). At the best possible rate [on 1951 figures], flat out with no problems, maintenance, tea breaks, etc at 30 minutes the 46 retorts at Birkenau would have cremated:- 46 * 24 * 2 = 2208 corpses a day. A bit short of the SS estimate of 4,756 a day. [letter from SS-Sturmbannfuehrer Jahrling to SS-General Kammler, June 25 1943, see "Auschwitz:Technique and operation of the gas chambers" - J.C Pressac,the Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, NY, 1989, p. 247] And a little short of the Polish Commission of Inquiry's estimate of 12,000 a day. [The Final Solution [1968]; Reitlinger page 159] And even Hoess the commandant of Auschwitz, who seems to have a lot of problems with numbers -------- 16,000 a day. [The Final Solution [1968]; Reitlinger page 159] And just a little bit short of inmate Olga lengel's estimate of 17,280 a day. ("Five chimmeys" P68 cited in; Destruction of the European Jews 1961 Hilberg page 629) And just a little bit short of Dr Nysizli's estimate of 20,000 a day. [The Final Solution [1968]; Reitlinger page 159] At the next possible rate [on 1951 figures], flat out with no tea breaks, etc at 45 minutes the 46 retorts at Birkenau would have cremated:- 46 * 32 = 1472 corpses per day. A bit short of the SS estimate of ------------------ 4,756 a day. And a little short of the Polish Commission's estimate of 12,000 a day. Hoess the commandant of Auschwitz, -------- 16,000 a day. Inmate Olga lengel's estimate --------------------------- 17,280 a day. Dr Nysizli's estimate ----------------------------------- 20,000 a day. However, these were 1951 figures, for the 1940s, let's make it a hour per corpse:- 46 * 24 = 1104 a day. A bit short of the SS estimate of ------------------ 4,756 a day. And a little short of the Polish Commission's estimate of 12,000 a day. Hoess the commandant of Auschwitz, he's wrong again------ 16,000 a day. Inmate Olga lengel's estimate --------------------------- 17,280 a day. Dr Nysizli's estimate ----------------------------------- 20,000 a day. However, let's remember that the Nazis [or the Jewish Sonderkommando who actually operated the retorts, who worked hard and were highly trained] stuck 3 corpses in at a time, in every retort, right through those 24 hours, despite the fact the retorts were designed for single corpse cremation. Now let us IGNORE the idea that this might take 3 times as long, and say it will take the SAME time as for 1 corpse, as everyone knows it would, otherwise we may be classed as intellectual zeros, and we wouldn't want that would we. 1) Best possible rate [1951] 46 * 48 = 6624. [10 minutes per corpse] 2) Next best rate [1951] 46 * 32 = 4416. [15 minutes per corpse] 3) 1940's rate 46 * 24 = 3312. [20 minutes per corpse] At last the SS estimate is in range. ------------------ 4,756 a day. But a little short of the Polish Commission's estimate of 12,000 a day. Hoess the commandant of Auschwitz, he's wrong again------ 16,000 a day. Inmate Olga lengel's estimate --------------------------- 17,280 a day. Dr Nysizli's estimate ----------------------------------- 20,000 a day. Now that's better, that SS estimate FITS. Pity it's a forgery. -- Jeff ------------------------------------------------------------------------ --- In the mountains of truth you never climb in vain. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ --- CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 09:38:46 PDT 1996 Article: 65062 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!!!!!uknet!!uknet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: DOCUMENTS- fakes and fakes Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 20:57:23 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 225 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 DOCUMENTS The standard version of events is that the Allies examined 100,000 documents and chose 1,000 which were introduced into evidence, and that the original documents were then deposited in the Peace Palace at The Hague. This is rather inexact. The documents used in evidence at Nuremberg consisted largely of "photocopies" of "copies". Many of these original documents were written entirely on plain paper without handwritten markings of any kind, by unknown persons. Occasionally, there is an illegible initial or signature of a more or less unknown person certifying the document as a 'true copy'. Sometimes there are German stamps, sometimes not. Many have been 'found' by the Russians, or 'certified authentic' by Soviet War Crimes Commissions. Volume XXXIII, a document volume taken at random, contains 20 interrogations or affidavits, 12 photocopies, 5 unsigned copies, 5 original documents with signatures, 4 copies of printed material, 3 mimeographed copies, 3 teletypes, 1 microfilm copy, 1 copy signed by somebody else and 1 unspecified. The Hague has few, if any, original documents. The Hauge has many original postwar 'affidavits', or sworn statements, the Tribunal Commission transcripts, and much valuable defense material. They have the 'human soap', which has never been tested, and the 'original human soap recipe' (Document USSR- 196), which is a forgery; but apparently no original wartime German documents. The Hague has negative photostats of these documents, on extremely brittle paper which has been stapled. To photocopy the photostats, the staples are removed. When they are re-stapled more holes are made. Most of these documents have not been photocopied very often, and officials at The Hague say it is very unusual for anyone to ask to see them. The National Archives in Washington (see Telford Taylor's Use of Captured German and Related Documents, A National Archive Conference) claim that the original documents are in The Hague. The Hague claims the original documents are in the National Archives. The Stadtsarchiv Nurnberg and the Bundesarchiv Koblenz also have no original documents, and both say the original documents are in Washington. Since the originals are, in most cases, 'copies', there is often no proof that the documents in question ever existed. Robert Jackson got the trial off to a start by quoting the following forged or otherwise worthless documents (II 120-142): 1947-PS; 1721-PS; 1014- PS; 81-PS; 212-PS; and many others. 1947-PS is a 'copy' of a 'translation' of a letter from General Fritsch to the Baroness von Schutzbar-Milchling. The Baroness later signed an affidavit stating that she never received the letter in question (XXI-381). The falsified 'letter' from General Fritsch to the Baroness von Schutzbar-Milchling was recognized as such during the trial and is not included in the document volumes, where it should appear at XXVIII 44. Jackson was not, however, admonished by the Tribunal. (XXI 380) The enthusiastic Americans apparently forged 15 of these 'translations', after which the original documents all disappeared (See Taylor, Captured Documents). 1721-PS is a forgery in which an SA man writes a report to himself about how he is carrying out an order which is quoted verbatim in the report. Handwritten markings on page 1 (XXI-137-141; 195-198; 425; XXII 148-150. See also Testimony Before the Commission, Fuss, 25 April, and Lucke, 7 May 1946). The National Archives have a positive photostat of 1721-PS, and The Hague has a negative photostat. The 'original' is a photocopy (XXVII 485). 1014-PS is a falsified 'Hitler Speech' written on plain paper by an unknown person. The document bears the heading 'Second Speech' although it is known that Hitler gave only one speech on that date. There are four versions of this speech, 3 of them forgeries: 1014-PS, 798-PS, L-3, and an authentic version, Ra-27 (XVII-406-408; XVIII 390-402; XXII 65). The third forgery, Document L-3, bears an FBI laboratory stamp and was never even accepted into evidence (II 286), but 250 copies of it were given to the press as authentic (II 286). [Photograph captioned, "Court in session at Nuremberg."] This document is quoted by A.J.P. Taylor on page 254 of The Origins of the Second World War (Fawcett Paperbacks, 2nd Edition, with Answer to his Critics) giving his source as German Foreign Policy, Series D vii, No 192 and 193. L-3 is the source of many statements attributed to Hitler, particularly "who today remembers the fate of the Armenians?" and "our enemies are little worms, I saw them at Munich". 'Hitler' also compares himself to Genghis Khan and says he will exterminate the Poles, and kick Chamberlain in the groin in front of the photographers. The document appears to have been prepared on the same typewriter as many other Nuremberg documents, including the two other versions of the same speech. This typewriter was probably a Martin from the Triumph-Adler-Werke, Nuremberg. 81-PS is a 'certified true copy' of an unsigned letter on plain paper prepared by an unknown person. If authentic, it is the first draft of a letter never sent. This is invariably spoken of as a letter written by Rosenberg, which Rosenberg denied (XI 510-511). The document lacks signature, initial, blank journal number (a bureaucratic marking) and was not found among the papers of the person to whom it was addressed. (XVII 612). 81-PS is a 'photocopy' with a Soviet exhibit number (USSR-353, XXV 156-161). 212-PS was also prepared by an unknown person, entirely on plain paper, without any handwritten markings, date, address, or stamp (III 540, XXV 302-306; see also photocopies of negative photostats from The Hague). This is, unfortunately, only typical. Document 386-PS, the 'Hossbach Protokoll', Hitler's supposed speech of 5 November 1938, is a certified photocopy of a microfilm copy of a re-typed 'certified true copy' prepared by an American, of a re-typed 'certified true copy' prepared by a German, of unauthenticated handwritten notes by Hossbach, of a speech by Hitler, written from memory 5 days later. This is not the worst document, but one of the best, because we know who made one of the copies. The text of 386-PS has been 'edited' (XLII 228-230). Thus 'trial by document' works as follows: A, an unknown person, listens to alleged 'oral statements' made by B, and takes notes or prepares a document on the basis of those alleged oral statements. The document is then introduced into evidence, not against A, who made the copy, but against B, C, D, E and a host of other people, although there is nothing to connect them with the document or the alleged statements. It is casually stated as fact that 'B said', or that 'C did', or that 'D and E knew'. This is contrary to the rules of evidence of all civilised countries. Nor are the documents identified by witnesses. The forgery of original documents was rarely resorted to at Nuremberg, because the documents were not brought to court. The "original document" - that is, the original unsigned "copy" - was kept in a safe in the Document Centre (II 195, 256-258). Then, 2 "photocopies" of the "copy" (V 21) or 6 photocopies (II 251-253) were prepared and brought to court. All other copies were re-typed on a mimeograph using a stencil (IX 504). In the transcript, the word "original" is used to mean "photocopy" (II 249-250, XIII 200, 508, 519; XV 43, 169, 171, 327) to distinguish the photocopies from the mimeograph copies (IV 245-246). "Translations" of all documents were available from the beginning of the trial (II 158-161, 191, 195, 215, 249-250, 277, 415, 437) but the "original" German texts were not available until at least two months later. This applies not just to the trial briefs and indictment, etc. but to ALL DOCUMENTS. The defense received no documents in German until after January 9, 1946 (V 22-26). Documents which appear to have been prepared on the same typewriter include Document 3803-PS, a letter from Kaltenbrunner to the Mayor of Vienna, and the cover letter from this same Mayor sending Kaltenbrunner's letter to the Tribunal (XI 345-348). This letter from Kaltenbrunner contains a false geographical term (XIV 416). By Carlos Porter >from CODOH CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 13 12:38:12 PDT 1996 Article: 65114 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!nott!!!!!pipex!!pipex!!!!uunet!!!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: PHOTO NO 2 [f.gif] see KEY TO THE PHOTOS [4/5] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:14:10 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 927 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> References: <> <> <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 [ Section: 4/5 File: f.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ] M";,`%*2!&T2G(/SX01]0`=PB"E;-R4E4G@QL`1F\P2&<00R```1`%0)(7*;T M$;C(U*-$1+:^5*I`DTBQ5I%(@#NO`2&D@5>, M01)@`1H(0A$00]`@-P(+289M0=,`&-8@*4<9`-,0`G$0`C\J,`&2,!