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ANTISEMITISM IN AUSTRALIA, NOVEMBER 1, 1993 - OCTOBER 31, 1994,  by JEREMY
JONES

ANTI-SEMITISM IN AUSTRALIA
 
(REPORT TO 1994 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIAN
JEWRY)

CONTENTS

1.	OVERVIEW

2.	ANTI-JEWISH VILIFICATION IN AUSTRALIA  IN 1994
2.1	Introduction
2.2	The Mystical Power of Jews
2.3	International "Jewish Conspiracy"
2.4	"The Myth of Nazi Genocide"
2.5	Judaism as anti-Christian and involved in evil rituals
2.6	Stereotyping
2.7	"Anti-Jewism"
2.8	The effects of vilification

3.	ANTISEMITIC ORGANISATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS
3.1	Introduction
3.2	The Australian League of Rights
3.3	The LaRouche Organisation and "The Strategy"
3.4	The Australian Civil Liberties Union and the Adelaide Institute
3.5	Australian Freedom Foundation and Australians for Free Speech
3.6	Publicly Available Publications
3.7	"Identity" Churches
3.8	Neo-Nazi Groups
3.9   "Anti-immigration" groups
3.10 The CDL Report and other imported extremist material

4.	INCIDENTS OF VIOLENCE, VANDALISM AND INTIMIDATION
4.1 	Introduction
4.2	Serious/Violent Incidents
4.3	Telephone Intimidation and Hate Mail
4.4	Graffiti, Posters and other Vandalism
4.5	Other Incidents of Harassment

5.     THE MEDIA
5.1   Introduction
5.2	Mainstream
5.3	Ethnic Media

6.	ASSESSMENT
6.1	General Situation	
6.2	Antisemitic Groups and Individuals
6.3	"Sophisticated" Antisemitism
6.4	Antisemitic Violence


1.	OVERVIEW

It is important to state at the outset that Australia is one of the most
successful multicultural societies in existence.  There is basically no
overt racism emanating from mainstream sources and even far right-wing
quasi-political movements generally couch public pronouncements in a way
which disguises racist messages. As a "new world" society in which Jews
have enjoyed historical legitimacy stretching back to the first day of
European colonisation, Australia remains comparatively free of the scourge
of antisemitism.

This is not to say that there are not racists present in our society, nor
that antisemites are consistently placed beyond the pale of mainstream
participation. In the past year evidence of the handiwork of antisemites
has been found in the vandalism of Jewish institutions, hate mail and
threatening telephone calls, anti-Jewish graffiti and incidents of assault
and harassment . Racist and neo-Nazi organisations continued to publish
material which vilified Jews and Judaism, supplemented in their activities
by individuals who invoked and invented antisemitic caricatures and slurs.

Additionally,  a number of serious public debates relating to appropriate
responses to racist activity  took place during the past year, exposing
during their courses a disturbing willingness to tolerate public
expressions of hatred.

When Schindler's List opened in Australia, Holocaust deniers perceived it
to be an opportunity to promote their odious antisemitism.  Leaflets at
film screenings, letters to newspapers and the publications of extremist
groups attacked the author of the work on which the film was based, its
producer, Jews and all public figures who applauded the film.

After the massacre by insane murderer Baruch Goldstein at the Tomb of the
Patriarchs in Hebron, a number of threatening anti-Jewish calls were made
to Jewish institutions. It is not known how many of these were inspired by
commentators in fringe publications portrayed the murders as a logical
consequence of Jewish practise.

The debate over the merits of legislation as a tool to combat racism
included extreme anti-Jewish commentary from some critics of the proposal,
especially those most closely aligned with organised far-right groupings.

Even a public discussion of the best approach to ending the practices of
genital mutilation of women who had come to Australia from societies in
which this is a current cultural practice produced a claim, carried in two
major Australian newspapers, that this is a Jewish practice.

This paper  contains a summary of antisemitic incidents reported to the
Executive Council of Australian Jewry during the year in review, a survey
of current themes in antisemitic discourse and a consideration of the
changes in the situation over past years. 


2.	ANTI-JEWISH VILIFICATION IN AUSTRALIA  IN 1994

2.1	Introduction	

The two target groups of anti-Jewish rhetoric and mythologising in this
section were firstly non-Jews who racists and antisemites sought to
convince to oppose the perceived activities of Jewish Australians, and also
Jews, who were subjected to these psychological attacks and harassment. In
the case of the non-Jewish audience, racists sought acceptance for 
arguments for the delegitimisation of Jews as full and equal members of
Australian society. To do this, organisations and individuals involved in
public anti-Jewish activity continued to employ a number of themes to
vilify Australian Jews.    

In broad terms, the antisemitic activists in Australia argued one or more
of the following:
	
*  Jews exercise disproportionate power in Australian public life which
   they use to the detriment of non-Jews
*  Jews are responsible for, and part of, a world conspiracy
*  Jews invented the "myth" of Nazi genocide as a means to extort guilt,
   money and sympathy from Christians
*  Judaism has  a hostile attitude to Christians and Jews indulge in evil
   practices
	
Some of these ideologies are more subtle and sophisticated than others, and
within each stratum are many sub-stratum, in levels of stridency and
degree. Individually and together, they constitute a considerable resource
of mythology for those who see personal benefit in harming Jewish
Australians and perceived Jewish interests.

In addition, stereotypes which could reinforce prejudices and further
justify anti-Jewish hostility  occasionally were invoked by individuals who
could not reasonably be labelled as malicious but nevertheless could have
encouraged malice.



2.2	The Mystical Power of Jews

A belief in the ability of Jews to dictate public policy, influence the
political process and distort the workings of society in the interests of
the Jewish community is a common theme across all Australian antisemitic
organisations. A conviction that their enemies wield mystical power
sustained the loyal followers of various racist creeds in the view that in
a "fair" debate their views would prove persuasive. In its crudest form,
this myth allows easy scape-goating of Jews for all ills befalling
individuals who feel themselves to be at a disadvantage due to economic,
political or social conditions. 

