From email@example.com Mon Dec 22 12:50:19 EST 1997 Article: 155672 of alt.revisionism Path: news.trends.ca!hub.org!news.gv.tsc.tdk.com!Supernews73!supernews.com!Supernews60!supernews.com!news.maxwell.syr.edu!news.algonet.se!newsfeed1.funet.fi!news2.funet.fi!not-for-mail From: Eugene Holman
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Re: A working definition of 'the Holocaust' Date: Mon, 22 Dec 1997 18:20:40 -0500 Organization: A poorly-installed InterNetNews site Lines: 459 Message-ID: <349EF5C4.C5978E15@elo.helsinki.fi> NNTP-Posting-Host: 188.8.131.52 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1; x-mac-type="54455854"; x-mac-creator="4D4F5353" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit X-Mailer: Mozilla 4.01 (Macintosh; I; PPC) X-Priority: 3 (Normal) Xref: news.trends.ca alt.revisionism:155672 In article <01bd0dc4$26ef25c0$4672a1cf@NorthStar.NorCom.mb.ca>, "Bug Eyes" wrote: > Eugene Holman wrote in article > <349C4496.723157AA@elo.helsinki.fi>... > > > Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"), a nationwide pogrom which took > > place in Gemrany on Nov. 9-10, 1938. > > Yes, that was a shameful party, Crystal Night. However, way before that > German Jews were told that because of the country's utter chaos, > destruction, mass starvation, currency devaluation, etc. ALL German people, > including the Jews, had to pull together. Many Jews were visibly rich. In > some cases rightly, in other cases wrongly, they were seen as profiteering > from W.W.I and of not making a sacrifice now to rebuild Germany. It was > "are you with us or not". The Jewish population of Germany during the interwar periodwas never more than 1.5%, and it was considerably less than 1% (less than 500,000 in a population of 80,000,000 in 1939), and they were scattered throughout the social hierarchy, from a few very rich people to many people in the middle and lower middle class. Demographically they differed somewhat from other Germans (although they, too, were Germans) by being better represented in 'modern' urban professions such as teaching, medicine, law, and commerce, with a correspondingly lesser presence in agriculture and factory work. This somewhat different social distribution was at least partially the consequence of previous patterns of discrimination. These had pushed German Jews off the land and into the cities, where they sought to make their livelihood primarily by entering fields which required a specialized higher education or reliable business partners. Thus, Jews during the 1920s and early 1930s were somewhat overrepresented in fields such as teaching, law, medicine, as well as wholesale and retail commerce. It's hard to reconcile German claims that Jews were not making sacrifices with the fact that Jewish merchants were generally reagrded to sell at lower overheads and to pass these savings on to the customers. One of the complaints in the popular press after Kristallnacht was that the lower-priced Jewish-owned shops disappeared. Oh yes, of course, this is yet another example of how the Jews made life difficult for the Germans. Jews, including many Christian Germans who had Jewish grandparents, soon found themselves excluded from the civil service, deprived of their citizenship, and forbidden to use telephones, parks, museums, or public transport. If they were married to Aryans their marriages were declared illegal. Crystal Night, which was instigated by the murder of a German diplomat in Paris by Herschel Grynszpan, a 17-year old Jew who was neither a German national nor a German resident, resulted in the arrest of 25,000 - 30,000 Jews, the killing of about a hundred of them, and the destruction of thousands of Jewish-owned small and medium-sized businesses and, in the short term, made life considertably more difficult for the Germans as a whole. In addiiton to that, the German government imposed a collective fine of RM 1,000,000,000 on the Jewish community, forced Jews into work details to clean up the mess, and pocketed the insurance money for the 7,500 businesses and 267 synagogues destroyed. More than What is important about Kristallnacht, though, is that the incident which precipitated it had nothing to do with the German Jewish community. Herschel Grynszpan, was a Paris-resident Polish national, frustrated and angree because the German government had thrown his parents out of Germany along with 15,000 other Polish Jews without a warning. If 'many' German Jews were visibly rich, many more German gentiles were. The heads of the great German industrial conglomerates such as Krupp, I.G. Farben, and Telefunken were not Jewish but they were headed by CEOs that were quite wealthy. The strength and wealth of these industrial giants was very much a function of they or the combanies from which they were formed having profited from W.W.I. > > Next, Jews were given the chance to pack and leave. Many did. Yes, like the family of Anne Frank. They went to neighboring Holland and began a new life. Many of the victims of the Holocauset were German Jews who sought refuge in countries such as Latvia, Estonia, Denmark, Luxembourg, France, Holland, Belgium, Austria, Poland, Norway, and Czechoslovakia - all countries subsequently overrun by Germany. Very few Grman Jews had the resources to escape to places really far afield, such as the United States, and there are several cases of countries refusing to accept and turning back to point oif origin shiploads of German Jewish refugees. Another issue is that of the legality of a country suddenly and arbitrarily declaring a set of its citizens non-persons. Other countries are not obligated to accept such persons. > >Later, Hitler > even considered assisting their relocation (i.e. deporting them) to > Madagascar or other far-away locations. These considerations were not serious. Germany had no control over Madagascar, and certainly had no right to deport its unwanted former citizens there. Nor did these plans ever go so far that discussions would have been started with the French colonial authorities that rules Madagascar at the time.. > It was much later that hooligans, etc. started assaulting German Jews. You are wrong here. German Jerws were being assaulted fright from the beginning of Hitlers accession to power. Read D. Goldhagen *Hitler's Willing Executioners*. pps. 90 - 97, and follow up some of the references to primary sources mentiuoned there. Just to summarize the main points: 1933 Jan 30, 1933 - Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000. April 1, 1933 - Nazis stage boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. April 11, 1933 - Nazis issue a decree defining a non-Aryan as "anyone descended from non-Aryan, especially Jewish, parents or grandparents. One parent or grandparent classifies the descendant as non-Aryan...especially if one parent or grandparent was of the Jewish faith." April 26, 1933 - The Gestapo is born, created by Hermann Göring in the German state of Prussia. May 10, 1933 - Burning of Jewish-authored books throughout Germany. In June - Nazis open Dachau concentration camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrück for women. July 14, 1933 - Nazi Party is declared the only legal party in Germany. Nazis pass Law to strip Jewish immigrants from Poland of their German citizenship. In Sept - Nazis establish Reich Chamber of Culture, then exclude Jews >from the Arts. Sept 29, 1933 - Nazis prohibit Jews from owning land. Oct 4, 1933 - Jews are prohibited from being newspaper editors. 