+ MT30"/$`'I(`>#((C6$475`$35($.I(`)J-)?PA1*V4E,96@`6``1/$&-3($4 M'`$/U,`(H``*&*=J!4$-1<(A[,%T.T+R@,\;-$$*>!4Y'<`$J(`1@,$::(]> M6$$1<$!(N(`1[$`8%,(O0Z(D9((EY--Q%4$$@%\W540"0$"PH80$0(`%`(8# M,,"00.X_1`,FB*D1Z4$BK$$-'Y4=P-D?^$$:7&89!&DB+((>=`$C$!8C6((F M%((@C&H@9((<`(*ABL(?4$+\60(D0T(C"-<>2",-S"GW-"M?*!*JA"+"SK*7S"H;(")$0"*?!! 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MT`$*-A2Q!B&'L'%%%$HXP80/*,S0`P<97)!`;;9%-L#`E`40@&@LOFB;T`5, M5G0``RBP0A-4-)%%%#JL8,,03@SAPPPP<:#!N112!YP_.%&%V`H MX8,4<]CQ!R!RT($'@V/@6,S@00415#!#$U/T,'(57A21P@HXK$###Q\<\)P#%LS01B%V MM*$#B7%A2?S6(K`#,/S'`!;P0`EL$`,8\$`' MPIN!#:2PAC/D(1+UB0PY;K M7,`$)X#!3-80!S8T(0DZT`(7M#`%)^0@`S-UC&1"PR+;3.9@\;.99(KF6:,- MX`-2^$(7QA<#V;D`!BLH@0I`P`''9*0T$>@`$=)0!4&T(0V):4$,1H#[@2/$ M80YX"(09`#,&*S!!"E00`QUX(%@4**$-8QA#';CP!S&(H0UF$`,0C&`$$V2@ M1`ZH``H:F(4K%&$*:V@#%ZK`A2XX\`(6H(!%!A`JY_BU,@-@0`Y\\(,`M4@`(+')"B!TP`"&4X M1"#VT`()[$F$*1A"%(I05)`AS;P@0Q@:)H7LC"#%G"@`7_"RU>CFH$B`?D" M>D(2T427'#Z]"`$"P-E8'[.;%KGJSA#8`1:BX`0[J,$,6WA"$8@@9"V$`0Q; MJ`$&'@"=V#Q'K1$X0,]Z=F?>>-,UD>ZL9V>?`!,((0S[6TA"$6A0@F$NYP*, MVQ-ENCD2"@CE"*'NB^?/(P(GH&$.;P"$&=@0!RTD@1-0P1*4P1QH`11(P18L M7!4$@A^DC!(801%(01.L0`JX``8,71*YQ0G<`!=PV0(]@13P`!)D20:LB,WD sum -r/size 53327/57226 section (from first to last encoded line) From Fri Sep 13 12:38:13 PDT 1996 Article: 65115 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!!!csn!!decwrl!!!!!!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: photo NO 1 [z.gif] SEE KEY TO THE PHOTOS [1/3] Date: Thu, 12 Sep 1996 22:14:31 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 927 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 [ Section: 1/3 File: z.gif Encoder: Turnpike Version 1.12 ] begin 644 z.gif [binary encoding deleted] From Thu Sep 19 20:26:27 PDT 1996 Article: 66938 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!hookup!!!!!!!!!!!uknet!!uknet!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: TEST [text flow] Date: Thu, 19 Sep 1996 23:34:54 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 138 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 Nazi Testimony Regarding Exterminations Note: The fact file series is intended to present facts of history, free >from the polemics and misinformation so often presented in this medium. Hopefully the facts contained herein will serve the cause of truth in history. Note to educators and students: Fact File no. 3 presents the actual words and opinions of various members of the Nazi leadership and Wehrmacht. The purpose of this presentation is to counter the claims that the Nazi leadership fully acknowledged that plans to extermination the Jews of Europe existed. As is evident from this Fact File, most of the top Nazi leadership claimed to have no knowledge of such plans and showed genuine disbelief at such charges. This Fact File is not totally inclusive. Those quoted may have expressed other opinions at other times and of course other individuals made differing comments. (Regarding an Allied radio broadcast announcement that the Jews were being exterminated:)" Really, the Jews should be grateful to me for wanting nothing more than a bit of hard work from them. " -Adolf Hitler quoted in: David Irving, Hitler's War (London: Focal Point, 1991), p.427. " In order to put a stop to the epidemics, we were forced to burn the bodies of incalculable numbers of people who been destroyed by disease. We were therefore forced to build crematoria, and on this account they are knotting a noose for us. " -Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler quoted in: Arthur Butz, The Hoax of the Twentieth Century (California: Institute for Historical Review, 1985), p.240. See also: Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution (London: Jason Aronson, 1987), p.480. " Well, I knew they were being transported to the East, and understood that they were being set up in camps with their own administration, and eventually would settle somewhere in the East. -- I don't know. - I had no idea that it would lead to extermination in any literal sense. We just wanted to take them out of German political life. " -Alfred Rosenberg - leading Nazi theoretician quoted in: G.M. Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary (New York: Signet, 1961), p.71. " I was never so close to Hitler as to have him express himself to me on [Nazi extermination camps] . I always thought that [concentration camps] were places where people were put to useful work. Those pictures that you showed me yesterday [of Dachau] must depict things that happend in the final few days. " -Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering quoted in: David Irving, Goering : A Biography (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1989), p.469. (After being shown films of Buchenwald:) " I don't believe it! " -Deputy of the Führer Rudolf Hess quoted in: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, p.47. " They refuse to believe me when I tell them that I have never even seen a concentration camp. I add that if excesses have been committed they are regrettable and reprehensible, and the real culprits should be punished. I point out that such cruelties have been perpetrated not only by our people, but by all peoples in every age. I remind them of the Boer War. Therefore these excesses must be judged by the same criterion. I cannot imagine that the mounds of corpses depicted in the photographs were taken in concentration camps. I tell them that we have seen such sights, not on film, but in fact, after the air attacks on Dresden and Hamburg and other cities when Allied four-engined bombers deluged them indiscriminately with phosphorus and high explosive bombs and countless women and children were massacred. " -Hans Ulrich Rudel, Stuka Pilot (California: Noontide Press, 1990) p.226. " How can they accuse me of knowing of such things? They ask why I didn't go to Himmler to check on the concentration camps. Why that's preposterous! He would have kicked me out just as I would have kicked him out if he came to investigate the navy! What in God's name did I have to do with these things? " -Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz quoted in: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, p.49. " If I had known it I would have told my son, I'd rather shoot you than let you join the SS. But I didn't know. " -Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitel quoted in: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, p.49. " Hitler couldn't even have looked at such a film [documentary film on Nazi concentration camps as they were found by American troops] himself. I don't understand. I don't even think that Himmler could have ordered such things." -Joachim von Ribbentrop, Foreign Minister quoted in: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, pp. 49-50. " Do you think I had the slightest notion about gas wagons and such horrors? " -Wilhelm Funk, Finance Minister quoted in: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, p.73. "The indictment knocked me on the head. First of all, I had no idea at all about 90 per cent of the accusations in it. The crimes are horrible beyond belief, if they are true... The guilt for atrocities in the East is suddenly reversed. How can the Russians sit in judgment on us for barbaric measures against Eastern populations?" -General Alfred Jodl quoted in: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, p.31-32. " I never found out anything about any of this ... [It] is because of newspaper propaganda. I told you when I saw the newspaper headline 'Gas Chamber Expert Captured' and an American lieutenant explained it to me, I was pale with amazement. How can they say such things about me? I told you I was only in charge of the Intelligence Service from 1943 on. The British even admitted that they tried to assassinate me because of that- not because of having anything to do with atrocities, you can be sure of that. " Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Chief of Police quoted in: Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary, p.234-235. " But for millions of non-Germans, the Germans are brutes, capable of anything. That summary judgement, born of invented horrors laid to the Germans in 1914, has remained in the subconscious of the public. Let the occasion arise again, and that mentality is reborn at once, as we saw in 1940-1945. Anything at all will be believed if it is charged to the Germans. Whether it's a question of gas chambers in which, to believe the figures of the accusers, the victims would have to have been crowded together thirty-two persons per square meter twenty-four hours a day; or whether a description is being given to you of the crematory furnaces which, if they had to burn up all the bodies assigned to them by the Jewish propaganda, would still be working at full capacity in the year 2050, or even 2080. When it's a matter of denigrating Germans, nothing need be verified. " -General Leon Degrelle, Hitler: Born at Versailles (California: Institute for Historical Review, 1987), p. 141. For the current catalog, with a complete listing of books and audio and video tapes, send one dollar to: Post Office Box 2739 Newport Beach, California 92659 CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Fri Sep 20 01:15:54 PDT 1996 Article: 66958 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!hookup!!pipex!!pipex!bt!btnet-feed2!btnet!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: test Date: Thu, 19 Sep 1996 23:59:35 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 855 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 FORTY-SIX IMPORTANT UNANSWERED QUESTIONS REGARDING THE NAZI GAS CHAMBERS All material researched and compiled By DAVID COLE FORWARD Professor Deborah Lipstadt, author of Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, is the leading voice on college campuses and in the media arguing against intellectual freedom with regard to the holocaust controversy. She is passionate -- well, obsessive -- about not wanting to exchange views with revisionists. "[A]t times," she writes, "I have felt compelled to prove something I knew to be true. I had constantly to avoid being inadvertently sucked into a debate that is no debate and an argument that is no argument." She adds that revisionism is "totally irrational . . . not responsive to logic" and that "evidence plays no role" in revisionist research. I'm going to go out on a limb here. I know that Deborah Lipstadt and hundreds of other trained scholars with access to the relevant archives in Europe and the old Soviet Union have studied the Nazi gas chambers for half a century and know everything there is to know about them. Despite this universally accepted fact, I am presenting here a few questions about the notorious homicidal gassing chambers that are being raised by a young scholar named David Cole. David Cole traveled to Europe twice to make on-site inspections of the still extant "gas chambers." The lady who financed each of these little expeditions wanted me to go with Cole to direct the project. I thought that would be a nifty idea. I'd never been to Europe and here was my chance. But Cole kept telling me he could handle it on his own. After awhile I got the message. He didn't want me to go. In the end, each time he went alone, or rather he and a camera woman. I think he was right. He didn't need direction from me. He handled his responsibilities very well on his own. When you read David Cole's 46 unanswered questions about the Nazi gas chambers you may feel yourself hard-pressed -- despite what Deborah Lipstadt would have you believe -- to find them totally irrational, not responsive to logic, or that evidence plays no role in their design. Of course, you are probably not the towering intellectual that Deborah Lipstadt is, so if you find a few or perhaps more than a few of the 46 questions disturbing in their logic and rationality, precisely because they are based on the physical evidence commonly used to identify the "gas chambers," why not ring up Professor Lipstadt at Emory University and ask her for the correct answers to these interesting puzzles? Then pass her answers on to me. I'll run them by David Cole and see what he has to say about them. Maybe we'll be able to post Lipstadt's criticisms of the 46 Questions here, along with David's response to her criticisms. In the academy they call this process peer review. Ms. Lipstadt would probably point out to you that David Cole is not part of the "academy." Let's not call it peer review then. Let's just call it talking it over. Tell her you have 46 questions about the German gassing chambers and you would like to talk them over with her. Bradley R. Smith 9 October 1995 THE ZYKLON-B ISSUE At the former concentration camps of Auschwitz and Auschwitz-Birkenau, we find the following scenario: The buildings which used to serve as the camp delousing facilities still have extremely high traces of the gas Zyklon B, which was used in these buildings to disinfest clothing, mattresses, etc. Also, there is heavy blue staining on the walls both inside the delousing chambers, INSIDE the hallways between the delousing chambers, and OUTSIDE the building, on the EXTERIOR WALLS of the delousing facilities. However, the interiors of the Krema 1 gas chamber (Auschwitz Main Camp) and the Krema 2 and 3 gas chambers (Auschwitz-Birkenau), where hundreds of thousands if not millions of people are said to have been gassed, show only minute traces of Zyclon B and no blue staining. Also, the Auschwitz camp barracks and offices, which were fumigated with the Zyklon B from time to time, show similarly minute traces of the gas, and no blue staining. 