In 1994, Jewish "power" was identified by the malicious, biased and
intellectually lazy to be at the root of any government policy decisions
with which the particular commentator disagreed. One of the most common of
these decisions was the decision by the Australian government to deny a
visa to David Irving, a British subject who had been deported from Canada
and convicted of a criminal offence in Germany and so requiring special
consideration if he was to receive a visa. Another decision sourced to
Jewish "power" was the government's introduction of anti-racist
legislation. For this myth to have credibility, it was necessary for its
disseminators to exclude any record of how the Jewish community, and for
that matter any interest groups, can legitimately advocate policy
positions. Although there was vocal and public support by Jewish
Australians for both the decisions referred to above, arguments advanced
for their adoption, which may have been persuasive, were ignored by those
who sought retreat in bigotry over analysis. This "power" was sometimes
sourced to financial clout, but was often attributed to either vague or
mystical roots.  

The presentation of Jews as holders of mystical power has the potential to
propagate the image of Jews, all Jews, as part of an elite, implicitly
conspiratorial, who can not be treated as simply another group of
Australians involved in public policy debates. Further, it lays the ground
for acceptance of some of the other myths this report covers.

2.3	International "Jewish Conspiracy"

The theme of "Jewish conspiracy" is central to the world view of overtly
antisemitic groups such as the Australian League of Rights and the
Australian National Socialist Movement, dominates the bizarre publications
of Australian followers of the Lyndon LaRouche cult and has residual
currency in some migrant communities. Publications such as The New Citizen,
Lock, Stock and Barrel, The Strategy and Nexus intimate that such a
conspiracy exists and is responsible for any government restrictions on
activities their diverse authors support.  Those who believe in this myth
can justify the view that Jewish Australians, regardless of their personal
actions, have a "racial" loyalty which brings them into conflict with the
aim of the furtherance of Australian national interests.

One of the sources antisemitic organisations use to support this myth is
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, which incredibly is taken
seriously by most extremist groups and advertised in many antisemitic and
extreme right-wing publications. Even in a debate over legislation in
Tasmania concerning the right of a State government to impose sanctions
against private sexual behaviour, the Protocols was presented at a public
meeting as evidence of a plot to destroy Australian sovereignty.
	
The importance of the "Jewish conspiracy" allegation is that it becomes
the rationalisation for taking extreme, violent action, allegedly in
"self-defence" against the conspirators.  By their very nature, conspiracy
theories dehumanise the conspirators, who are indelibly marked as targets
for "revenge".  In relatively stable political and economic circumstances,
the conspiracy theories are less important than at a time when individuals
are looking for scapegoats, but the presence in Australia of a base group
who believe and promote this strand of antisemitism is a matter for
concern.

2.4	"The Myth of Nazi Genocide"

"Holocaust Denial" has further cemented its central place in antisemitism
in Australia during the past year. Computer technology has equipped
Australian antisemites with the ability to access and reproduce the farrago
of Nazi apologia available via computer databases, videos produced by UK
and US deniers have been circulated in Australia and small "letterhead"
organisations claiming to be in favour of "free speech"  regularly appear,
disappear and re-emerge with a new title and more finely honed
argumentation. In 1993, some teachers of the history of the Nazi genocide
and related subjects reported questioning by students as to the actual
occurrence of a Nazi Holocaust and comments intimating a belief that
Holocaust deniers had elements of validity.  Given the enormous efforts by
Holocaust deniers during the year in review, aimed in the short-term at
having questions raised by members of the younger generations, this is
perhaps unsurprising and a cause for very serious concern.  The Holocaust
deniers have sought to promote themselves as one side of a debate on a
matter of alleged historic dispute, appealing to a sentiment opposing
"politically correct" ideas and also appealing to small "l" liberals who
often seem willing to justify a platform for what is presented as merely an
alternative viewpoint.

A key Australian source of Holocaust denial material continued to be John
Bennett, leader of the numerically insignificant Australian Civil
Liberties' Union, who published the 21st annual edition of a handbook, Your
Rights, which again promoted antisemitism towards a number of minority
groups and publicised a range of Holocaust denial literature.   The
Australian League of Rights, the British-Israel World Federation, the
Immigration Control Association (Queensland) and previously unknown
"revisionist" organisations were also active in promoting and distributing
Holocaust denial.  

The political agenda of Holocaust deniers was unambiguous in the actions
of the deniers.  Letters published in various newspapers which were
unambiguously antisemitic often included Holocaust denials and regularly
extended the denial to include the rationalisation that the Holocaust as
currently understood is a myth with the sole purpose of the political and
financial bolstering of Israel. David Irving also made clear that he
believes his campaign will damage the standing of Jews and legitimacy of
Israel.

2.5	Judaism as anti-Christian and involved in evil rituals

The theme of "Judaism as anti-Christian" is inextricably linked to the
more general conspiracy theories.  The Australian League of Rights, the
British-Israel World Federation, Christian "Identity" churches and some
self-styled "Biblical Fundamentalists" portray Jews as religious, racial or
political opponents of Christianity.  The Talmud is also a subject for
distortion and misrepresentation by these groups and others aiming to
vilify Jews, and in the rhetoric of the far right symbolises a code of
living implacably opposed to "Christian justice".

Reports from university campuses have indicated a growth in volume, if not
influence, of Christian groups who have opposition to Judaism as part of
their agenda, parallel to the growth in Christian groups who are
re-evaluating Christianity based on a better understanding of Judaism.
 
While Australian Christianity is not, by and large, susceptible to the
promotion or endorsement of these mythologies, it is disturbing that men
and women educated in Christian traditions are addressed by vilifiers of
Judaism in terms tailored to their perceived understanding of Jews and
Judaism. It is also disturbing that debate still rages in  a number of
mainstream churches as to the legitimacy of Judaism in the Christian era.
	