1934 Jan 24, 1934 - Jews are banned from the German Labor Front. May 17, 1934 - Jews not allowed national health insurance. July 22, 1934 - Jews are prohibited from getting legal qualifications. 1935 May 21, 1935 - Nazis ban Jews from serving in the military. Aug 6, 1935 - Nazis force Jewish performers/artists to join Jewish Cultural Unions. Sept 15, 1935 - Nuremberg Race Laws against Jews decreed. 1936 June 17, 1936 - Heinrich Himmler is appointed chief of the German Police. Aug 1, 1936 - Olympic games begin in Berlin. Hitler and top Nazis seek to gain legitimacy through favorable public opinion from foreign visitors and thus temporarily refrain from actions against Jews. 1937 In Jan - Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, and from being accountants or dentists. They are also denied tax reductions and child allowances. Nov 8, 1937 - 'Eternal Jew' travelling exhibition opens in Munich. 1938 March 12/13, 1938 - Nazi troops enter Austria, which has a population of 200,000 Jews, mainly living in Vienna and several of them refugees from Nazi Germany. Hitler announces Anschluss with Austria. In March - After the Anschluss, the SS is placed in charge of Jewish affairs in Austria. Adolf Eichmann establishes an Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna. Himmler then establishes Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz. April 22, 1938 - Nazis prohibit Aryan 'front-ownership' of Jewish businesses. April 26, 1938 - Nazis order Jews to register wealth and property. June 14, 1938 - Nazis order Jewish owned businesses to register. In July - At Evian, France, the U.S. convenes a League of Nations conference with delegates from 32 countries to consider helping Jews fleeing Hitler, but results in inaction as no country will accept them. July 6, 1938 - Nazis prohibited Jews from trading and providing a variety of specified commercial services. July 23, 1938 - Nazis order Jews over age 15 to apply for identity cards >from the police, to be shown on demand to any police officer. July 25, 1938 - Jewish doctors prohibited by law from practicing medicine. Aug 11, 1938 - Nazis destroy the synagogue in Nuremberg. Aug 17, 1938 - Nazis require Jewish women to add Sarah and men to add Israel to their names on all legal documents, including passports. Sept 27, 1938 - Jews are prohibited from all legal practices. Oct 5, 1938 - Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red "J." Oct 15, 1938 - Nazi troops occupy the Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia. Oct 28, 1938 - Nazis arrest 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality living in Germany, then expel them back to Poland which refuses them entry, leaving them in 'no-man's land' near the Polish border for several months. Nov 7, 1938 - Ernst vom Rath, third secretary in the German Embassy in Paris, is shot and mortally wounded by Herschel Grynszpan, the 17 year old son of one of the deported Polish Jews. Rath dies on November 9, precipitating Kristallnacht. Nov 9/10 - Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass. Nov 12, 1938 - Nazis fine German Jewish community one billion marks for damages related to Kristallnacht. Nov 15, 1938 - Jewish pupils are expelled from all non-Jewish German schools. Dec 3, 1938 - Law for compulsory Aryanization of all Jewish businesses. Dec 14, 1938 - Hermann Göring takes charge of resolving the "Jewish Question." 1939 Jan 24, 1939 - SS leader Reinhard Heydrich is ordered by Göring to speed up emigration of Jews. Jan 30, 1939 - Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech. Feb 21, 1939 - Nazis force Jews to hand over all gold and silver items. March 15/16 - Nazi troops seize Czechoslovakia (Jewish pop. 350,000). April 19, 1939 - Slovakia passes its own version of the Nuremberg Laws. April 30, 1939 - Jews lose rights as tenants and are relocated into Jewish houses. In May - The St. Louis, a ship crowded with 930 Jewish refugees, is turned away by Cuba, the United States and other countries and returns to Europe. July 4, 1939 - German Jews denied the right to hold government jobs. July 21, 1939 - Adolf Eichmann is appointed director of the Prague Office of Jewish Emigration. Sept 1, 1939 - Nazis invade Poland (Jewish pop. 3.35 million, the largest in Europe). Beginning of SS activity in Poland. Sept 1, 1939 - Jews in Germany are forbidden to be outdoors after 8 p.m. in winter and 9 p.m. in summer. Sept 21, 1939 - Heydrich issues instructions to SS Einsatzgruppen (special action squads) in Poland regarding treatment of Jews, stating they are to be gathered into ghettos near railroads for the future "final goal." He also orders a census and the establishment of Jewish administrative councils within the ghettos to implement Nazi policies and decrees. Sept 23, 1939 - German Jews are forbidden to own radios. German Jews were psychologically assaulted by the Nuremberg Laws of September 1935 which made them non-citizens nd severely restricted their rights. Isolated acts of terror against German Jews was a feature of Germany beginning almost immediately with Hitler's accession to power (i.e. the Nazi boycott of Jewish business on April 1, 1933, the nationwide burning of books by Jewish authors on May 10, 1933, the vast anti-Semitc rally on August 15, 1935, the appearance of 'Juden nicht erwünscht' signs in business and town gates , etc.) It is well known that Germany let up on every-day anti-Semitism for the Berlin Olympics in 1936 to put on a good face for the world. >Of > course when the war came, Jews were rounded up and shipped to labour camps > along with other unreliable citizens. If things had been that simple, Holocaust casualties would have been a mximum half million. In actual fact, though, as Germany systematically invaded its neighbors, it rounded up their Jews and either used them for slave labor to keep the war machine going or exterminated them as extra mouths to feed. In the final