1) What explanation can there be for the low levels of traces, and absence of blue staining, in the homicidal gas chambers? 2) If one suggests that the Zyklon traces in the homicidal gas chambers have been "weathered away", how can one explain the traces and staining on the OUTSIDE of the delousing complexes...traces which have NOT been weathered away after fifty years? 3) It has been suggested that the amount of Zyklon B needed to kill people, even cumulative millions of people, would not leave traces as strong as the amount needed to kill lice in the delousing chambers. But when we factor in the Zyklon B traces still existing in the camp barracks and offices, we see that infrequent gassings will still leave SOME traces. Thus, we have the traces in the camp offices and barracks, which reveal what levels of traces would remain, fifty years after the fact, in rooms which were gassed infrequently. Then we have the delousing chambers, which reveal what levels of traces would remain, fifty years after the fact, in rooms which were gassed frequently. Can it not be expected that the levels of traces in the homicidal gas chambers, while perhaps not being as high as those in the delousing rooms, would AT LEAST be substantially higher than the traces in the buildings which were only fumigated infrequently? Yet the traces in Kremas 1, 2 and 3 are not markedly higher than the office and barracks traces. Does this not suggest that the traces which DO exist in Kremas 1, 2 and 3 come from the same fumigation routine that all the other buildings went through? 4) Once one has fashioned an explanation for the minute traces and no blue staining in Kremas 1, 2 and 3 at Auschwitz, how does one THEN explain the HIGH levels of Zyklon B traces and DEEP, FLOOR-TO-CEILING blue staining in three of the four Majdanek gas chambers? Far fewer people are said to have been killed at Majdanek than at Auschwitz. The four Majdanek gas chambers would never have had to handle the workload of Kremas 1,2 and 3. Yet whereas Kremas 1,2 and 3 have only minute traces and no blue staining, three of the four Majdanek gas chambers have heavy traces and deep blue staining. How could gassing a GREATER amount of people (at Auschwitz) leave minute traces and no blue staining, yet gassing a much SMALLER amount (at Majdanek) leave heavy traces and deep blue staining? 5) The gas chambers at the Majdanek camp not only have heavy Zyklon B blue stains on the INSIDE, but also on the OUTSIDE walls, as well. What could account for this? The delousing facilities at Birkenau have heavy blue staining on their outside walls, staining which is said to come >from the mattresses which were propped up against the outside walls and beaten after delousing (to rid them of Zyklon B residue). Do the heavy blue stains on the outside walls of the Majdanek gas chambers therefore suggest that these rooms were used as delousing facilities? Isn't the building which contains the gas chambers labeled the "Bath and Disinfection" complex? If, as with Auschwitz, it is said that gassing people wouldn't leave blue stains on the INSIDE walls of a homicidal gas chamber, how then, at Majdanek, could gassing people leave heavy blue stains not only on the INSIDE walls but also on the OUTSIDE ones as well? 6) To sum up the Zyklon B issue, we can take an overview of the Nazi gas chambers and their respective states RE Zyklon B traces: Krema 1 (Auschwitz Main Camp): Minute traces, no blue staining Krema 2 (Auschwitz-Birkenau): Minute traces, no blue staining. Krema 3 (Auschwitz-Birkenau): Minute traces, no blue staining. Majdanek gas chambers 1, 3 and 4: Heavy traces, heavy blue staining (on inside and outside walls). Dachau gas chamber: No traces, no blue staining. Mauthausen gas chamber: No traces, no blue staining. The revisionist explanation for the above is: Kremas 1, 2 and 3 were not used as gas chambers; -- the only Zyklon B they saw was from the routine camp fumigations. Majdanek rooms 1, 3 and 4 were delousing rooms, like the ones at Auschwitz-Birkenau. The Dachau gas chamber was a shower. The Mauthausen gas chamber was a shower What theory can be offered which explains the wildly divergent states of the gas chambers RE Zyklon B traces, while still supporting the concept of mass homicidal gassings at these camps? UNANSWERED QUESTIONS REGARDING THE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AT THE AUSCHWITZ- BIRKENAU CONCENTRATION CAMP (POLAND) 7) Why was the area between Kremas 2 and 3, the area where thousands of people were marched daily to their deaths, left completely unfenced? The ditches which run the length of the camp perimeter would make a person invisible both to ground fire AND fire from the guard tower. Why would the Nazis risk an attempted escape, especially considering the fact that many inmates were gassed after they had been in the camp for a while, and knew what their fate would be if marched into either of those buildings? Doesn't the Auschwitz State Museum claim that the inmates would often "riot" as they were being marched toward Kremas 2 and 3? 8) Why were Kremas 2 and 3 not hidden in any way from the view of the inmates? Isn't it claimed at the Auschwitz State Museum that gassings were stopped at Krema 1 (Auschwitz Main Camp) and moved to Birkenau because the inmates were starting to get an idea of the homicidal purpose of Krema 1? Why then were Kremas 2 and 3 put in plain sight of all sectors of the Birkenau camp, with no camouflage of any kind? Wouldn't this just create hundreds of thousands of "eyewitnesses", with everyone in the camp becoming well aware of the exterminations (and with many of these inmates later transferred to other camps in other parts of Europe to "spread the word" about the gassing program)? How could this profit the Nazis? 9) It is claimed that there were four holes on the roofs of Kremas 2 and 3, which served as Zyklon B induction holes. The best piece of evidence that these holes ever existed is found in the U.S. aerial photos taken of Auschwitz during the war. Is there any discrepancy between the size of these holes as depicted in the U.S. aerial photos, and the size of the holes as depicted on the model of the Krema 2 gas chamber (on display at the Auschwitz State Museum and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum), the size as theorized by Jean-Claude Pressac in his book "Auschwitz; Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers", the size as depicted in the movie "Triumph of the Spirit" (which recreated a gassing at Krema 2), and the size as described over the decades by eyewitnesses? Indeed, can it be said that the holes as depicted in the aerial photos are ridiculously large...larger than what would have been needed for pouring in a can of Zyklon B gas? 10) Why are the four holes not present today in the roof slab of Krema 2? The roof slab, though collapsed, is intact and both the top and underside of the roof are still visible. There are two crudely chiseled holes at opposite ends of the roof slab (one is more like a huge crack than a hole), but the other two holes are non existent, and the underside of the roof, with the two-by-fours lining the ceiling still visible, shows no sign of two holes having ever been present. There are also no traces of the two holes on the top of the roof. How can the absence of the two holes, and any traces of the two holes, be explained? 11) What circumstances would produce the Krema 2 roof slab as we now see it, with two holes visible and the other two non-existent? If the Nazis attempted to erase the traces of the roof holes, why did they stop after two? Why would they expend much effort to erase all traces of two of the roof holes, then not make any effort to erase the two which survived the demolition? 12) Could the still existing roof holes have been added after the liberation, by the Soviets or Poles? Doesn't Pressac admit that these two holes don't correspond with the positions of the holes in the aerial photos (Pressac says that this might be because the roof "shifted" during demolition, but even if the roof "shifted", that wouldn't account for why these holes, which were supposed to run in a straight line down the middle of the roof, have changed their positions, and are no longer in a straight line down the middle of the intact roof slab)? These holes are in incredibly bad condition; their edges are consistently rough, with not an inch of smoothness left. And they are no longer circular. They look like someone took a jack-hammer and roughly hammered through the roof slab. It is explained by Auschwitz State Museum officials that the demolition of the roof is what accounts for the awful condition of the holes (that is, they USED to be round and smooth until the demolition). But if one observes the wreckage of the "undressing room" roof slab, which was similarly destroyed and is now in even worse shape than the gas chamber roof slab, one sees the remains of the undressing room front ventilation hole, which is still round and smooth even after the demolition and fifty years of laying around as rubble. Why did the undressing room roof hole survive intact, while the two still existing gas chamber roof holes emerged from the demolition without even the slightest trace that they had once been round and smooth? If we consider that the two still existing gas chamber roof holes don't correspond with their supposed position on the roof, can we theorize that MAYBE these two holes were chiseled in after the liberation? It is now admitted by the Auschwitz State Museum that the Soviets, after liberation, drilled four "Zyklon B induction holes" in the roof of Krema 1 (Auschwitz Main Camp). One needn't assume bad faith on the part of the Soviets (they might have honestly believed that they were "restoring" the roof to the state in which it had once been), but this act clearly establishes that the Soviets DID in fact drill post-liberation "Zyklon B induction holes" in roofs that, at that time, had none. Is it possible that this accounts for the two sloppy "Zyklon B induction holes" in the roof slab of the Krema 2? 13) It is said that the Nazis destroyed Kremas 2 and 3 in order to hide the proofs of their gas chambers. But what "proof" of gassings would have been provided by Krema 2 if Krema 2 had not been dynamited? There are no heavy Zyklon B traces or blue stains on the walls, and great care was obviously taken to remove even the slightest trace of two of the Zyklon B induction holes. The Krema 2 gas chamber would have resembled an ordinary morgue. Was the destruction of Krema 2 an attempt to hide the evidence of a gas chamber, or simply the destruction of a cremation facility in the face of the advancing Soviets? Were cremation facilities at other camps, camps that were never claimed to have gas chambers, also destroyed? 