An ancient and particularly malicious "Christian" anti-Jewish myth, that
Jews use the blood of murdered non-Jews for ritual purposes, was revived in
Australia in 1994 in a newspaper published by a Christian Arabic-speaker,
but it is to be hoped this was an aberration and not an indication of the
depths to which public debate has sunk.

Judaism was also the subject of an extraordinary claim that its followers
practise the heinous practice of female genital mutilation, a claim carried
in two major metropolitan newspapers and never publicly retracted by the
Moslem community spokesperson reported to have made this claim. 

2.6	Stereotyping

Jews as "unethical", crude and out-dated as this stereotype may appear,
had some currency in Australia in the period in review.  Related to the
theme of unethical behaviour by Jewish individuals and the community is the
claim that Jews are involved in "black propaganda". LaRouche supporters,
for example, claim Jews attack Jewish property to gain personal or communal
advantages. Invocations of Jews as miserly and the directly opposite
stereotype of Jews being ostentatious when it comes to wealth, both had
some public currency, as did the stereotype of Jews being suspect when it
comes to loyalty to their country of citizenship. Most often stereotypes
were invoked in attempts at humour but, given the context of an existing
racist sub-culture, their objectionable nature was generally drawn to the
attention of responsible and responsive individuals.

2.7	"Anti-Jewism"

Relativisation of the Holocaust, to use past Jewish suffering as a means
to chastise contemporary Jews, included the gruesome distortion that "Jews
behave like Nazis" in many of its Australian manifestations.  This claim,
not only factually ludicrous but gratuitously offensive, is employed by
overt antisemites of the extreme right and also by those individuals and
groups who believe  any means of furthering the end of support for the
destruction of Israel is legitimate.

Although this argumentation effectively belittles the Nazis' crimes and
gives succour to unrepentant Hitlerites, the fact that it is often couched
to appear supportive of the rights of people perceived by many to be
"persecuted", the Palestinian Arabs, gives it a de facto protection from
the censure generally accorded to white-washers of Nazism or of those
involved in offensive behaviour generally. 

2.8	The effects of vilification

Vilification has the immediate effect of intimidating those who are
vilified and the cumulative effect of providing both inspiration and a
rationale for physical attacks on the members of groups depicted as
existentially opposed to the interests of the majority. In Australia,
vilification of Jews is present in the context of hundreds of incidents
each year of anti-Jewish harassment, intimidation, violence and vandalism.
Particularly in the event of widespread social dislocation and alienation,
vilification of minorities encourages those who would try to "rescue" their
culture and society to take action to harm their identified enemies.

3.	ANTISEMITIC ORGANISATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS

3.1	Introduction

The year in review saw a continued growth in the public profile and
activities of a number of anti-Jewish organisations.  Sections of the media
and some opinion leaders showed remarkable irresponsibility in allowing
some of these groups to misrepresent their agendas to the community,
although the majority of politicians and journalists made clear their
repugnance of the dwellers in the political undergrowth.

Quite properly, a number of overviews of extremist activity in Australia
in 1994 focused on the development in rural Australia of groups advocating
armed resistance to government policies depicted as threatening the fabric
of life in the bush. While the better known of these rural-based extremist
groups do not necessarily openly articulate anti-antisemitism, the links
between the Lyndon LaRouche groups and the Rural Action Movement, the AUSI
Freedom Scouts and a variety of conspiracy theorist groups and the
activities of Jeremy Lee, the League of Rights and others who promote
anti-Jewish myths are indications that the mind-sets of these groups
include an openness to crude anti-semitism. For example, the Confederate
Action Party, based in Queensland, attracts individuals linked to
anti-Jewish ideologies and promoted an agenda not dissimilar to that of the
Australian League of Rights. Further, the CAP's newspaper, Fight, promoted
Christian identity and other anti-Jewish material via the "Freedom
Students" group. 

The Australian League of Rights received publicity which, while not as
extensive as in the previous twelve months, was widespread.  The Australian
Civil Liberties' Union was similarly treated kindly when its views were
given or sought.  The Citizens' Electoral Councils, promoting the views of
US cult-leader, the jailbird Lyndon LaRouche, have been extraordinarily
active in distributing propaganda.  The Australian National Socialist
Movement have been gaining antisemitic "credits" for vandalism and the
major violent antisemitic groups of the 1980s, National Action and the
Australian Nationalist Movement, have both reportedly embarked on efforts
at re-establishment.  

3.2	The Australian League of Rights

The Australian League of Rights, described by the Federal Government's
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity as "undoubtedly the most influential and
effective, as well as the best organised and most substantially financed,
racist organisation in Australia", received a great deal of publicity
following the revelation in federal parliament that Alexander Downer, now
leader of the Opposition, had addressed a League seminar in 1987. 
Alexander Downer protested that his speech was in no way antisemitic or
extreme, he had been misled as to the nature of the seminar he was
addressing (on the subject of the Australian Constitution) and that his
actions since 1987 were clear evidence of his opposition to the League of
Rights.  The matter was taken up in an intensive debate in parliament, with
issues canvassed including the attempts of the League to influence public
debate, the activities of racist groups in Australia and the questionable
judgement of public figures who had participated in activities organised by
and for extremist groups.  The Opposition noted that a current ALP
back-bencher, Graeme Campbell, not only had spoken at the 1993 League of
Rights' annual seminar but defended the League and some of its policies. 
Although differing views as to the rights and wrongs of having contact with
the League of Rights were heard from within a variety of political
groupings, there was unanimity in condemnations of the League's
antisemitism.