analysis, the German Jewish population fared relatively well during the war - almost three quarters (72.6%) of them survived. Jews in neighboring Holland (83.3% died), Poland (87.7% died), Belgium (52.5% died) and Luxembourg (65% died) for example, did not fare nearly as well. This is not a matter of an internment action against 'unreliable citizens', but rather a prolonged policy of systemic terrorism and thenic cleansing against the civilian populations of invaded countries. > > Everything has a cause/effect.....let's not simply isolate an incident and > use it to prove something. > Kristallnacht is an important threshold. It is the boundary between a previous policy of systematic but random persecution of German Jews and a policy which sees the actions of any Jew, no matter where, as part of a world-wide conspiracy which can only be stopped by total elmination of all Jews. It has obvious cause and effect links to both the policies which preceded it , and to those taken subsequently. > In the final analysis, why is it that throughout the centuries all these > different "racists" in different times in different places in different > religions have always gotten tired of the Jew? Ancient Greeks, Romans, > Spaniards, Russians, Germans, etc. all picked on the Jew. Not just the Jew. The Indian, the Black man, the Chinese, the Armenian, the Gypsy, the foreigner, the Catholic, the Protestant, the Hutu, the Tutsi, the Muslim, the Serb, the Croat, the Russian,... > > Why? For the same reason it is happening in the USA now. It's because many > Jews cannot just pursue their lives, their religion, their business, etc. > without constantly whining and crying the blues. Nonsense. If there were no Jews in the United States certain people would be blaming African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Hispanic Americans, Catholics - you name it - for their problems. We don't usually think about it too much any more, but the United States had a Holocaust like event - the Indian Removal Act. Certain individuals in the United States of the 1810s and 20s convincingly argued their case that Native Americans could not live together with European Americans. The result of this was, first the recommendation that Indians abandon their ancestral lands and emigrate to lands west of the Mississippi, later the passage of Federal Laws during the 1830s for their forced removal. In 1820 120,000 Indians lived among the approx. 12,000,000 Americans east of the Mississippi; by 1845 fewer than 30,000 were left there. > >The war is over, Germany > paid billions upon billions of dollars to Israel (not too well publicized > here, is it?) as well as to individuals. Germans were/are portrayed as > war-mongering Huns (???) for decades and now all ARABS are being reduced to > the level of dirty, bloodthirsty terrorists. Germany pays pensions to Holocaust victims in Western Europe, Israel, and elsewhere. For this it can only be commended for not shirking the responsibility which it bears for the horror and destruction brought about by its armya little more than half a century ago. There are, however, some problems. - This entire responsibility fell on former West Germany. Former East Germany refused to assume any responsibility. - Pensions or compensation have not, as a rule, been paid to individuals in former Eastern Europe. Nazi actions against Jewish populations were at their worst in places like Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus, and the still surviving victims of Nazi terror in those countries are often destitute, having seen their life savings and social security nets disappear in conjunction with the economic changes of the past ten years. - The Nazis seized vast amounts of Jewish property in the countries they invaded. Recurrent scandals, such as one involving French government owned apartment houses in Paris a few years ago, and the issue of dormant Holocaust-era bank aassets in Swiss, Swedish, Spanish,. and Portuguese banks and safe deposit boxes, show us that the records are there, but not always the willingness to use the information they contain to restitute wrongs. > > As a group, American Jews are rich, powerful and well-organized. Good for > them! Why keep screeching about some inflated story about some Anne Frank? > Is she a martyr already? How many other children suffered? How many are > suffering today, are being starved, raped and butchered in Rwanda and > elsewhere? Anne Frank is a perfect symbol of the Holocausts, perhaps of all Holocausts. Her family went to extraordinary lengths to avoid being caught up in the Holocaust: they emigrated, learned a new language and culture, and then, when that world fell apart, went into hiding. All through this ordeal Anne was able to maintain her optimism in the essential goodness of mankind. I hope that generation after generation of young people will coninue to read her diary, do the necessary work to understand what she went through, and derive strength from it. > How many other children suffered? How many are > suffering today, are being starved, raped and butchered in Rwanda and > elsewhere? >The hell with the Jewish "victims" already!!! > > People get tired of the crying Jew. Most Americans are sick of the steady > diet of the "Holocaust" and of Simon Wisenthal et al. > The time will come when ordinary people will say enough is enough. > > And that is when history may repeat itself. Wisen up, Jew, please. The Indians have kept relatively quiet about what has been done to them and what has been the result: a few successful court cases, a few casinos on restored Indian lands, but very little restitution considering what was done. Most Americans couldn't care less about Indian issues any more, but that doesn't morally justify what was done to the Indians or silencing discussion of it. The Holocaust affected tens of millions of people, and many of them are still alive - indeed, the youngest direct victims of the Holocaust are in their mid-50s right now, so we are not likely to hear the end of it any time soon. The only way to ensure that the dishonest and unprincipled gains made by Holocaust-like genocide are not forgotten and thus allowed to become 'honest' as the manner in which they were acquired disappears into the clouds of history, as is the case with the Swiss bankers, is to continue to scream 'FOUL'. Regards, Eugene Holman From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Dec 24 13:12:37 EST 1997 Article: 155680 of alt.revisionism Path: news.trends.ca!hub.org!news.IAEhv.nl!Supernews60!supernews.com!peerfeed.ncal.verio.net!news.idt.net!cam-news-hub1.bbnplanet.com!news.bbnplanet.com!feed1.news.luth.se!luth.se!news.algonet.se!newsfeed1.funet.fi!news2.funet.fi!not-for-mail