14) If one is to believe that four Zyklon B induction holes were at one time in the roof slab of Krema 2, it must be assumed that the Nazis went through great pains to meticulously hide any traces of at least two of those holes. Yet we are told that when the Soviets, after liberation, "reopened" the Zyklon B induction holes in the Krema 1 gas chamber state (at the time of liberation, it was being used as an air-raid shelter), they know exactly where to "reopen" the four holes because the traces where these holes had been were STILL VISIBLE. The idea that the Zyklon B induction hole traces were still visible is supported by the Auschwitz State Museum officials, and by author Jean-Claude Pressac. Why didn't the Nazis attempt to "cover-up" THOSE holes, especially keeping in mind that the Krema 1 gas chamber had been abandoned as a gas chamber AT LEAST a year before liberation, giving the Nazis more than enough time to erase the traces. The Nazis were apparently able to do an incredibly good job of erasing the hole traces in the Krema 2 roof, even though time was short (the Nazis knew the Soviets were advancing, and they were busy making preparations to abandon the camp), yet we are told that they did NOT attempt to likewise cover up the hole traces in the Krema 1 roof slab, even though they had at least a year to do so. Why would the Nazis do such a fastidiously good job of hiding the existence of Zyklon B induction holes in a roof that they were then going to dynamite (Krema 2), yet allow the hole traces to remain in a roof that was left intact for the advancing Soviets (Krema 1)? Isn't that backwards? UNANSWERED QUESTIONS REGARDING THE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AT THE MAUTHAUSEN CONCENTRATION CAMP (AUSTRIA) 15) The gas chamber at concentration camp Mauthausen (in Austria) has no locks on the doors, and no holes or fittings where locks may once have been. The doors can be opened from inside or outside. How could human beings have been gassed in this room? 16) The peepholes in the two Mauthausen gas chamber doors have no hemispherical metal grid covering the glass, as would have been necessary to prevent the victims from knocking out the glass and causing a gas leak. There are no holes or fittings where a grid might once have been. Doesn't Pressac write extensively about the need for such hemispherical grids? Doesn't Pressac recount survivor testimony regarding the need for such grids during a homicidal gassing? With no grid, what stopped the inmates from knocking out the glass, using either their hands or the ample shower piping in the chamber? 17) Why are there no Zyklon B traces, or blue stains, in this chamber? 18) The hole in the ceiling of this chamber, through which the Zyklon B crystals were supposedly poured, is small enough to be blocked by the inmates hands, and the ceiling is low enough for them to block the hole. How could the Zyklon B be effectively poured in? 19) There is a large drain in the floor of this room. There are no holes or fittings where a cover for this drain might have been attached. What would stop the victims from brushing the Zyklon B crystals down this drain? 20) Unlike the Dachau "fake shower room", which indeed has fake shower heads (which were directly screwed into the concrete to a maze of water pipes which run the length of the ceiling AND across the walls. Doesn't this room resemble a real shower room? How do we know it wasn't? 21) What would have been the wisdom of construction a fake shower room with such a maze of pipes running across the ceiling and walls? Wouldn't the victims have torn these fixtures down? Doesn't Pressac write about how the victims in the Auschwitz gas chambers would destroy the electrical fixtures and anything else in the chamber? Wouldn't the pipes serve as perfect weapons with which to smash a hole through the unguarded peepholes (not to mention the doors have no locks)? And if the prisoners didn't wish to block the Zyclon B induction hole with their hands, the showers heads would've fit inside the hole nicely. Why wasn't the "fake shower heads screwed directly into the ceiling" method (a la Dachau) employed here? 22) Considering the absence of Zyklon B traces, locks on the doors, peephole covers, and a viable means of pouring in the Zyklon B, and factoring in the floor drain and the water pipes and genuine shower heads in this room, why can't we assume this was a genuine shower room? UNANSWERED QUESTIONS REGARDING THE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AT THE DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP (GERMANY) 23) The method of Zyklon B induction for the Dachau gas chamber is claimed to be via two chutes carved through one of the walls, through which the Zyklon B would be poured. What would have stopped the victims >from putting their backs against the mouths of these chutes, thus preventing the crystals from entering the room? 24) If the crystals WERE able to enter the room, the two chutes are located just above two large drains in the floor. There are no holes or fittings where covers for these drains might have been. What would stop the crystals from falling down the drains? 25) There is a mystery room (not open to the public but visible through several windows) adjoining the gas chamber room. This room appears to have water and steam pipes which appear to lead into the gas chamber. Was the gas chamber room actually a shower? What is the purpose of this "mystery room"? What can be gained by ignoring this room which, it stands to reason, must have had SOME purpose? 26) It is often said that the Nazis tried to hide the evidence of their extermination program by speaking in code, and rarely speaking of the exterminations on the record. It is similarly held that, as it became clear that they were losing the war, the Nazis tried to destroy the proofs of their crimes (the destruction of the four Birkenau Kremas is said to have been part of this "cover-up"). How, then, does one explain the Dachau gas chamber? The obviously false shower heads are incontrovertible proof of the homicidal purpose of this room. It is impossible not explain away the fake shower heads/a homicidal gas chamber. Yet we are to believe that this gas chamber was NEVER USED. And we are also supposed to believe that the room in its present state is exactly as the U.S. Army found it when the camp was liberated. Now, the details of the liberation of Dachau are well known: Dachau was not taken in some surprise attack. The guards at Dachau knew that the Americans were on their way. Therefore, we are asked to believe that the Nazis, KNOWING the camp would be surrendered, left the gas chamber room (which was not even being USED as a gas chamber) in a state which unashamedly points to its homicidal purpose. Why were the fake shower heads not removed? * Why was there no attempt at a "cover-up", like at Auschwitz? Unlike the Auschwitz gas chambers, THIS one was not even in use! What good was an unused room which only served to scream to the world "the Nazis are gassing the Jews"? Why would the Nazis, who were NOT using the "gas chamber" to kill people, leave it in this blatantly homicidal state, especially as the Americans drew closer? Keep in mind that, with the fake shower heads, this room was also impossible to us as a SHOWER. Therefore, this room served NO PURPOSE: it wasn't used as a gas chamber, and couldn't be used as a shower. We are asked to accept that the Nazis kept a large, USELESS room in one of the more important buildings in the Dachau camp (the "gas chamber" is located in the building which houses the Zyklon B clothing fumigation cubicles) and that this room remained UNUSED for years but was never stripped of the fake shower heads which pointed irrefutably to the Nazi's murderous intentions. Surely, understanding the great pains the Nazis took to keep their gassing/extermination plans a secret, and the great pains they supposedly took at OTHER camps to "hide their crimes" once the Allies were advancing (i.e. the destruction of Kremas 2 through 5 at Auschwitz), we can expect that they would have performed the very simple task of removing the fake shower heads (and perhaps plastering over the marks where the shower heads had been). Why didn't the Nazis do this? * There might be a simple answer to the Dachau shower head issue. The height of the ceiling in the "Dachau gas chamber" is presently 7.6 feet. However, in Document L-159, No. 47 of the 79th Congress, 1st Session (Exhibit NO. USA-222; IMT, XXXVII, p. 621), which details the U.S. Army's investigation of the Dachau camp after liberation, the ceiling of this room is measured at 10 feet high. The fake shower heads which exist today embedded in the 7.6 foot high ceiling are made of sheet metal. Document No. 47 describes the 10 foot high ceiling as having "brass fixtures", which might very well have been genuine shower heads and pipes but which, in any event, are long absent from the ceiling of this room. Basically, sometime between the liberation of Dachau, and the media blitz regarding the "Dachau gas chamber", a 10 foot high ceiling with bass fixtures became a 7.6 foot high ceiling with cone-shaped sheet metal fake shower heads. How? I think we can take a guess! Remember that the record of the U.S. Army (and the U.S. government, for that matter) is not very good when it comes to being honest about Dachau. If we are to assume that the Army created a fraudulent "gas chamber", it helps to understand that there is already proof that the Army was less than honest when presenting Dachau to the world. Most notable in this respect is the photographic sleight-of-hand which is still employed today (especially at the Weisenthal Center's high-tech "Museum of Tolerance" here in L.A.) where a photo of a door to one of the Dachau ZYKLON B FUMIGATION CUBICLES, complete with poisonous gas warning, skull and crossbones, and gassing schedule, is shown (often with a soldier standing in front) along with the caption that this is the door to the Dachau "HOMICIDAL" gas chamber (thus giving the impression that Zykon B gas was used in the alleged homicidal gas chamber). This is pure fraud, and not the kind of fraud that the Army could have perpetrated "by accident". In pictures released by the Army, the doors to the small fumigation cubicles were portrayed as the doors to the alleged homicidal gas chamber...and this is something that doesn't happen by accident. For people like my mother and her family, Jews living in the U.S. during the forties, it's the Dachau gas chamber propaganda that they most clearly remember as their first exposure to the concept of homicidal gas chambers. UNANSWERED QUESTIONS REGARDING THE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AT THE MAJDANEK CONCENTRATION CAMP (POLAND) 27) Gas chamber 1 has two doors, both of which open INTO the gas chamber room. How can a homicidal gas chamber have two doors which open IN? Wouldn't the bodies be pressed up against the doors, as described numerous times by eyewitnesses? 28) The main door into the gas chamber 1 has no locks. It can be opened >from either the inside or the outside. There are no holes or fittings where a lock might have been. What stopped the inmates from opening this door? 29) Gas chamber 1 has a plate glass window in it. There are no holes or fittings around the window where bars or any other kind of cover might once have been. Since the plaster around the window is covered with blue stains, we know that it is the plaster that existed during the time Zyklon B gas was used in this room. If there WERE bars or any other type of cover attached to this window, why are there no traces? What would have stopped the inmates from trying to climb out the window, or breaking the window and causing a gas leak? 30) There is a room INSIDE gas chamber 1. Why would there be a separate room INSIDE a gas chamber? Doesn't this room indicate that gas chamber 1 was used for something OTHER than killing people? 31) Gas chambers 2 and 3 are designed backwards. Chamber 2 has a Zyklon B induction hole in the ceiling, but no Zyklon B traces or blue stains. Chamber 3 has heavy, floor-to-ceiling Zyklon B traces and blue stains, but no Zyklon B induction hole. And, like the roof of Krema 2 at Auschwitz, the ceiling shows no sign of a hole having ever been there. Why would chamber 2 have a Zyklon B induction hole and no traces, and chamber 3 plenty of traces but no hole? 32) The ceilings in chambers 2 and 4 are low enough so that the Zyklon B induction holes could have been blocked by the victims. What would have stopped the inmates from blocking the holes? 33) The doors to chambers 2,3 and 4 are built to latch from the outside AND the inside. The latches can be opened from either side. Does this suggest that the rooms were used for something other than killing people? 34) Getting back to the issue of hemispherical grids covering the peepholes, it is said that the point of these grids was to prevent the inmates from breaking the glass of the peepholes and causing a gas leak. Yet the hemispherical grids attached to the peepholes on the doors of chambers 2, 3 and 4 are attached on the OUTSIDE of the doors. These grids wouldn't prevent someone INSIDE the room from breaking the glass...but they WOULD prevent someone OUTSIDE the room from doing so. Why are the grids not on the inside? Does this contradict with the statements by Pressac and the eyewitnesses regarding the need for girds in a homicidal gas chamber? 