The world view of the League of Rights was made clear in its publications,
which in the year in review accused Jewish activists of responsibility for
"obscene and anti-Christian" legislation, promoted Holocaust denial, and
claims of a Jewish "international conspiracy", claimed "Judas vengeance
rejects Christian charity and compassion", told readers "aggressive Zionist
Jewish leaders" seek to outlaw Christian holy days and replace Christianity
with the religion of belief in the "Jewish Holocaust", argued that racism
is "natural" and that Jews oppose "the Christian-based Common Law system",
claimed that the fall of apartheid was part of a Zionist plan for world
domination, alleged the LaRouche organisation fitted the pattern of
"Zionist strategy" to promote antisemitism and reported that "Jewish
pressure" determines political appointments and decisions in a number of
countries.

The League's founder, Eric Butler, used media opportunities resulting from
the controversy involving Alexander Downer to portray his organisation as
one of "decent" Australians who have a "right" to ask questions about
controversial matters, such as the "myth" that the Nazis were responsible
for the deaths of six million Jews.

The League continues to stage an extensive programme of lectures and
seminars which aim to equip "actionists" around Australia with information
to combat their Zionist, Fabian and humanist enemies.

3.3	The LaRouche Organisation and "The Strategy"

The Citizens' Electoral Councils, now based in a well-staffed office in
suburban Melbourne, were notable for their mass mailings of literature
reflecting the views of their guru, Lyndon LaRouche, containing some of the
most bizarre and offensive antisemitic conspiracy theories.  The President
of the Executive Council of Australian Jewry was amongst Jewish community
leaders slandered in this group's propaganda.  The Anti-Defamation League
of the B'nai B'rith, an international target of LaRouchites, was also a
target in their Australian propaganda, together with the Anti-Defamation
Commission of B'nai B'rith Australia, Australia/Israel Publications and
anti-racist groups in general.  

Amongst the claims made in the LaRouche newspaper The Citizen and in media
releases were that the Hebron massacre was a plot by British Intelligence,
working with the Israeli mafia, the Soviets, B'nai Brith and Biblical
Archaeology Review and that the World Jewish Congress conspires with
Trotskyists to destroy the Israeli-PLO peace accords.  The newspaper The
Strategy, published in Victoria, mixed LaRouche material with anti-Jewish
literature drawn from a variety of sources to produce the most overtly
antisemitic publication in Australia.  Issues in the year in review quoted
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion as if that forgery is a work of
non-fiction, carried promotions for Holocaust denials and Identity
Churches, reprinted material referring to Jewish "conspirators" who bear
responsibility for turmoil and revolution and who destroyed "the Christian
character" of legislatures, argued that Australian Jews are "a minority
power group manipulating the politicians and thus ruling the country" and
published a letter claiming the United Nations has "as its basis the
Talmud, after the traditions of the Elders [of Zion]". A contributor to The
Strategy, Northern Territory Legislative Assembly member Denis Collins, was
defeated in his bid for re-election in the 1994 Northern territory
election. Despite the loss of their most senior public supporter, the money
expended by LaRouchites and their passionate, cultish energy give them a
significance their bizarre theories would not otherwise warrant. 
	
3.4	The Australian Civil Liberties Union and the Adelaide Institute

The Australian Civil Liberties' Union (ACLU), which undoubtedly benefits
from having a name which would sit comfortably on a respectable "free
speech" group such as the mainstream Australian Council for Civil
Liberties, continued to advocate Holocaust denial.  Virtually every public
announcement from this "letterhead" organisation was directed at protecting
the "rights" of Holocaust deniers or other racists.  The international
links of the Council's motivating force, John Bennett, with the US-based
Institute for Historical Review keep the ACLU in a "state-of-the-art"
situation for promoting Holocaust denial slanders.  Geoff Muirden, the
ACLU's secretary, gained media attention for his overt Holocaust denials
and his vigorous opposition to any anti-racist legislation.

A newer Holocaust denial organisation, which changed its name from Truth
Missions to The Adelaide Institute,  regularly published a newsletter with
which it tried to influence media opinion while grossly offending Jewish
recipients who were mailed unsolicited copies.  The leader of this group,
Frederick Toben, made an unsuccessful attempt to place a video of Holocaust
denial on Adelaide community television.
	
3.5	Australian Freedom Foundation and Australians for Free Speech

These two Adelaide-based organisations gained some publicity due to
antisemitic links and agendas.  The Australian Freedom Foundation, which
claimed to be purely a conservative Christian group, scored a minor coup in
arranging for Liberal Senator Nick Minchin to speak at a freedom seminar,
before being exposed for its links to the US John Birch Society. 
Australians for Free Speech, which had not before come to notice, staged a
rally in support of David Irving, attacking the Jewish community and
opposing anti-racist laws.  Publicity for the rally was sent to Jewish
recipients, who noted its thinly-disguised antisemitic agenda.

3.6	Publicly Available Publications
3.6.1	Nexus

Nexus magazine, published in Queensland, targets followers of the New Age
movement with a collection of articles on alternative health and
"suppressed information" (on subjects such as UFOs).  Although there were
less causes for Jewish community concern during the year in review, the
publicly sold magazine serialised extracts from the virulently antisemitic
book War Cycles - Peace Cycles, written by US-based Richard Kelly Hoskins,
and promoted an array of other conspiracy theories.

3.6.1	Lock, Stock & Barrel

A magazine which serves shooters and the militarist sub-culture, Lock,
Stock & Barrel increasingly included antisemitic contributions,
particularly under the guise of positive book reviews of anti-Jewish tests
published overseas, such as Jack Mohr's The Hidden Power of Freemasonry
(which includes references to Jewish "control of the media", the "talmudic
and masonic zoo"),  The Jewish Religion: It's Influence Today by Elizabeth
Dilling, which has the purpose "to expose the fundamental beliefs and
writings of modern Judaism" and to tell readers "a one race or one world
religious government is its aim" and The Longest Hatred, for which author
Jane Birdwood was prosecuted in the UK.  The magazine, available on
newsstands around Australia, published advertisements for works such as The
Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion and pieces written from an extreme
right-wing perspective on a variety of subjects.