From: Eugene Holman Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: The Deportation of German Jews Date: Mon, 22 Dec 1997 19:47:08 -0500 Organization: A poorly-installed InterNetNews site Lines: 39 Message-ID: <349F0A10.724DF058@elo.helsinki.fi> NNTP-Posting-Host: 184.108.40.206 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii; x-mac-type="54455854"; x-mac-creator="4D4F5353" Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit X-Mailer: Mozilla 4.01 (Macintosh; I; PPC) X-Priority: 3 (Normal) Xref: news.trends.ca alt.revisionism:155680 Anyone who believes that the Jews were interned in concentration camps because they were 'unreliable', or that Holocaust victims do not have a strong case against the Swiss banks that dealt in Nazi gold and held Jewish assets, should consider the following, one of many similar reports on 'Jewish evacuation'. Go to: http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/holocaust/h-deport.htm "At Wuerzburg, Germany, Jewish deportees carrying bundles and suitcases march through town in columns behind Nazi officials riding in an open car. The Jews of Wuerzburg were taken by police officials into the Platzscher Garten hotel. In one room of the hotel, their luggage was inspected by Gestapo officials and all valuables were confiscated. The luggage was then taken to a collecting area, from where it would supposedly be taken to the deportation train. However, the deportees never saw their luggage again. In a second room, the deportees surrendered all their personal papers showing ownership of securities and property. They were left only with their identification cards, watches and wedding rings. In the next room the deportees underwent body searches for concealed valuables. Even gold fillings were removed from their teeth. Next, their identification cards were stamped "evakuiert" [deported]. They were then surrendered to an SS detachment until ready to leave for the railway station. To facilitate the march through the city and the boarding of the trains, the deportees were organized into groups led by Jewish ordners. The transport traveled to Nuremberg, where it was attached to a larger Judentransport departing for ghettos and concentration camps in the East. " Regards, Eugene Holman From email@example.com Wed Dec 24 13:12:37 EST 1997 Article: 156172 of alt.revisionism Path: news.trends.ca!hub.org!news3.buffnet.net!news-spur1.maxwell.syr.edu!news.maxwell.syr.edu!news.algonet.se!newsfeed1.funet.fi!news.funet.fi!news2.funet.fi!holman.hum.hy From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Eugene Holman) Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Re: A simple question (Phillips) Date: Fri, 19 Dec 1997 10:37:26 -0500 Organization: University of Helsinki Lines: 382 Message-ID: References: <email@example.com> <firstname.lastname@example.org> <3499F6ED.63ADB5@earthlink.net> NNTP-Posting-Host: 220.127.116.11 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit X-Newsreader: Yet Another NewsWatcher 2.4.0 Xref: news.trends.ca alt.revisionism:156172 In article <3499F6ED.63ADB5@earthlink.net>, email@example.com wrote: > ====================================================PHillips > > Which proves what? Numbers, man, I need numbers. Can you show me anything that > goes like this: "We found ashes spread over an area of about 25,000 sq. meters. We made > tests of > the depth at several points and from this data we estimate the bulk of the remains to be > around > 120,000 cubic meters. So, dividing this by the bulk of a t ypical shoebox we are at ....." > > THAT's what i need, not some dingle-dong who shouts in triiumph: "eureka. I found a bone." > SOURCE: http://veritas.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/auschwitz/crematoria/burning-pits "In 1965, Hydrokop, a chemical mining enterprise based in Krakow, was commissioned by the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum to carry out geological tests at Birkenau aimed at determining the locations of incineration pits and pyres. Specialists of Hydrokop bored 303 holes up to 3 m deep. Traces of human ashes, bones, and hair turned up in 42 sites. Documentation of all the holes and the diagrams of their distribution are preserved in the Conservation Department of the Museum." (Franciszek Piper, Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, p. 179n). **************************************************************************** *********** SOURCE: http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/places/ukraine/serniki-excavations UNCOVERING GENOCIDE: WAR CRIMES - THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE by Richard Wright [Richard Wright is Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the University of Sydney. The original text of this lecture first appeared in The Sydney Papers, Vol. 7 (3), Winter 1995, following a lecture delivered to the Sydney Institute on 23 May 1995. The following text is taken from an edited reprint appearing in International Network on Holocaust and Genocide, Volume 11, Issue 3, 1996.] This lecture will introduce archaeological investigations of mass killings in Ukraine, perpetrated in 1942 and excavated 50 years later. The work was done to support three prosecutions made in Adelaide, South Australia, under the War Crimes Legislation. The question is why was an archaeologist needed at all? The Special Investigations Unit (SIU) of the Australian Attorney-General's Department was determined to forestall two styles of defense customarily offered in such cases - that the wrong person has been charged (mistaken identification) and that the events alleged are imagined or (if not wholly imagined) so polluted in peoples memories by the lapse of time, and by self-reinforcing narration, as to be worthlessly distorted evidence. Archaeology had nothing to do with the first strategy - identification of alleged perpetrators - but much to do with investigating material evidence for the alleged events. Thus this discussion will be about how the graves were found, how the details of killings were worked out, and how the events were dated, both by old fashioned stratigraphic methods and modern chronometric techniques. As an archaeologist my analysis concentrates on the particulars and does not presume to give a summary of the holocaust in Ukraine. The first grave was at Serniki, where the excavation party consisted of, on the forensic side (for assessing sex, age, manner of death of the victims), Dr Godfrey Oettle, head of the division of forensic medicine in Glebe, Sydney. Responsible for collecting details in a form acceptable for a court of law, Detective Sergeant David Hughes of the New South Wales Police. My wife Sonia Wright, an experienced field