35) The Majdanek camp is built on a hill. At the top of the hill is the camp crematorium. At the opposite end of the camp, at the bottom of the hill, is the "Bath and Disinfection" complex, which houses the gas chambers. From the Nazi's point of view, what was the wisdom in putting the gas chambers at the opposite end of the camp from the ovens, and at the bottom of the hill (after each gassing, the dead bodies would have to have been dragged up the hill, the length of the entire camp, to the ovens)? 36) As the Nazis were preparing to abandon the Majdanek camp, they destroyed the crematorium building. Why were the gas chambers not similarly destroyed? Why would the Nazis leave their weapons of mass murder intact for the world to see? How hard would it have been for the Nazis to destroy the gas chambers, just like they did the crematorium building? At least, shouldn't the Nazis have filled in the Zyklon B induction holes, which serve as direct proofs of homicidal gassings? Either way, the destruction of the crematorium is clear proof that the Nazis had both the time and the ability to demolish buildings in the camp if they wanted to. Why were the gas chambers not demolished? 37) In his book "Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers", Jean-Claude Pressac publishes a photo of the Majdanek gas chambers, with the caption "Photograph taken at the Majdanek concentration camp in June 1979, showing one of the disinfestation gas chambers thought to be a homicidal gas chamber." On page 555, he also has this to say about the Majdanek gas chambers: "I am sorry to say, and I am not the only one in the West, that the Majdanek homicidal and/or delousing gas chambers are still waiting for a true historian, which is mildly upsetting in view of the fact that the camp fell into the hands of the Russians intact in 1944." Do these comments suggest that the gas chambers at Majdanek may in fact have been disinfestation gas chambers? At least, don't these comments suggest that there has not yet been a thorough investigation into the purpose of these rooms? * 38) To sum up the Majdanek gas chamber issue: If we take Pressac's comments and then factor in the doors that don't lock, the doors that open INTO the gas chamber, the doors with latches that can be manipulated from both the outside AND the inside, the window in gas chamber 1, the room inside gas chamber 1, the lack of any Zyklon B induction hole in gas chamber 3, the lack of any Zyklon B traces in gas chamber 2 (which DOES have a "Zyklon B induction hole"), the heavy blue stains on the OUTSIDE of the building, and the location of the building, at the bottom of a hill, at the opposite end of the camp from the crematorium, is it reasonable to suggest that these rooms were delousing chambers? * In what can only be considered an unfortunate example of how major disputes between Holocaust historians are shielded from the public, the same room Pressac describes in his book as a "disinfestation gas chamber" is featured in the book "The World Must Know", the official book of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C., written by Museum director Dr. Michael Berenbaum. In that book, Berenbaum describes the room as a HOMICIDAL gas chamber and, what's more, a CASTING of this room was made for display AT THE MUSEUM, as PROOF of the homicidal gas chambers! Thus, in both Berenbaum's book AND in the Museum itself, the ONLY material proof given of homicidal gassings is THIS ROOM, a room Pressac staunchly believes to be a disinfestation gas chamber (in fact, in his Auschwitz book, Pressac actually RIDICULES those who say that this Majdanek room is proof of homicidal gassings, and criticizes everyone from the man who prosecuted Faurisson in France to the Majdanek State Museum personnel for perpetuating a fraud). But does anyone give a damn that the general public, all the millions, might be receiving fraudulent information? Some might suggest that disputes such as these should be kept private so as not to shake the public's confidence in Holocaust history, or in the Holocaust historians. But don't you think we have a RESPONSIBILITY not to knowingly feed the public falsehoods or unproven claims disguised as unquestioned facts? Don't you think we have a responsibility to be honest about our research? If not, what makes us any different from the "historians" of the Soviet Union, or Hitler's Germany, who knowingly tailored their research to produce a politically expedient conclusion? When the ends begin justifying the means, watch integrity go flying out the window. As bad as the public misinformation about Majdanek is, the Stalin-esque purging of Pressac's "Auschwitz; Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers" from the official record is worse. This master-work of historiography, once loudly heralded in the press (see enclosed clippings), is NOW nowhere to be found when references to Pressac are made. A recent article in "Publishers Weekly", detailing a forthcoming U.S. Holocaust Museum book containing 29 original essays from Holocaust scholars including Berenbaum and Pressac, not only neglects to mention Pressac's gas chamber book, but seems to suggest that Pressac's conversion from revisionist to gas chamber believer came only recently, as he was researching his just-published "slim volume" about the Auschwitz crematorium. The entire period of the 1980's, which Pressac spent researching his gas chamber book after his "conversion", is omitted. Yet scholars around the world continue to use Pressac's gas chamber book (if they're lucky enough to have one of the few copies), mainly because, even if one disagrees with Pressac's conclusions, his book is STILL the best (and the only) single source for the blueprints, construction slips, alteration plans, and inter-office communiques regarding the Auschwitz "gas chambers". Neither side in this debate agrees entirely with Pressac...but for the gas chamber supporters, his book is an embarrassment because it IS so thorough. It is the most thorough work yet produced about the gas chambers, yet Pressac cannot find that elusive objective proof of gassings. So now, apparently, the historians have just decided to pretend the book doesn't exist. I've always referred to the Pressac gas chamber book as the most popular book that never existed! FOUR UNANSWERED QUESTIONS ABOUT STUTTHOF (When preparing the original 38 questions, I didn't bother with the tiny Stutthof "gas chamber" because so few people take it seriously anymore. Stutthof was the camp where the Nazis supposedly made the "human soap.". When the soap story was dropped, so was much of the testimony about the Stutthof "gas chamber." However, recently an NBC prime-time news show, "The Crusaders," decided to revive this rarely mentioned "homicidal gas chamber," producing a segment about Stutthof that played up the existence of an intact gas chamber at the camp. This segment of "The Crusaders" has now been adopted as part of California's public school Holocaust-education curriculum. Therefore, I thought a brief overview of, and a few questions about, the Stutthof "gas chamber" were in order) BRIEF OVERVIEW: The Stutthof concentration camp, located 35 km east of Gdansk, was designed for Polish civilians and designated as a "civilian internees camp." The Stutthof "gas chamber," a relatively small building (8 meters long, 3 meters wide, and 2.30 meters high) located next door to the camp crematorium (which was destroyed as the Nazis abandoned the camp, and has been rebuilt by the Poles) has walls soaked both inside and out with the tell-tale blue staining that comes from repeated Zyklon B usage. There is a stove and chimney outside, for heating the interior. Inside, a long clay heating conduit runs the length of one wall. This building was clearly a delousing gas chamber. The Zyklon granules would be placed on the heating conduit, and the stove would be fired up. The conduit would become hot, and the granules would release their gas. The two doors would then be opened for natural ventilation. This is an "old style" German Zyklon B delousing chamber, built before the more modern chambers, like the ones at Dachau, were designed (the newer, more energy efficient chambers came equipped with Zyklon evaporators, which would heat the granules on a kind of hot plate, and blow the gas onto the clothes, mattresses, etc. This was more energy efficient because it was a waste of fuel to heat an ENTIRE ROOM when it was only the ZYKLON GRANULES that needed to be warmed up. These Zyklon evaporators remain at Dachau today, in the delousing chambers of "Barrack X."). The "evidence" of homicidal usage of the Stutthof gas chamber is a "Zyklon B induction hole" in the roof. We are told that the Zyklon would be poured in through the this hole on the heads of the unsuspecting victims. The roof of this chamber is accessible only via ladder. Let's pause to read what Pressac has to say about Stutthof: "It is not known when this gas chamber FOR DELOUSING PRISONERS' EFFECTS (emphasis his) was installed. Its dimensions are close to the standard dimensions of those erected by BOOS or DEGESH...From 22nd June to the beginning of November 1944, it was used as a HOMICIDAL gas chamber for groups of about 100 people, Zyklon B being poured in through a small opening of 15 cm diameter in the roof, a system apparently introduced on the advice of SS Lieutenant Colonel Rudolf Hoess, former commandant of Auschwitz-Birkenau and at that time head of Department D1 of the WVHA-SS (SS Economic Administration Head Office). While the history of this gas chamber is known from TESTIMONIES reported by Father Krzysztof Dunin- Wasowicz, there has been no scientific examination of the "murder weapon" since 1945, which means that we do not know how the chamber functioned as a delousing installation and are unable to provide material proof of its criminal use. (Pressac cont.) The number of victims is estimated at one or two thousand. The visit (to Stutthof) did not greatly impress us." (Pressac; "Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers" pages 539-540) The Stutthof Museum personnel agree with Pressac's claim that this was FIRST AND FOREMOST a delousing chamber, used as such for years, only LATER "converted" into a homicidal one. Now, let's ask some questions, picking up from where we left off in the "38 Questions" 39) The Stutthof "gas chamber" has a large floor drain right in the middle of the room, DIRECTLY BELOW the "Zyklon B induction hole." Any granules dropped through this hole would automatically go right down the drain. What's more, the floor of this room is DEPRESSED in the middle, where the drain is, so that any water or, in this case, Zyklon granules, would automatically roll into the drain. what would stop the Zyklon granules from going down the drain, since they were being poured into the room directly over this drain? And, if a few granules missed the drain, wouldn't they simply roll, or couldn't the inmates brush them, down the drain? 40) The roof of this room is low enough so that a tall person could reach up and block the "Zyklon B induction hole." However, the thoughtful Nazis, by installing the heating conduit that runs the length of on wall, have made it possible for ANYONE, of whatever height, to stand on this conduit and block the hole. What would stop the inmates >from blocking the "Zyklon B induction hole," especially since they would be EXPECTING foul play (this room was the official Stutthof delousing chamber, known as such by all the inmates. No Stutthof inmate would expect to be given a "shower" in this room, and indeed the Stutthof Museum makes no claims about such a deception (neither do the eyewitnesses)? 