3.6.3	New Dawn

This magazine, available through "New Age" outlets, prints conspiracy
theories and LaRouchite, Nation of Islam and Libyan propaganda.  "World
Zionism" and "militant Zionists" were blamed for a variety of ills and
"Judeo-Christianity" was described as "another secular twentieth century
fraud".

3.7	"Identity" Churches

Small organisations which define their Christianity through antisemitism,
imitating or representing US Identity churches and British-based
antisemites, have a small but visible presence on the extreme right-wing of
Australian politics.  In the year in review, the Christian Identity
Ministries, British Israel World Federation, Covenant Vision Ministries and
Church of the Creator all promoted antisemitic ideologies and were sources
of antisemitic material.  The Christian Identity Ministries, of far north
Queensland promoted a particularly nasty and extensive catalogue of
literature for sale by mail order.

3.8	Neo-Nazi Groups

In most cities, small groups of neo-Nazis, sometimes including violent
skinheads, have come to attention during the past year.  

Australian National Action have engaged in a number of public activities,
including staging rallies in Melbourne and Adelaide, and once again publish
a newsletter.  Their activities have included antisemitic, anti-immigration
and other extreme right-wing themes such as launching a "White
Australia-South Africa" solidarity campaign, and harassment of political
opponents. 

The Southern Cross Hammer Skinheads advertised their presence through
stickers and calling cards.  This affiliate of a loose international
collection of Nazi skinheads has reportedly tapped into a relatively
sophisticated network of hate material.  Skinheads, whose affiliations are
unknown, allegedly have been involved in racist violence against Asian
students and harassment of individuals associated with screenings of
Schindler's List, in Melbourne and rampaged through Adelaide, in both
occasions resulting in police action. A study of skinheads conducted by a
Melbourne academic included interviews with Melbourne skinheads who
repeated the pro-Nazi indoctrination they claimed was accepted by their
group, which included glorification of Hitler and Holocaust denial.

White Aryan Resistance, who through a newsletter The Ram spread
antisemitism and racism, targeting high school students as potential
recruits.  Their campaigns included opposition to circumcision and advocacy
of Holocaust denial. The Australian National Socialist Party distributed
written pro-Nazi material in Melbourne, the so-called National Security for
Defence of Australian People (NSDAP) held small rallies in Sydney, the
National Republican Movement distributed anti-multicultural material and
Nazi stickers were sighted throughout the year on a number of locations.
The Australian Nationalist Movement, based in Perth, also is reported to be
re-establishing itself as leaders jailed during the past few years complete
their sentences and regain freedom.

3.9   "Anti-immigration" groups

The Jewish community had a range of concerns regarding some groups which
portray themselves as primarily concerned with Australia's immigration
policies. The political party Australians Against Further Immigration
capitalised on anti-Asian and other prejudices to achieve noteworthy vote
tallies in a number of by-election contests, prior its links with extremist
groups receiving public exposure. In addition to the links with other
extremist groups, a number of reports were received that spokespersons for
AAFI had made antisemitic remarks before a variety of audiences. One of the
extremist links of AAFI is with the vile racist National Reporter, which
indulges in crude antisemitism and attacks on a range of minority groups.
The National Reporter has been widely distributed on a number of occasions
in different Sydney suburban locations.  Dr John Dique, who has contributed
to The National Reporter, also maintains his "letterhead" organisation, the
Immigration Control Association of Queensland.

3.10 The CDL Report and other imported extremist material

The obscenely anti-Jewish CDL Report, published in Louisiana, has an
Australian readership following the decision of the Australian anti-Jewish
quarterly News Digest International to cease publication and for that
paper's editor, John Kedys, to join the CDL staff. The blatant anti-Jewish
nature of the newspaper led one Australian correspondent, "G. M. of
Melbourne", to write warning the publication that it could be a victim of
anti-racist legislation once the Australian government enacted laws.
Occasional publications of the racist Nation of Islam have also been
circulated in Australia, as have stickers, posters and leaflets of a
plethora of "white supremacist" organisations.


4.	INCIDENTS OF VIOLENCE, VANDALISM AND INTIMIDATION

4.1 	Introduction

Between November 1, 1993 and October 31, 1994, the Jewish community's
central database received reports of 219 incidents of violence, vandalism
and intimidation from its constituents around Australia. This represented a
7% increase over the corresponding period in 1993, and was  29%   higher
than the average for the period in the four years commencing November 1989
(a time-frame including the Gulf War).  

Few of the incidents of violence or vandalism caused significant property
damage, but the known psychological impact of persecution, harassment and
intimidation should not be minimised.

It is difficult to give a comprehensive analysis of the reasons for the
particular incidents covered in this section, mainly due to the fact that
most are carried out anonymously or with  the use of fake names. While
events with which the Australian Jewish community is in some way identified
(eg the mass murder of Moslem worshippers in Hebron, the release of the
film Schindler's List) appear as rationalisations for some of the attacks
on Jews and Jewish organisations, the number of actual incidents so linked
is statistically insignificant. 

4.2	Serious/Violent Incidents

In the twelve month period in review, the most serious incident of
vandalism was the deliberate setting of a fire at the Newtown synagogue in
Sydney's inner western suburbs, on the 55th anniversary of Krystallnacht,
the night of destruction of German and Austrian synagogues by Nazis in
1938.  Those responsible for the extensive damage of that synagogue have
not, at the time of writing, been apprehended.

Other serious and violent incidents included rocks or other objects thrown
through windows of Kosher food outlets in Sydney in November 1993 and
September 1994, a synagogue's public Menorah extensively damaged by vandals
during Chanukah (December 1994), Jewish tombstones kicked over in a
Queensland cemetery (June 1994), a plaque on the outer wall of a Melbourne
synagogue smashed (August 1994) and a swastika carved into  a Sydney Jewish
family's front lawn (September 1994).