archaeologist, and who is currently writing up her experiences at Serniki, was my assistant. There were some preliminary problems. Even with glasnost (well under way in the summer of 1990) one could not just turn up in Moscow and announce you were going to do a mass exhumation in the Ukraine. With this in mind, the trip had been arranged with officials within the Soviet Government. The Soviet officials had already experienced the professionalism of the Sydney-based Special Investigations Unit, as the Australian team had virtually wound up its investigations at the village of Serniki. Thus the archaeological team inherited much of the goodwill that the SIU had built up with both the Soviet and Ukrainian authorities. Responsibility for ensuring the second team's needs were fulfilled was given to the procurator for the whole western half of the Soviet Union, Madam Kalishnikova - at times a hindrance, at times immensely helpful. Serniki is on the southern margins of the Pripet marshes, which Hitler said, in his table talk, would be retained for Wehrmacht manoeuvres after the war. The work area was, in 1942, well within the German lines in this area of the Ukraine. The area of the grave is now an ominous-looking dark pine forest, but feelings of that sort are illusory. At the time of the killings this was open country. Now in the late twentieth century, at the site in the forest, the Soviet authorities had set the team up with a telephone, tents, electricity, bulldozers, and a contingent of Red Army soldiers. Only the telephone didn't work. The local officials wanted to find the bodies as soon as possible, and did so at what turned out to be one end of the grave. However, the archaeological interest was first to find a soil feature that might be interpreted as a grave and only then look for bodies. In this way damage to contextual evidence would be minimised. The team was fortunate to find a marked contrast in colour and texture between the natural soil and the filling of tne grave. This contrast came right to the base of the existing humic zone at the surface, so delimiting one half of the grave was possible before disturbing anything. To do the work, the grave was divided into two halves, with the Australian team at the end located by archaeological methods, and the Soviets at the other. The first job, having delimited the boundaries of ths grave as some forty metres long and five metres wide, was to bulldoze down two metres to within twenty centimetres of the bodies. Then, together with the soldiers, shovels were used to remove the sand until the tops of the bodies were exposed. Paint brushes were then used to do the final exposure. At the end of five weeks of gruesome work, the skull count indicated about 550 bodies in the grave. There may have been a few more skulls where bodies lay more than two deep, but the torsos had too much surviving soft tissue to make feasible the task of any further exposure. An awful scene unfolded. As the eyewitnesses had said, they were mostly women and children. The men were old men. They had been herded down a ramp into the grave. One lot had gone to the left and been shot while lying down within the grave; the others had gone to the right. The majority had entry and exit wounds of bullets in their skulls. Some of them had been clubbed. At the end the Soviets were working on, the bodies lay face down, parallel and in rows. At the Australian end the bodies were much more disorganized. There seemed to have been panic at our end. In a generally empty area at the middle of the grave, bodies were found that had fewer bullets to the head. Some had been clubbed. These people had surviving bits of clothing, whereas the main mass of people at each end of the grave had been stripped before being shot. Items of clothing were found right through the filling of the grave, suggesting that people had picked through a pile of clothing, throwing in what was unwanted while the grave was being filled. One boot contained a pocket watch secreted in the heel. There was grim satisfaction in revealing that the massive grave was much too large for the number of people in it. The Nazis had obviously hoped for many more victims. One of my duties was to concentrate on dating the event. After cleaning up some of the corroded machine pistol cartridge cases, and examining them with a lens, my colleagues found that the killers had used German ammunition stamped with the place and date of manufacture. The cases dated from the years 1939, 1940 and 1941. These cases were like coins found in conventional excavations. Thereby the team had a date of 1941, later than which the killings must have taken place. It proved more of a problem to get a date earlier than which the killings took place. The fir trees grew in parallel rows and were clearly a plantation. Some fir trees grew in the filling of the grave. The growth rings of the trees were examined. The greatest number of rings found was 29, indicating that the killing had taken place before 1961. Dating narrowed down significantly on return to Sydney, Australia. Radiocarbon dating of hair showed no trace of the so-called hydrogen bomb effect in their proportion of carbon isotopes. So the killing must have taken place before hydrogen bombs were first detonated in 1952. Turning now to 1991, when work commenced at Ustinovka, a year later than Serniki. Sergeant Steve Horn replaced David Hughes, and Dr Chris Griffiths, a specialist in forensic dentistry at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, joined Godfrey Oettle on the forensic side. He was needed because of a particularly awful allegation about the killings there. It was alleged that after a hundred or so adults had been marched two kilometres to a grave and shot, a fellow had asked where the children were. 