41) Why was this building - a clear "proof" of Nazi crimes, what with its "Zyklon B induction hole," - not DESTROYED as the Nazis evacuated the camp? Amazingly, the crematorium RIGHT NEXT DOOR was blown up, and, in fact, one side of the gas chamber building was actually HIT by shrapnel from the exploding crematorium. Yet the gas chamber was allowed to remain intact, even though, as reported by the Stutthof survivor interviewed on the "Crusaders" TV show, at the end of the war the Nazis were ordered to KILL EVERY INMATE at Stutthof, in order to erase any evidence of the gassings (by killing all the eyewitnesses). For some unknown reason, this order was never carried out, and the Stutthof inmates were evacuated west. Why would the Nazis BLOW UP the crematorium, yet leave the "homicidal" gas chamber standing? Why would the Nazis decide to KILL EVERY INMATE in order to "cover up" their crimes, yet leave the PHYSICAL EVIDENCE of those crimes standing? Why wouldn't the Nazis AT LEAST cover up the "Zyklon B induction hole," which would serve as CLEAR AND INDISPUTABLE PROOF of homicidal usage (unless we dare to imagine that this hole was put in by the Soviets/Poles, as they ADMIT doing at the building the Nazis abandoned knowing it was soon to fall into Soviet hands. Considering the great pains that the Nazis went through to "cover up" the gassings elsewhere, how hard would it have been to dynamite THIS building along with the crematorium just a few yards away? 42) Since personal testimony is all we have to go on regarding the homicidal usage of this chamber, and since much of this testimony also mentions the "human soap" - which has long been officially debunked - what evidence do we have that the testimony about the Stutthof homicidal gas chamber is any more reliable than the testimony about the human soap? I could add one more question (but I won't), something about the fact that the Stutthof gas chamber is located in full view of all the inmates, inmates who were NOT destined for extermination, and not, to a great extent, Jewish. Strangely, the secrecy-obsessed Nazis also seemed obsessed with conducting their homicidal gassings in the most open, noticeable places possible...especially at the non-"extermination" camps (at Mauthausen, another non-extermination camp, the "gas chamber" is right in the middle of the inmate barracks), thus hoping, I suppose, to create tens or hundreds of thousands of "eyewitnesses" to something the Nazis would not even discuss privately in coded transmissions. Go figure. The following four questions are based on personal meetings I had during my last trip to Europe in October of 1994. In Lublin, Poland, I met with Tomasz Kranz, Curator of the Majdanek State Museum. I spoke at length with Mr. Kranz, who has been Curator for ten years, in his office on the Majdanek concentration camp site, Two weeks later, in a suburb outside Paris, I met with Jean-Claude Pressac, the celebrated Holocaust author who has become perhaps the man most recognized with defending the gas chamber theory. I met with Mr. Pressac in his office, and got to spend roughly six hours discussing gas chambers, Holocaust history, the demands of publishing in the mainstream, and much more. For the purpose of this list of questions, I have chosen four simple ones based on these meetings. 43) Majdanek Curator Tomasz Kranz had to admit, after I raised the same questions I've raised in this list, that the biggest Majdanek "gas chamber," chamber #1, was not intended or used homicidally. Big revelation. With the doors, window, and everything else that precludes homicidal usage, this is a conclusion even a five year old child would come to. Although Kranz could offer no evidence for homicidal usage in the other three chambers, chamber #1 was the only one he was willing to completely jettison as a homicidal room. Pressac went further. He is only willing to even CONSIDER homicidal gassings in chamber #3. Of course, he has no evidence. What's more, he admits that the Soviets laid down fake "gas piping" in chamber #3 to give the room the appearance of a homicidal gas chamber. This is certainly in keeping with Soviet precedent regarding the mishandling and faking of important historical evidence. Pressac could offer no REAL evidence for gassings in this room. But my question is: Why does Curator Tomasz Kranz continue to allow this room to be represented to tourists and the world as a homicidal gas chamber, when he privately acknowledges it never was? If there is agreement that this room was never homicidally used, why continue to promote it as a death chamber? If the Majdanek Curator and Europe's most well known Holocaust author express such uncertainty about homicidal usage of this and the other rooms, why are people like me who ask basic questions like these labeled as anti-Semitic irrational cranks? If, as Pressac believes, rooms 1,2 and 4 were not homicidal gas chambers, what evidence is there that anyone was killed in room 3? 44) At Auschwitz Birkenau, the rooms in Kremas 4 and 5 that are supposed to have been used as homicidal gas chambers all had drains in the floor that led right into the camp sewage system. These floor drains can still be seen today. Since, in these "gas chambers," it is said that the Zyklon pellets were dumped in loose, what stopped the pellets from going down the drain or being kicked or brushed down by the victims? Pressac was aware of this problem. He has tried to prove that the Zyklon pellets would present no problem. He has tried to prove that the Zyklon pellets would present no danger in the camp sewer, since the water would (in his opinion; this is a debatable point) "neutralize" the poison so it wouldn't present a danger when going through Birkenau's large sewage treatment plants. But Pressac misses the point; the question of just how harmful the Zyklon would be in the sewer is SECONDARY to the point that if the Zyklon is IN the sewer that means it's NOT in the gas chamber doing the job the Nazis intended! If the victims can dump the Zyklon into the sewer, that means they themselves won't be gassed. How could these rooms have functioned as homicidal gas chambers? 45) There is a large square manhole in the floor of the Krema 1 "gas chamber" at the Auschwitz Main Camp. The manhole has a concrete cover with a metal handle. It is possible for anybody of normal or even below- normal strength to lift off the lid, and the manhole is large enough for anyone of any size to climb down. What would stop the victims from climbing down the manhole to either escape the gas chamber via the sewer OR at least escape the gas? And even if escape wasn't possible, what would stop the victims from kicking or brushing the Zyklon B pellets down the manhole and closing the cover? There is something I should mention here, since several times I've talked about the possibility of the victims brushing the pellets down floor drains of in this, the worst case yet, a manhole. Zyklon B can kill a human being quite effectively when its gas is INHALED. It kills through the lungs. It doesn't kill through the skin (unless it is in contact with the skin for a very long period of time and in a very high concentration). Therefore, the pellets could easily be handled by victims in a gas chamber without posing any threat to the victims via absorption through the skin. In fact, a Zyklon mixture was frequently brushed directly onto people's arms and legs during disinfestation procedures at Auschwitz, and Zyklon was also used in a liquid solution to bathe people in for delousing. As for the Zyklon pellets giving off their gas, it should be remembered that Zyklon B begins giving off gas when warmed. The hotter it is, the quicker the evaporation. Yet Kremas 1 ( and 2 and 3) were not only UNHEATED but partially or completely UNDERGROUND! All three rooms were used or designed as morgues; they were MEANT to be cold all the time. It has never been explained just how the Zyklon was heated, especially in the freezing winter months. The best that the other side can do is say that the body temperatures of the victims warmed the rooms. But that would take time, and the "confession" of Auschwitz Commandant Hoess speaks of a very swift process - herd 'em in, drop down the gas, ventilate the room. No time mentioned to let the victims warm up the room. Zyklon pellets dropped down into a cold room, landing on the cold floor, would not only give off gas slowly, but would be safe to brush down a drain or manhole. What would stop the inmates from doing this? (For the record, there is a floor drain in the Krema 1 "gas chamber" AS WELL as a manhole...but with a manhole of that size, the drain becomes almost irrelevant!) In 1992 I ran my manhole question past Dr. Franciszek Piper, Senior Curator of the Auschwitz State Museum, and he had no answer. When I ran it by Pressac, he thought I was trying to put one over on him; he didn't believe there WAS a manhole in Krema 1! I was floored that he had never seen it. We argued about this for some time until I had to go through his files and find a picture of Krema 1 and POINT OUT the damn manhole. Now HE was floored. "Over the last ten years I've been to Krema 1 more times than I can possibly count," he said (in French, of course), "and I've never noticed the manhole!" "The next time you go, Jean-Claude," I responded, "you should look down!" "Ah, that is the problem David," he said. "You look down while I look up." Well, for the record, I look up too. My aim is to notice things, to take these gas chambers seriously; to walk into these rooms and ask three questions: "How is this gas chamber supposed to have worked?" "What would have happened if it worked that way?, and "What evidence is there that it did?" The mainstream historians gloss over the difficult questions. They have nothing to gain by challenging their own beliefs. As a result, all too often they don't pay attention to the crucial details of their own stories. They come up with their conclusion first, and then they only pay attention to the evidence that supports that conclusion. They don't look at ALL the evidence. As a result, the mainstream Holocaust historians have only had to explain the problems and discrepancies in their story (like the absence of Zyklon B traces) after revisionists have pointed out these problems. Mainstream Holocaust historians have never tried to explain problems with the gas chamber story willingly; they've always had to be prodded into doing so. (This, by the way, is not a situation unique to Holocaust history. The value of a society where dissent is allowed to exist is that often times it is the existence of two or more opposing sides to an issue that prompts and encourages the search for the truth; each side critiques the other side mercilessly and, therefore, the public is made aware of possible flaws in ALL sides. If a school of thought is insulated from criticism, as Holocaust history is in all the countries where questioning the gas chambers in an illegal and punishable offense, that school of thought can remain unchecked for errors). As for the manhole, apparently the other side has not yet been able to rationalize its presence in as supposedly homicidal gas chamber. I welcome their attempts. Maybe there's something I'M missing. It doesn't matter to me if one proceeds with the hypothesis that there were homicidal gas chambers, or with the hypothesis that there weren't. As long as we search in good faith for the facts. The only crime is to wish away the difficult questions, pretending they don't exist and slandering the people who do nothing more than ask them. 46) Another thing I learned from Pressac is that he believes that the Krema 1 "gas chamber" had THREE "Zyklon B induction holes," running in a straight line in the ceiling. But the Auschwitz State Museum believes that there were FOUR holes, running in two lines of two holes. When the Poles and Soviets put holes in the Krema 1 roof after liberation, this is the version they installed; four holes in two lines. This is the version that can be seen today in Krema 1. But Pressac says they're wrong; it was THREE holes in a straight line. Who's right? Were there three holes or four? And how do we know that there were ever ANY holes? There are no holes present in any of the aerial photos, and there were no holes when the Soviets liberated the camp. The important question is; HOW can such a debate (three holes or four?) among major Holocaust scholars exist in the first place? It is only because hard evidence for gassings at Auschwitz is so lacking that something like this can still be an issue fifty years later. Whatever the evidence for gassings at Krema 1, it is apparently not good ENOUGH evidence to provide a description of the gas chamber that all scholars can agree on. Now, it would be one thing if we had tons of SUPPLEMENTARY evidence (i.e. Zyklon B traces in the walls that were heavier than all the other rooms, evidence of people entering the building en masse and never coming out, a special ventilation system and heating equipment, or German coded transmissions or documents talking about gassings, etc.); then we could at least say "Well, we know there were gassings, we're just not sure about the design of the gas chamber." But there is no supplementary evidence. We have no description of the Krema 1 murder weapon, but we ALSO have no evidence of any murders in Krema 1. Even the best prosecutor in the world would be hard