Amongst reported incidents of assault and harassment,  an Adelaide man who
had been subjected to intimidation by unknown antisemites was attacked in
November in his home by two assailants who damaged his belongings while
chanting "Jews out!",  a Rabbi in Perth was abused and threatened on
private property in February, Jewish men in Sydney were assaulted in Sydney
on three separate occasions in different locations  in May, a Jewish school
student in Melbourne was attacked and assaulted by a number of assailants
who wrote "Jew" on his face and clothing (July 1994), and in Melbourne and
Sydney there were incidents of abuse and assault of congregants on their
way to synagogue services (September 1994).

Although there were also a number of other reports of personal harassment,
abuse and lower level vandalism throughout the year, the total number of
incidents in this broad category dramatically declined in the year in
review by 36% over the twelve month period and was 18% lower than the
average over the past five years.  

4.3	Telephone Intimidation and Hate Mail

After assault and vandalism, the most aggressive forms of intimidation and
harassment are personalised telephone calls or letters which carry
threatening overtones or even carry overt warnings of impending attacks on
individuals or institutions.

Antisemitic telephone calls, which often included obscenities, were
reportedly received at two Sydney communal organisations in November, a
Melbourne synagogue in January, a Sydney communal organisation, private
homes in Sydney, the work and home number of the same person in Adelaide,
in March, an Adelaide synagogue in April, the home of a Jewish person in
Brisbane in May, at a private number in Adelaide in May, to two Jewish
institutions in Sydney and a private Jewish home in Adelaide in June, on
three occasions to Adelaide synagogues in July, an Adelaide synagogue in
September, in Perth, and twice in Adelaide, in October.

Bomb threats were reported in February at three synagogues in Melbourne, a
Melbourne meeting hall, a Sydney communal organisation and the home of a
Melbourne Jewish community leader, in March at two Queensland synagogues, a
Melbourne Jewish school and the home of a prominent community member, in
June by a Melbourne Jewish school and in Melbourne in September.

Hate mail was reported by recipients in private homes in Sydney on three
occasions in November, three other occasions in Sydney in December, once in
January to a private home in Sydney,  six times in Sydney, twice in
Melbourne and once in Adelaide in February, once in Sydney and twice in
Melbourne in March, in Adelaide and Sydney in May, in Sydney on seven
occasions and Melbourne once in June, in Sydney on four occasions in July,
in Sydney on seven occasions and in Melbourne three times in August, Perth
in September, six times in Sydney, once in Adelaide and once in Melbourne
in October.

Antisemitic letters were reportedly received at Jewish communal
organisations in Melbourne three times in January, at another in Melbourne
in February, at two in Sydney and one in Melbourne in March, in Melbourne
and three times in Sydney in April, in Adelaide in May, in Melbourne in
June, in Perth and Sydney in August, in Melbourne in September and in
Sydney and Melbourne in October.

Non-Jewish institutions and individuals reported receiving hate mail
attacking Jews in Adelaide and Melbourne in February, in Perth in March, in
Sydney and Melbourne in April, in Sydney in July, in Adelaide on two
occasions in August, in Brisbane in September and in Melbourne in October.

There was an increase of 15% in reports of these types of incidents in the
year in review, which constituted a figure 59% higher than the annual
average.

In a new development, individuals connected to electronic mail reported
antisemitic messages sent to them from overseas and an antisemitic bulletin
board was operated by a "non-denominational Christian minister" in Sydney.

4.4	Graffiti, Posters and other Vandalism

Jewish institutions reported a number of incidents of vandalism, generally
in the form of Nazi graffiti or the daubing of antisemitic slogans. 
Neo-Nazi graffiti was painted on the wall of a Melbourne synagogue, 
slogans "Jews are scum" and "six million Jews was not enough" were painted
in two sites in Melbourne, the slogan "Kill Jews - 6 million more" daubed
in Sydney, (November 1993), the claim the Holocaust is a "Holohoax" was
painted in public view in Sydney (December 1993), "Gas-Jews" and similar
daubings were reported in two sites in Sydney, four sites in Melbourne, in
the Gold Coast and in Brisbane (January), a claim that Jews are motivated
by greed daubed in Melbourne, and Nazi symbols daubed in Brisbane and
Melbourne, (February), the Canberra Synagogue and sites in Sydney and
Melbourne (March), graffiti "swine get out" was written on the gate of a
synagogue in Queensland, a swastika was spray-painted on a bus shelter in a
Melbourne suburb with a substantial Jewish population (April), graffiti
"kill the Jews" painted in a Melbourne site in June, a Sydney synagogue,
two Sydney sites, two Melbourne suburbs (July), two Sydney suburbs were the
scenes of swastika daubings (August), a swastika and slogan "Jews go home"
were painted on a Jewish school in Perth and Nazi graffiti was reported in
two suburbs in Sydney, one in Queensland and one in Melbourne (September),
and graffiti "Jews go home" and "Hitler rules" were painted in a Sydney
suburb with a substantial Jewish population (October).

Anti-Jewish and Nazi leaflets, posters and audio cassettes were reported
in Melbourne in November,  Launceston in January, Melbourne in February, in
Melbourne in March, in Sydney, Melbourne and Launceston in April, on two
occasions in Sydney, in Brisbane and Melbourne in May, in Melbourne in
June, in Sydney in July and a Melbourne synagogue in October.

The total number of reports of incidents of these types was up 32% on the
previous reporting period, and 7% above the average since comprehensive
reporting began.