'We didn't think you wanted to shoot the children', the organisers of the round-up had said. At that, some of the men returned to the village, commandeered a cart, and drove the children back to the grave. It is then alleged that they threw the children off the cart and into the grave, and shot them. Apparently the SIU investigators had interviewed the mother of three of those children (the father was a Jew, she was not), who had said she returned from the fields for lunch one day, and her children were not in the house. She asked the neighbours whether they had seen the children. The neighbours told her they had been taken away to be shot. Dr Griffith's services were required because of the need to work out the ages of the children, if found, from the stages of eruption of the milk and permanent teeth. Ustinovka is 500km east-southeast of Serniki, in the fertile black soil loess belt. Unlike at Serniki, the locals had only a vague idea of where the grave might be. There was no sign on the surface. Standing in a vast paddock of 10 cm tall peas and maize, I felt helpless. How were we to start looking? Where were we to start looking? One idea was to look for evidence of disturbed soil -young crops like disturbed ground, trenches showing up from the air as greener features. However, even from the air this proved fruitless, and thus more mundane methods were initiated. With a backhoe, a shallow trench was put across a likely area. We began examining the scraped walls for lateral discontinuities in colour and texture. In this way the side of a deep cutting was found, which turned out to be the grave. At Ustinovka, unlike at Serniki, there was success in defining the whole area of the grave before disturbing any of its contents. When looking for a buried body your archaeological objective should be first to find the grave and only then direct attention to the body. This is a fundamental principle in conserving evidence that Australian police should pay more attention to. Archaeologists too rarely get called in to assist the police in their investigations. Remembering the story that children had been killed after the adults, the stratigraphic evidence provided stunning support for this story. The team came upon the children's skeletons first, and then what seemed to be the bottom of the grave. But twenty centimetres below the children lay the adults. The witnesses did not actually mention that the grave had been partly filled after the adults were killed, but obviously the stratigraphic observations provide important material evidence for their statement that children were killed later. There were about twenty children. The youngest one was about six months and virtually destroyed in the soil, except for the teeth. The oldest one was about twelve or thirteen years old. Thus evidence was gathered that would have been missed without attention to scientific methods of excavation. At Ustinovka, maybe even the grave itself would have been missed. I conclude that archaeological methodology has a role in the investigations of killings. I want to conclude by looking more widely than the events in the Ukraine. I am obviously not alone in thinking that archaeoogical methodology has a role in the investigation of killings. The University of Bradford has a postgraduate diploma that majors in forensic archaeology. I hope to visit John Hunter there when I go over to the United Kingdom later this year [see 'Investigating War Crimes - An Update' at the end of this article). Closer to the topic of what I have been discussing in this lecture is the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team. It was formed in the mid-1980s, when it became politically possible to investigate the fate of the so-called 'Disappeared' of the 1970s. Horrified at the shambles the police were making of the exhumations, they formed themselves into a group of archaeologists and forensic anthropologists. They impressed on the authorities that their methods would allow better opportunities for identifying specific individuals, by proving the association between artefacts and particular skeletons. It was not merely enough to dig up the skeletons and take them to a morgue for identification. This dedicated tearn has lent its services to authorites elsewhere in South America and the world. The Boston based Physicians for Human Rights has been approached by the United Nations to assist with prosecutions relating to atrocities in both the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. As their title indicates, they are primarily a forensic team of volunteers. But they routinely incorporate the services of archaeologists. I am privileged to have been invited last year to join their group of experts, though I cannot say that it is an invitation that I accept with relish. The primary archaeological interests of my career have been twofold - environmental changes at the end of the Ice Age and models for computer aided multivariate analysis of archaeological data. But as you can see, the invitation to work in the Ukraine dragged me away >from those worthwhile, but relatively arcane, pursuits to a nasty awakening in the archaeology of the twentieth century. Nasty it may have been, but I have not regretted it. Even though no Australian has been found guilty by the courts of the atrocities we investigated, we have brought forward new material evidence of three particular episodes in the Holocaust that no persons, even those labouring on behalf of Holocaust deniers, have sought to contradict. Material evidence is harder to contradict than memories. [Editor's addendum: AUSTRALIAN WAR CRIMES - A BRIEF OVERVIEW. In April 1987 the Special Investigations Unit (SIU) was formed under the directorship of Robert Greenwood within the Australian Federal Attorney-General's Department to investigate all aspects of Australia's Nazi past. In its five-year life the SIU examined allegations against 814 individuals. From substantial research, proceedings were commenced against three men: Ivan Polyukhovich, Mikolay Berezovsky and Heinrich Wagner. The archaeological material excavated by Richard Wright from the Serniki mass grave was submitted as evidence in the trial of Polyukhovich, who was acquitted. The Berezovsky case was dismissed by the magistrate. The case against Wagner was stopped by the Director of Public Prosecutions due to Wagner's ill-health. The case against a fourth, Konrads Kalejs, was handed over by the then Attorney-General, Michael Lavarch, to the Australian Federal Police after the closure of the SIU in 1992. No other proceedings have taken place in the ensuing years.] ---------------------- INVESTIGATING WAR CRIMES - AN UPDATE The editors of International Network on Holocaust and Genocide kindly asked me if I would like to append a note to the reprinting of my lecture to the Sydney Institute. I did visit John Hunter at the University of Bradford and found he is doing an excellent job teaching forensic archaeology. Readers interested in the technicalities should consult his book Studies in Crime: An Introduction to Forensic Archaeology, Batsford Books (1996). He has been particularly concerned to build up a good relationship between the profession and the British police, one that persuades the police that archaeologists should be called in as a matter of course. A case study, where they were not called in, is that of the Harry West murders in Gloucestershire. The investigators publicly claimed to be using archaeological methods to recover evidence but they did not use archaeologists. Hunter reproduces a photo of the Gloucestershire work. It looks like a preparation of the Fields of Flanders. In April I went to the Middle East to work on skeletal remains from the University of Sydney's excavations in the Bronze Age of Arabia. Sonia and I had a round the world ticket to return to Australia, one that would have taken us through the United States in mid-May. So I asked Darren O'Brien (Assistant Director of the Centre for Comparative Genocide Studies) about institutions in the US that might be interested in hearing of our Ukrainian work. He circulated my 'Serniki' article on the Holocaust internet list. [The list in question was H-Holocaus issuing out of the University of Chicago which, at that time, had 677 subscribers - Ed.]