pressed to get a conviction were this case to be tried in any standard American court. All that we have are testimonies. And just a few. Yet Pressac spends much of his gas chamber book demolishing these testimonies as false. We have the testimony of camp Commandant Hoess, the man who SHOULD have been able to provide us with the best description of the Krema 1 gas chamber, but Pressac, Hilberg, Lipstadt, Chris Browning, and most other Holocaust scholars dismiss his account as unreliable, fabricated, or just plain false. So what's left? Pressac searches in vain for ANY hard evidence to reproduce in his chapter on Kremas 1, and ends up with nothing. As a result, this chapter is perhaps the most awkward in Pressac's book. Pressac begins the chapter by affirming his belief in homicidal gassings in this room, but then goes on to offer no evidence, and what's more he doubts the credibility of the testimonies, which are the only evidence he offers. One is left saying "Jean-Claude Pressac believes in Homicidal gassings in Krema 1...I'm just not sure why." What I try to do is look at the evidence that calls gassings into question (the manhole, the floor drain, the lack of Zyklon B traces, the absence of documentary evidence, the lack of evidence in the aerial photos, the lack of ventilation, the fact that the room is extremely cold, etc. etc.) and weigh that against any evidence FOR gassings (a few testimonies which the experts themselves doubt). You can see how a debate over the design of this "gas chamber" can still be raging among mainstream historians; it is because of the lack of evidence. And it is therefore legitimate to ask "If you don't know whether there were three or four holes, how do you know that there were ANY holes?" CHECK OUT THESE WEB SITES CODOH GREG RAVEN ERNST ZUNDEL THOUGHTCRIME ARCHIVES ADELAIDE INSTITUTE * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Sun Sep 22 00:08:59 PDT 1996 Article: 67516 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!!!!n3ott.istar!ott.istar!!van.istar!west.istar!!!!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Morris can't even quote Bacon correctly.[ according to Collins]..... Date: Sun, 22 Sep 1996 01:01:16 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 216 Distribution: world Message-ID: References: <> <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 In article <>, John Morris writes > (tom moran) wrote: > >[snip] > >> "Liberty of speech, inviteth and provoketh liberty to be used >>again, and so bringeth much to a man's knowledge." >> Francis Bacon > >This is a fine sentiment with which no one, I am sure, could disagree. > >But as Mr. Moran has insisted in another thread that truth is truth no >matter what the context, I thought I might provide some context so >that we can understand just what truth Bacon proposes here. > >In 1589, Bacon became the Clerk of the Court of the Star Chamber. >Although it sounds like some sort of secretarial position, the >Clerkship was more than that. The Clerkship allowed Bacon to hear >cases *privately* on all days that the court itself was not sitting, >in other words to sit as a judge of process. > >The cases typically judged by Bacon were cases of conspiracy against >the state--cases of "riot and affray" was the standard >formulation--which came to his attention through the efforts of the >intelligence service which he established. The focus of Bacon's >attention in such cases were "Jesuits and recusants," i.e., Catholics >who were unwilling to conform to the English Church and such persons >as might give them aid and comfort. Bacon had the power to detain >indefinitely for examination any persons *suspected* of conspiracy and >to examine and re-examine them until his court was satisfied that the >truth of the case had been arrived at. > >There is no evidence that Bacon's Clerkship used torture as regular >instrument of arriving at the truth. While there was some doubt as to >the efficacy of torture in bringing out matters of fact, it was still >considered to be useful for other purposes: > > Although man be tyed to accuse himself by any compact, yet > in a publique tryall he may, by torture, be forced to make > an answer; but such answers are no testimony of the fact, but > helps for searching out the truth (Bacon, Letters, III, 114). > >Later in his career, when he became a full member of James I's >cabinet, Bacon was able to turn his attention to other varieties of >religious controversy which threatened the security of the state such >as the more radical antiepiscopalians now commonly, if inaccurately, >known as "Puritans." Principal among the targets of the "anti-Puritan" >campaign was the free use of printing presses which the "Puritans" >were able to use to great effect in disseminating their ideas. > >None of these remarks should be taken to mean that Bacon was a >hypocrite who did not really believe in "liberty of speech" or its >usefulness in increasing "man's knowledge." It is rather a question of >whether Bacon saw liberty of speech as a universal right or a good >restricted to one particular class of men. > >Bacon's most famous aphorism "Ipsa scientia potestas est" (knowledge >is power) takes on a somewhat different meaning when viewed in the >context of Bacon's career as a jurist, statesman, scientist, and >philosopher. All of Bacon's efforts were aimed at preserving the power >and stability of the state, and we can hardly think that Bacon was >some sort of proto-liberal who wished to empower anyone but the >reigning monarch by the dissemination of knowledge. Precisely because >knowledge *is* power, Bacon saw a need to restrict knowledge--and the >liberty of speech necessary for creating knowledge--to those servants >of the state who could be relied upon. > > * * * > >Like so many others, Mr. Moran is content to parrot an aphorism simply >because it seems to him to have some sort of rhetorical purchase. >Moran fancies that if he produces some high-sounding words that his >own slogan will thereby become meaningful, that his own jumble of >sounds or letters will become meaningful because it shares some of the >same sounds and letters. > >My point--and I do have one--is not simply to illustrate the problem >that people like Moran lack the sophistication to do other than think >in slogans. > >In imagining Francis Bacon to be a liberal (or a libertarian, I >suppose), Moran fails utterly in grasping the significance of Bacon's >words. He has instead emptied Bacon's words of all meaning, or, at >least, of all the meaning that Bacon could have intended. Bacon's >words thus come to mean something entirely different because they have >been torn from their context and recontextualized elsewhere. > >The failure to contextualize is the fundamental, fatal, flaw in the >denier argument. It goes without saying that the deniers seize upon >some "fact" which appears to be inconsistent with some imaginary >"standard Holocaust myth" which they have concocted without the least >effort to understand the context in which this "fact" original >appeared. > >Let's take a couple of examples. > >In another thread (The SS-Guilty as Charged?), the person posting as >"rblackmore" has produced a collection of quotes from documents >purporting to show that the SS was concerned to keep their prisoners >alive and healthy. The first such quoted document (without the source, >I might add) speaks of the dangers of transporting sick inmates from >Buchenwald to Dachau. In the first instance, one is tempted simply to >say, "So what?" Neither Buchenwald nor Dachau was ever an >extermination camp. Why should labour camps not attempt to have >healthy labourers? But when one looks at the date of the >document--July 15, 1941--one notices that while this date coincides >roughly with the opening of the Einsatzgruppen mass shootings in >Poland, Ukraine, and western Russia, it precedes by about a year the >establishment of an extermination facilities in any camp setting such >as Auschwitz, Treblinka, Belzec, and so on. > >But why, one might ask, would the administrators of labour camps want >to transport sick prisoners from one camp to another? Wouldn't the >rigors of travel jeopardize them even further? Well, Dachau had a >relationship with another installation, known among Dachau inmates as >the "Dachau sanitorium," the T4 euthanasia installation at Hartheim >Castle near Linz just a few miles down the road from Dachau. The 95% >of prisoners expected *not* to recover from their illnesses, as >mentioned in rblackmore's document, were transported to Hartheim where >they were simply put to death. The activities of the euthanasia >centres are somewhat better documented than those of the death camps. >Documents covering the transport of sick prisoners from Dachau to >Hartheim are quoted in Kogon's book _Nazi Mass Murder: a Documentary >History of the Use of Poison Gas_. > >By contextualizing this one document, we can see that so far from >showing the Nazis to have been concerned with the health of the >Buchenwald inmates, they were more concerned with disposing of sick >inmates without endangering the slave laborers who were still healthy. > >But I must stress that this conclusion really only applies to this one >document in this one situation. It says nothing about the situation >that might have obtained at Auschwitz two years later when Gluecks >sent his directive about keeping Auschwitz inmates healthy. > >In this document, also cited by rblackmore, a different situation >obtains. What rblackmore plays upon here is the common misconception >that Auschwitz was an extermination camp only. Auschwitz in fact had >many roles to play including providing a labour pool and supply centre >for its many subcamps which were no more than "ordinary" slave labour >camps on the Buchenwald and Dachau model. Without knowing *which* >prisoners Gluecks refers to--and rblackmore does not seem to be >someone much interested in providing the context for us--we can only >appeal to the broader context. Does this document apply to the whole >of the Auschwitz complex, including the Birkenau extermination centre, >or just to the Auschwitz main camp? Did it also include the Birkenau >hospital complex which mostly serviced the subcamp network? Did >Gluecks' directive include the million and a half people transported >to Auschwitz during its existence of whom only a few hundred thousand >can be accounted for by transportation records to the subcamps? Does >this document reflect on the divisions within the Nazi government >itself between those who wanted to work their prisoners to death and >those who wanted to kill them outright? > >What *is* the context for Gluecks' directive? We don't know from >rblackmore, nor is he likely to tell us even to the point of telling >us where we might find this directive. Just as Moran is prepared to >think Bacon a libertarian, rblackmore is prepared to have us believe >that there was no mass murder at Auschwitz because one directive plays >into the various and apparently contradictory roles played by the >Auschwitz complex. > >Well, I would love to go on to talk about the contexts of the >"Vergasungskeller" memo which has received so much attention of late >in alt.revisionism, but I have the flu and a class to prepare for >tomorrow. > >Suffice it to say that the general reader needs to look carefully at >the "facts" presented in this newsgroup by the deniers. In almost two >years of watching this newsgroup, I have yet to see a "fact" that >could not be explicated by its proper context. > >[snip] > >> Freedom of Speech is the enemy of the totalitarian Holocaust lie. >> Moran > >Oh, I haven't you Mr. Moran. I would simply point out that your >predicate is a fantastic belief in an international Jewish conspiracy >to rule the world. I'll leave it to you to figure out why that should >be. > >John Morris >at University of Alberta Read the above article carefully. Now read the article again bearing in mind that := [According to Collins Gem Quotations, page 19 no 6] The quote by Francis Bacon (1st Baron Verulam and Viscount St Albans) 1561-1626 [from Religious Meditations, 'Of Heresies'] actually reads Nam et ipsa scientia potestas est. And translates as - Knowledge itself is power. Jeff Roberts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Let your love towards life, be love towards your highest hope: and let your highest hope be the highest idea of life. Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Sun Sep 22 23:34:00 PDT 1996 Article: 86702 of soc.culture.german Path:!!!!!imci4!!!