4.5	Other Incidents of Harassment

Amongst the other incidents reported to constituent bodies of the ECAJ
were a number which are not easily categorised.  In November, Holocaust
denial literature was sold openly at a Tasmanian street market, Nazi flags
were flown in public view in Sydney and Brisbane in January, small groups
of men in Nazi regalia conducted anti-Jewish rallies in Sydney in February
and August, pigs feet were dumped at the home of a Jewish family in
Melbourne and anti-Jewish material was left on the steps of the Canberra
Synagogue in March, a Jewish patient attending a consultation with a doctor
in Sydney was given a lecture claiming there was no Holocaust, a bottle was
thrown at a Melbourne synagogue during Sabbath, in May, antisemitic
literature was distributed at a demonstration in Sydney against NSW
anti-racist laws, in June, spokesmen for Australians Against Further
Immigration made antisemitic comments on two occasions in July and a rally
marked by antisemitism was held by "Australians For Free Speech" in
Adelaide in August.


5.     THE MEDIA

5.1   Introduction

There are no mainstream Australian publications which could be described
as antisemitic or sympathetic to antisemitism. The responsibility to not
serve as a vehicle for the dissemination for offensive stereotypes or for
the vilification of minorities was taken seriously by the vast majority of
editors, publishers and producers. Nevertheless, there were a number of
examples in the past year of questionable editorial decisions, particularly
in what was allowed to be broadcast on live-to-air radio and published in
newspapers' letters pages. Further, inaccurate comments concerning
Australian Jews, which could have reinforced negative stereotypes,
sometimes crept into otherwise authoritative commentary.

Reports are received on a regular basis of comments in media serving
specific linguistic and ethnic communities which reflected hostility
towards, or contempt for, Jews. A sample is included below.

5.2	Mainstream

"The Jewish lobby" (sometimes defined as "the Zionist lobby") was
identified as a force which could and did dictate government policy in a
number of newspaper articles and commentary on electronic media. For
example,  an article in a mainstream metropolitan daily on changes within
the Commonwealth public service accused "the Zionist lobby" of forcing two
senior officials from their jobs (even though the individuals in question
were regarded as friendly by this same 'lobby') and  a Sydney radio
commentator claimed the Australian government "genuflected to the Jewish
cause" in explaining why it adopted a policy with which the commentator
disagreed. In a discussion of  Schindler's List in a city's monopoly daily,
one interviewee attacked the Jewish community for advocating Holocaust
education as  there had been "a lot of butchering by Jews in Stalin's
jack-boots" . A regional newspaper editorial attacked  "the famous and
powerful Australian Jewish lobby" for being "arrogant", "aggressive" and
showing signs of "insecurity".

In an attempt at humour,  a Rugby League commentator on national
television described a player as "tough as a Jewish landlord".  At the end
of the broadcast, the commentator made an unequivocal apology. In a much
nastier tone, a columnist in a metropolitan newspaper wrote  "all I ever
really  known [sic] about the Jews is that they circumcise their children
(boys, that is), took a few casualties in World War II, have been taking it
out on the Palestinians ever since, and don't like spending money".

Letters from readers published in metropolitan newspapers sometimes
contained thinly disguised or convoluted antisemitic commentary. Letters
was published in one major daily which claimed that Jews "did not suffer"
in the Holocaust, and in another that there were no gas chambers at
Auschwitz,  and that  Schindler's List as a film perpetuating hatred
against Germans.  

Samples of other letters published in mainstream publications  accused
"the Jewish community in Australia" of improper influence and a columnist 
of being a "closet", probably "paid", "pro-Zionist media collaborator",
defended "Nazi commandant Goeth" in Schindler's List as allegations against
him "have never been tested" (in the course of advocating Holocaust denial)
and claimed there is a conspiracy by "Historians, the media and writers like
Thomas Kenneally" to "create the illusion that Jews were the only Holocaust
victims" as part  of an effort "to placate the Jews". Listeners to radio
interviews and talk-back programs also were exposed to Holocaust denial and
negative stereotyping of Jews on a number of occasions.

In the form of advertisements, one regional paper published a notice
"Hitler, Adolf - 30.4.1945.  In remembrance of a great man gone but not
forgotten.  R. I. P. or P. C. B.", while a major "quality" daily carried an
advertisement for a "book soon to be published" on "the Jewish conspiracy
against all the people of all the races of the people of the whole
countries of the earth ...". 

Readers of  regional newspapers were exposed to letters containing
Holocaust Denial, were told  "Australians could be excused from thinking
that Canberra's politicians are either under the influence of or enthralled
by Zionist messianic visionaries" as Australian Jews have "kept World War
II alive for 50 years through war crime trials that have caused untold
heartache ..." and had the antisemitic book by Louis Marschalko, The World
Conquerors, recommended as a key to understanding the contemporary world.

Other matters of concern included reporting in a number of newspapers
after National Party leader Tim Fischer made an analogy between Israel's
response to terrorism from Lebanon and Nazi Germany's policies towards Jews
and a major article expressing a similar theme in a major daily written by
a senior journalist.   The heading "The hollow cause" (a pun used by
neo-Nazis on the term "the Holocaust") was given to an editorial in a
mass-circulation daily arguing against prosecution of Nazi war criminals
resident in Australia,  broadcasters interviewed extremist spokespersons
who used the opportunity to foster antisemitism,  a fashion magazine
included neo-Nazi "fuhrer" David Palmer in a catalogue of "Leaders - the
good, the bad, the ugly", a newspaper editor wrote abusive letters to a
Jewish community leader,  claiming Jewish leaders had "motives" which "are
not above suspicion" due to "the crusading nature of Zionism" and accusing
Jewish supporters of anti-racism legislation of having "made this country
less free" and an extract from  a book analysing the media industry which
quotes a  producer saying " It was like a Jewish circus. Wherever you went
you waved the credit card and said 'where's the best hotel, where's the
best restaurant?",  was published in a metropolitan daily.