. Disappointingly, there was virtually no interest - certainly no constructive interest. So we routed our return to Australia via Argentina. Last month, in Buenos Aires, we met with members of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team. We were both moved by the meeting. They operate with a threat to personal safety that I have never had to come to terms with. During a seemingly carefree lunch in the middle of Buenos Aires, one of the Argentine investigators told us that her husband would be sorry not to meet us. He was at that moment in Brazil, investigating the shooting murders by the police of thirty landless peasants. Someone asked whether we have children. Yes - our children are grown up. We then asked (with that automatic reciprocity that characterises polite restaurant conversation) whether she too had children. 'No, we don't'. Then she added laconically: 'In South America, if you do our type of work it's best not to have children'. Before breakfast in our Buenos Aires hotel room, and on the very day we met with the Argentine forensic team, I turned on CNN television to see what was going on in the world. I was non-plussed by the coincidences. I had tuned in to the opening speech for the prosecution in the Bosnian war crimes trial at The Hague. It was Grant Niemann making his opening speech. A wheel had come full circle. Grant was the Adelaide based prosecutor of our Ukrainian cases. So far as I know, Holocaust deniers have shown a total avoidance of our Ukrainian evidence. Yet (and, again, so far as I know) the deniers have not been directly confronted with it in any arena of debate. I want to say that I found it unnerving that even the well-disposed have shown so little interest in our Ukrainian work. I hasten to mention exceptions, and acknowledge the interest of the Centre for Comparative Genocide Studies at Macquarie University, and of the Australian Jewish Historical Society in Canberra. But that is it. Perhaps the reason is this. Material evidence may be harder to contradict than memories, but memories are more potent and demanding of attention - and, of course, more fleeting than archaeological evidence. But then again, perhaps what we did in the Ukraine is just too nasty, immediate and confronting. As a Jewish colleague said to me, we have forced ourselves to get familiar with the grainy black and white photos of Belsen. Now you are wanting us to look at the Holocaust in colour. -Richard Wright- *************************************************************** Regards, Eugene Holman From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Dec 24 13:12:38 EST 1997 Article: 156174 of alt.revisionism Path: news.trends.ca!hub.org!news3.buffnet.net!news-spur1.maxwell.syr.edu!news.maxwell.syr.edu!fci-se!fci!newsfeed.sunet.se!news99.sunet.se!news01.sunet.se!18.104.22.168.MISMATCH!news.funet.fi!news2.funet.fi!holman.hum.hy From: email@example.com (Eugene Holman) Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Re: On leather from human skin: the evidence Date: Fri, 19 Dec 1997 11:23:50 -0500 Organization: University of Helsinki Lines: 74 Message-ID: References: <firstname.lastname@example.org> NNTP-Posting-Host: 22.214.171.124 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit X-Newsreader: Yet Another NewsWatcher 2.4.0 Xref: news.trends.ca alt.revisionism:156174 In article , email@example.com (Daniel Keren) wrote: > firstname.lastname@example.org (Ole Kreiberg) writes: > > # This is exactly allegations like this that makes the > # whole holocaust myth so incredible. The petit bourgeois > # Nazi-Germans shunned all sorts of pervasion and > # abnormality, and things like that would never have > # been tolerated. > > Which is perhaps why a letter from the Weimar pathology > department to the camp asked that such abuse of human > corpses will be stopped. Problem for nazi-boy Kreiberg > is that this letter (and another document I am aware of) > do prove that such abuse of corpses took place in the > camp; see the gif files in the directory > > http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?camps/buchenwald/images > See specifically: http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?camps/buchenwald/images/buchenwald-doc01.gif It is a message from the local SS physician in Weimar (SS - Standortarzt Weimar), dated May 7, 1942, addressed to the Director of Pathology at the Buchenwald Concentration camp. The German text of the message reads: Es wird darauf aufmerksam gemacht, dass mit s o f o r t i g e r Wirkung die Anfertigung sogenannter Geschenkartikel (Schrumpfköpfe u.s.w.) einzustellen ist. Über den vorliegeneden Auftragbestand für die SS-ärztl.Akademie Graz ist dem SS-Standortarzt jeweils zum 1. und 15. eines jeden Monats schriftlich zu berichten. Die ärztliche Behandlung von Häftlingen liegt ausserhalb des Rahmnens einer Pathologie und wird mit s o f o r t i g e r Wirkung untersagt. Dieser Befehl ist auch den in der Pathologie beschäftigten Häftlingen bekanntzugeben. TRANSLATION "It is brought to [your] attention that, effective i m m e d i a t e l y, the preparation of so-called gift articles (shrunken heads etc.) is to be stopped. A written report is to be made to the local SS physician for the SS Medical Academy in Graz on the 1st and 15th of every month concerning the status of current assignments. The medical treatment of internees falls outside the framework of pathology and is prohibited, effective i m m e d i a t e l y. This order is also to be made known to the internees involved with pathology." The message is initialed in an illegible hand, this being followed by the title, SS-Hauptsturmführer, but no clarification of the name. *************************************************************** For those interested in seeing what these 'Geschenkartikel (Schrumpfköpfe u.s.w.)' [gift articles (shrunken heads etc.)] were, I suggest a look at: - http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/buchenwald/images/buchenwald01.jpg more 'raw material', a wagon loaded with emaciated bodies - http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/buchenwald/images/buchenwald03.jpg the 'raw material', a pile of emaciated bodies - http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/buchenwald/images/buchenwald02.jpg a display of 'gift articles' fashioned from human bodies - http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi/camps/buchenwald/images/shrunken.jpg close-up photograph of a mounted shrunken head Regards, Eugene Holman From email@example.com Wed Dec 24 13:12:38 EST 1997 Article: 156176 of alt.revisionism Path: news.trends.ca!hub.org!news3.buffnet.net!www.nntp.primenet.com!globalcenter0!news.primenet.com!nntp.primenet.com!news.maxwell.syr.edu!news.algonet.se!feed1.news.luth.se!luth.se!newsfeed.sunet.se!news99.sunet.se!news01.sunet.se!126.96.36.199.MISMATCH!news.funet.fi!news2.funet.fi!holman.hum.hy From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Eugene Holman) Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Re: On leather from human skin: the evidence Date: Fri, 19 Dec 1997 12:01:15 -0500 Organization: University of Helsinki Lines: 51 Message-ID: References: <19971219001401.TAA07357@ladder01.news.aol.com> NNTP-Posting-Host: 188.8.131.52 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit X-Newsreader: Yet Another NewsWatcher 2.4.0 Xref: news.trends.ca alt.revisionism:156176 In article <19971219001401.TAA07357@ladder01.news.aol.com>, email@example.com (RWhita8200) wrote: > >From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Daniel Keren) > > > nazi-boy Kreiberg > > > Anybody who disagrees with Poltical Correctness is A Nazi Who Wants To Kill > Six Million Jews. > Bob Whitaker Come on, Bob, you can do better than this. How about the 'What sewer do you have to dredge..." one? Documents and pictures have been posted here which substantiate allegations that artefacts of human skin were indeed produced at at least one Nazi-run concentration camp, Buchenwald. One of those documents noted that when on trial as a consequence of her possession of such objects, Ilse Koch did not deny their existence or the fact that she had them in her possession, a strategy she certainly would have taken were they not of human skin and if she did not own them, but rather she only argued that she herself did not have anyone killed specifically for his or her skin. What on earth does hunting for old documents and piecing them together to make a coherent story have to do with political correctness? As to Ole, he has a naive view of the Nazis, even with respect to some of their activities in occupied Denmark, but that's not the point here. If the Nazis, as Ole claims, were so concerned about 'perversion' and had a low tolerance for 'abnormality', how is it that their leader, Adolf Hitler, 1) had no educational or professional qualifications, 2) had spent more than two years in Vienna as a derelict and homeless drifter, 3) had never had a normal relationship with a woman (well, he tried once, but she committed suicide), 4) had a flagrant homosexual, Ernst Roehm, as one of his best frieds, 5) spoke German with a yokel accent that betrayed his hicktown background. Neither were the other top Nazi leaders, Paul Göbbels, a grossly overweight failed chicken farmer, Hermann Göring, a former narcotics addict and Vaterlandsverräter (he spent several years in Sweden and had a Swedish wife), and Heinrich Himmler, obsessively neurotic and not averse to public displays of sadism, paragons of bourgeois normality and conventional German values. Ilse Koch, wife of Erich Koch, the Buchenwald commandant, in addition to her decidedly non-petit beougeois collecting activities, evidently took great please in dressing in tight sweaters and mini-skirts and then ostentatiously flaunting her sexuality in front of the male inmates at Buchenwald. She really earned her epithet - the 'Bitch of Buchenwald'. Regards, Eugene Holman From email@example.com Wed Dec 24 13:12:38 EST 1997 Article: 156177 of alt.revisionism Path: news.trends.ca!hub.org!news3.buffnet.net!news-spur1.maxwell.syr.edu!news.maxwell.syr.edu!fci-se!fci!newsfeed.sunet.se!news99.sunet.se!news01.sunet.se!184.108.40.206.MISMATCH!news.funet.fi!news2.funet.fi!holman.hum.hy From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Eugene Holman) Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Re: 3420-PS: Buchenwald & Human Skin artifacts Date: Fri, 19 Dec 1997 12:15:43 -0500 Organization: University of Helsinki Lines: 50 Message-ID: References: <email@example.com> <firstname.lastname@example.org> NNTP-Posting-Host: 220.127.116.11 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit X-Newsreader: Yet Another NewsWatcher 2.4.0 Xref: news.trends.ca alt.revisionism:156177 In article <email@example.com>, firstname.lastname@example.org (Michael) wrote: > On 19 Dec 1997 07:58:46 GMT, email@example.com (Kenneth McVay OBC) wrote: > > another "liberally" translated piece of garbage from the discredited IMT Blue Series. > > I present here a German text pertaining to the same issue and my own translation of it. If it is 'liberally' translated, point out and explain the faults and then do a better job. Regards, Eugene Holman http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?camps/buchenwald/images/buchenwald-doc01.gif It is a message from the local SS physician in Weimar (SS - Standortarzt Weimar), dated May 7, 1942, addressed to the Director of Pathology at the Buchenwald Concentration camp. The German text of the message reads: Es wird darauf aufmerksam gemacht, dass mit s o f o r t i g e r Wirkung die Anfertigung sogenannter Geschenkartikel (Schrumpfköpfe u.s.w.) einzustellen ist. Über den vorliegeneden Auftragbestand für die SS-ärztl.Akademie Graz ist dem SS-Standortarzt jeweils zum 1. und 15. eines jeden Monats schriftlich zu berichten. Die ärztliche Behandlung von Häftlingen liegt ausserhalb des Rahmnens einer Pathologie und wird mit s o f o r t i g e r Wirkung untersagt. Dieser Befehl ist auch den in der Pathologie beschäftigten Häftlingen bekanntzugeben. TRANSLATION "It is brought to [your] attention that, effective i m m e d i a t e l y, the preparation of so-called gift articles (shrunken heads etc.) is to be stopped. A written report is to be made to the local SS physician for the SS Medical Academy in Graz on the 1st and 15th of every month concerning the status of current assignments. The medical treatment of internees falls outside the framework of pathology and is prohibited, effective i m m e d i a t e l y. This order is also to be made known to the internees involved with pathology." The message is initialed in an illegible hand, this being followed by the title, SS-Hauptsturmführer, but no clarification of the name.
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