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: soc.culture.british,soc.culture.french,,soc.culture.italian,soc.culture.europe,soc.culture.german,soc.culture.greek,soc.culture.polish,soc.culture.russian,soc.culture.ukrainian,soc.culture.yugoslavia Subject: NATION OF EUROPA - NEW WEBSITE Date: Sun, 22 Sep 1996 23:42:43 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 34 Distribution: world Message-ID: <> NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 Xref: soc.culture.british:116150 soc.culture.french:65884 soc.culture.italian:62871 soc.culture.europe:48119 soc.culture.german:86702 soc.culture.greek:51953 soc.culture.polish:32644 soc.culture.russian:20608 soc.culture.ukrainian:18291 soc.culture.yugoslavia:38505 NATION of EUROPA ---------------- Statement of Purpose. --------------------- a) To encourage those who belong to the Nation of Europa* to explore, learn of and appreciate their great cultural heritage, and the deeds and achievements of their ancestors. b) To instill into those who belong to the Nation of Europa, the strength and the knowledge to rebutt the lies, smears and defamation of detractors, a dedication to the values of freedom, peace, unity, solidarity and a common purpose, and the courage to develop and build healthy values and attitudes. c) To revitalise those who belong to the Nation of Europa, by promoting a joyful love of life, a love of wisdom and learning, and to seek new ideas for a new Ideal. [*those of European descent, worldwide] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nation of Europa The men of the present, to whom my heart once drove me, are strange to me and a mockery; and I have been driven from fatherlands and motherlands. So now I love only my childrens land, the undiscovered land in the furthest sea: I bid my sails seek it and seek it. I will make amends to my children for being the child of my fathers: and to all the future - for this present! [Page 144 Of the land of Culture, Thus spake Zarathusthra by Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Sun Sep 22 23:34:01 PDT 1996 Article: 86708 of soc.culture.german Path:!!!!!!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: soc.culture.british,soc.culture.czechoslovak,soc.culture.french,,soc.culture.italian,soc.culture.europe,soc.culture.german,soc.culture.greek,soc.culture.polish,soc.culture.russian,soc.culture.ukrainian,soc.culture.yugoslavia Subject: NATION OF EUROPA -NEW WEBSITE Date: Sun, 22 Sep 1996 23:36:52 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 13 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 Xref: soc.culture.british:116156 soc.culture.french:65886 soc.culture.italian:62872 soc.culture.europe:48125 soc.culture.german:86708 soc.culture.greek:51956 soc.culture.polish:32645 soc.culture.russian:20612 soc.culture.ukrainian:18292 soc.culture.yugoslavia:38506 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nation of Europa The men of the present, to whom my heart once drove me, are strange to me and a mockery; and I have been driven from fatherlands and motherlands. So now I love only my childrens land, the undiscovered land in the furthest sea: I bid my sails seek it and seek it. I will make amends to my children for being the child of my fathers: and to all the future - for this present! [Page 144 Of the land of Culture, Thus spake Zarathusthra by Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 - 1900] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- From Thu Sep 26 19:26:00 PDT 1996 Article: 69121 of alt.revisionism Path:!!!hookup!!!!!!demon!!jeff From: Jeffrey Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Soviets manufacture lies for Nuremburg Lynch party [1/2] Date: Thu, 26 Sep 1996 22:18:00 +0100 Organization: xxxxxxx Lines: 1495 Distribution: world Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: X-NNTP-Posting-Host: MIME-Version: 1.0 X-Newsreader: Turnpike Version 1.12 WAR CRIMES TRIALS KATYN: How the Soviets Manufactured War Crime Documents for the Nuremberg Court Translator's note: The following is a typical example of Nuremberg "evidence". The "testimony" consists of "written statements" said to have been signed by "eyewitnesses", but which are simply "quoted" in a "report" written by the Stalinists and read aloud (in excerpt form) by the Soviet prosecutor. The "statements" are not attached to the report, the "witnesses" do not appear in court, and the "original documents" are not attached. The Soviets were assigned by the Nuremberg Tribunal with the task of introducing all the evidence of German atrocities in Eastern Europe. Nearly all Nuremberg evidence is of similar quality, if not worse. The "forensic report" quoted in this "report" was the ONLY forensic report ever introduced into evidence at Nuremberg. The victims at Katyn were buried in greatcoats and boots in perfect condition. If they had been alive doing heavy road construction work for another year and a half, from April 1940 until September 1941 as claimed by the Russians, these articles would have shown severe wear. And, of course, the victims would have been sending and receiving correspondence for another year and a half. The 15,000 victims must have had hundreds of thousands of relatives, friends, and acquaintances in Poland, yet nothing was heard from them after April 1940; no letter or postcard written by any of these men after April 1940 has ever been produced. All mail sent to them after April 1940 was returned by the Russians, marked "Return to Sender Gone Away". Parts of this document have an air of very great realism, even though it is known to be false from beginning to end: the Soviets admitted their guilt for the Katyn shootings in November 1989. The report describes how perjured statements are obtained using procedures which are identical to those of the witchcraft trials of the Middle Ages. This is why civilised countries have rules against oral and written hearsay and prior consistent statements (i.e., the multiplication of "evidence" by repeating the same thing 10 times), and a requirement that cross examination be permitted in some form. Personally, I consider this document by far the most important document ever introduced into evidence at Nuremberg, and possibly in any other war crimes trial as well. Note the constant references to totally irrelevant factual material (such as the title and author of a science book possessed by one of the Russian "witnesses") just as if they were really proof of something. It reminds one of the joke: "My dog treed a 300 pound possum last week, and if you don't believe it, I'll show you the tree he treed him in." Carlos W. Porter DOCUMENT 054 USSR Report by a Special Soviet Commission, 24 January 1944, concerning the shooting of Polish officer prisoners of war in the forest of Katyn. The executions had been carried out in autumn 1941 by the German "Staff of the Construction Battalion 537". In spring 1943 the Germans, by blackmailing witnesses into giving false evidence and by other means, had tried to make it appear that the Soviet NKWD was responsible for the shooting of the 11,000 victims. Description Brochure in the Russian language from the year 1944. 56 pages in octavo format, later bound. Signature of German translation. REPORT of the Special Commission for the examination and investigation of the circumstances of the shooting of Polish prisoners of war in the Katyn forest by the German fascist invaders. The Special Commission for the examination and investigation of the circumstances of the shooting of Polish prisoners of war in the forest of Katyn (near Smolensk) by the German fascist invaders was formed by order of the Special State Commission to examine and investigate the atrocities of the fascist German invaders and their accomplices. The Commission consists of the following persons: Member of the Special State Commission, Academician N.N. BURDENKO (President of the Commission); Member of the on the Special State Commission, Academician ALEKSEJ TOLSTOI; Member of the Special State Commission, Mythropolitos NIKOLAI; President of the AllSlavic Committee, Lieutenant General GUNDOROW A.S.; President of the Executive Committee of the Association of the Red Cross and Red Half Moon, POLESNIKOW S.A.; People's Commissar for Education of the RSFSR'Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic', Academician POTEMKIN W.P.; Chief of the Forensic Head Office of the Red Army, CoronelGeneral SMIRNOW E.I.; President of the Executive Committee for the Region of Smolensk, MEINIKOW R.E.. To deal with the tasks laid before the Commission, the Commission called upon the following forensic experts: Superior Forensic Expert of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Director of the Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine PROZOROWSKI W.I.; head of the Professorship of Forensic Medicine of the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute, Doctor of Medical Sciences, SMOLJANINOW W.M.; eldest scientific expert of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, SEMENOWSKI P.S.; eldest scientific official of the State Scientific Research Institute for Forensic Medicine of the People's Commissariat for Health Matters of the USSR, Professor SCHWAIKOWA M.D.; chief pathologist of the Major Front of the Medical Service, Professor WYROPAIJEW D.N.. The extensive material laid before his associates and the forensic medical experts who arrived in the city of Smolensk on 26 September 1943, immediately after the liberation of the city, and who conducted the preliminary study and investigation of the circumstances of all atrocities committed by the Germans, was made available to the Special Commission by Member of the Special State Commission, Professor BURDENKO N.N.. The Special Commission carried out on-the-spot investigations and found that the graves of the Polish prisoners of war shot by the German occupiers are located 15 kilometres from the city of Smolensk, on the Witebsker highway, in the region of the Katyn forest known as "Kosji Gori", 200 metres southwest of the highway, in the direction of the Dnjipr river. The graves were excavated by order of the Special Commission, and in the presence of all members of the Special Commission and the forensic experts. A great number of corpses in Polish uniforms were discovered in the graves. According to the calculations of the forensic experts, the number of corpses amounts, in total, to 11,000. The forensic experts thoroughly examined the disinterred corpses and all objects and exhibits found in the graves and on the corpses. Simultaneous with the excavation of the graves and the examination of the corpses, the Special Commission carried out interrogations of the numerous witnesses and the local populace, whose testimonies precisely established the time and circumstances of the crime committed by the German occupiers. The following is clear from the testimonies of the witnesses: The Katyn Forest The Katyn forest was always a favourite holiday spot for the people of the city of Smolensk. Those who lived in the vicinity pastured their livestock in the Katyn forest and cut wood. There were no restrictions or prohibitions against entering the Katyn forest. This was the case in the Katyn forest until the outbreak of the war. The "Promstrachkasse" combat engineers camp which was only dissolved in July 1941 was still located in the forest in the summer of 1941. Following the occupation of the city of Smolensk by the German invader, quite a different system prevailed in the Katyn forest. The forest began to be guarded by reinforced patrols, and numerous warning notices appeared, stating that all persons who entered the forest without special permits would be shot. Especially strictly guarded was that part of the Katyn forest known as "Kosji Gori", as well as the region along the banks of the Dnjepr, where a summer house rest centre for the NKWD offices at Smolensk was located 700 metres from where the graves of the Polish prisoners of war were discovered. After the arrival of the Germans, a German office was created at this location, called "the Staff of the Construction Battalion 537". Polish prisoners of war in the region of Smolensk The Special Commission has established that, prior to the conquest of the city of Smolensk by the German occupiers, Polish prisoners of war, officers and enlisted men, worked on the construction and repair of the highways in the west districts of the region. The Polish prisoners of war were housed in three camps, i.e., camp no. 1ON, no. 2ON, and no. 3ON, which were located approximately 2545 kilometres west of the city of Smolensk. It has been established, based on the testimony of witnesses and documentary proof, that the above named