5.3	Ethnic Media

Some of the claims made about Jews included in publications serving 
Arabic-speaking and Muslim Australians demonstrated the ingrained
antagonism towards Jews from some commentators as well as the lengths some
individuals will go to try to weaken support for Israel. The Sydney Arabic
newspaper Al Moharer al Arabi (The Arab Editor) published the blood libel,
complete with claims "the teachings of the Jews tell them to kill Gentiles
...", "Killing is a Jewish conviction ...", "using human blood is not
superstition", tying this alleged religious practise to the murders in the
Hebron Mosque.  A cartoon also alleged that "the same finger prints" are
found in Hebron and Sarajevo. Readers of the Arabic-language section of The
Arab World were alerted to an alleged "Indian-Jewish conspiracy" to crush
Islam,  An Nahar commentary on the Middle East peace process included the
claim "The Jew in his faith and life is the worship of money", the
Al-Moharer News Service of Melbourne released a statement supporting the
Malaysian censorship board's ban on Schindler's List which quoted Holocaust
denier John Bennett saying the film "is largely a propaganda exercise and
that it may incite racial hatred" and Fouad Elhage, Secretary of the
Committee of Arab Australians, accusing "Zionist Jewish organisations" of
dictating to Malaysians and The Australasian Muslim Times included letters
which claimed "the Jews consider themselves as chosen people to do as they
please with non-Jews ... It even seems that the Ashkenazi are 'more chosen'
than the Sephardic", and another which,  while urging readers to see
Schindler's List, said they should be aware that the Holocaust arose from
"the kind of attitudes" which "are entrenched in Zionist ideology". A
statement by the Syrian Socialist Nationalist Party, printed in Al Bairak,
quoted the party's leader saying they "have no other enemy who fights us in
our religion and nation except the Jews" while Bishop Efram Aboudi told An
Nahar readers that  "the Chosen People" have been given American approval
"to strike, to steal, to rob, to kill, to destroy . . . in other lands".

Newspapers and radio broadcasts serving European migrant communities
occasionally included comments such as "Hasn't the time come for the Jews
to stop that old everlasting hostility of the Jews against other nations -
the hostility that has resulted in elimination by the Jews of millions of
innocent victims during the famine in the USSR, and in elimination of
millions of Jewish people by Germans during the Holocaust" , descriptions
of the Holocaust as "trivial". a particular concern is that the Hungarian
racist magazine Hunnia lists an Australian distribution address, identical
with the address of the locally published Magyar Elet, and lists as a
financial supporter Csapo Endre, the editor of Australia's only Hungarian
newspaper.


6.	ASSESSMENT

6.1	General Situation

Australia remains a tolerant, open society in which racism and
vilification of all minorities is understood to be socially unacceptable
behaviour.  Nevertheless, there are reasons for concern which may be
summarised as:

*  the existence of individuals and organisations propagating anti-Jewish
   myths;
*  a lack of understanding of the antisemitic nature of some of the more
   sophisticated racist arguments;
*  the persistence of vandalism, vilification and harassment;
*  the willingness of some parliamentarians to participate in the
   activities and promote the publications of extremists;
*  the invocation of antisemitic rhetoric, often unintentionally or
   carelessly, by opinion leaders.

The presence of these factors in Australian life is justification for the
Australian Jewish community to continue involvement in educational efforts
to break-down false stereotypes, the use of existing laws to combat racism
by political efforts to strengthen resolve against racism leading to
satisfactory legislative education and political leadership against racist
vilification.

6.2	Antisemitic Groups and Individuals

Antisemitic groups and individuals have not been successful in influencing
Australians to accept their agendas.  They do, however, often succeed in
appearing to be part of acceptable debate.  The propagation of hateful,
anti-Jewish mythologies is carried on tirelessly, often by individuals who
are as committed as they are misguided.  Better legal safeguards may well
be the only way to restrict the harm they may do.

6.3	"Sophisticated" Antisemitism

Denial of the Nazi Holocaust, particularly when couched in pseudo-academic
terms, "dual allegiances" depicted as an "understandable" failure of ethnic
and religious minorities, the analogising of Nazis and Jews and the
acceptance of "Jewish power" as a fact regardless of complexities, all
appear to be acceptable to a greater or lesser degree to a wide
cross-section of Australians who have a natural aversion to racism and
antisemitism.  Despite the encouraging results of a survey of Australians'
knowledge released this year, it is clear that continued education of
policy-makers, educators, administrators and the public is required.

6.4	Antisemitic Violence

The period from November 1,  1993 to  the end of October, 1994 saw more
reports of  incidents of racist violence (as defined by the Human Rights
and Equal Opportunity Commission) against the Australian Jewish community
than in any previous year.  Hate mail was a significant contributor to this
total, but there were also a number of examples of vandalism and direct
harassment.  Very few perpetrators have been apprehended and those who have
been arrested and sentenced have generally received minor punishments.  It
is noteworthy that not one individual has as yet been charged with the
fires set at Sydney synagogues in 1991 and 1993, or for almost 900 other
incidents reported since January 1990.

6.5	Political response

In this area, the signs were most encouraging. As mentioned above, one of
the parliamentarians who was linked to extremist groups and causes, Denis
Collins, was defeated in his bid to retain his seat. The parliamentary and
resultant public debate concerning decisions of politicians to participate
in the functions of extremist groups or to share platforms with racist
indicated a widespread abhorrence of the groups of extremists which most
actively seek respectability. The decision of the federal government to
finally agree on appropriately worded anti-racist legislation is a
particularly welcome development and,  if finally enacted, will assist in
the on-going battle with racism and antisemitism.


7. ATTACHMENTS TO REPORT ON ANTISEMITISM IN AUSTRALIA, NOVEMBER 1, 1993 -
   OCTOBER 31, 1994

7.1	General assessement, from The Sydney Morning Herald.

7.2	Selection of material distributed by League of Rights, ANSM, Lock,
Stock & Barrel, The National Reporter, Southern Cross Hammer Skinheads, The
Strategy and White Aryan Resistance.

7.3  Samples of reports on politicians' contacts with racist groups.

7.4  Selection of articles on extreme right wing groups.

7.5  Article on Holocaust Denial to be published in Australian Journal of
Human Rights.
	
JEREMY JONES

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