To: Jamie McCarthy
From: "Harry W. Mazal OBE" Subject: Re: DeZayas Dear Jamie, You wrote: >Anyone know anything about Alfred DeZayas, author of NEMESIS AT POTSDAM, >A TERRIBLE REVENGE and THE WEHRMACHT WAR CRIMES BUREAU? What do those >books concern (i.e. are they "revisionist")? > I have them all, as well as GERMAN EXPELLEES. Publication details: _Nemesis at Potsdam: The Expulsion of the Germans from the East_ Alfred M. de Zayas c.1977, 1979, 1988, University of Nebraska Press ISBN 0-8032-9907-9 _The German Expellees: Victoms in War and Peace_ Alfred M. de Zayas Translation c. 1993, St. Martin's Press, N.Y. ISBN 0-312-09097-8 _A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950_ Alfred M. de Zayas English translation c. 1994, St. Martin's Press, N.Y. _The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939-1945_ Alfred M. de Zayas 1989, University of Nebraska Press ISBN 0-8032-9908-7 To which Ulrich respoded at length. I agree in general with Ulrich's comments: +He is a relatively renowned expert on international law, I think. +As far I know, he got first a PhD from Harvard, and a second one +for a historical study at the Max-Planck Institute for international +law in Goettingen. That's this one: THE WEHRMACHT WAR CRIMES BUREAU. +He was/is now professor for international law, I think, +at the University of Geneva. The biographical information gleaned from the books in my posession state that he obtained his law degreee at Harvard, and his historical training at the University of Gottingen as well as at Tubingen where he was a Fulbright Graduate Fellow. +His outlook is decidedly "Germanophil", hence the tendency of +German nationalists and Revisionists to quote his books. Quite. de Zayas is a strong Germanophile, something that tends to occlude his vision on the greater crimes that were being committed at the same time that many crimes (albeit no less reprehensible) were being committed by the Allies, particularly the Soviets. +But the books are more or less serious research - and his investigations +seem to aim mainly at a further development of accepted customs of war, +and international law in hostile conflicts, even when fighting monsters. My impression is that de Zayas attempts to equate the war crimes of the Allies (mainly by the Soviets) to the genocidal crimes of the Nazis. In _The German Expellees_ he makes the following observation: "The flight and expulsion of so many millions of Germans from the territories East of the Oder and Niesse rivers, and from the Sudetenland and Southeast Europe, cannot be appreciated as a historical event by means of cold statistics. The fate of each individual person must be kept in mind. The victims of the expulsions were people no different from us. They suffered and starved as individual human beings, not nameless subtotals in some statistical column. They were victims just like the Polish officers in the Katyn Forest, or the gypsies liquidated by the Nazi hit squads, , or the Jews murdered at Auschwitz. For those affected -- no matter whether Pole, gypsy, Jew or German -- being a victim meant that their personal experience was extinguished, often under conditions of unbearable torment. All fell victims to injustices that can never be redressed." +He is surely no Revisionazi, i.e. Holocaust-denier. Not in the least. He does not take into consideration, however, that the enormous majority of the Germans that moved westwards were doing so voluntarily, mainly to stay ahead of the Soviet offensive. +> author of NEMESIS AT POTSDAM, + This one is a monograph about the expulsion of +the ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe in 1945-about 1947 and +later. The basic facts are more or less uncontroversial, as far +I can see. However, DeZayas implicitely accuses the US government, +(and the Western Allies) of complacency and complicity with Stalin +regarding that policy. That's what attracts the relish of Revisionists. de Zayas attempts to demonize Morgenthau: "The Morgenthau Plan and JCS/1067 It has been said that the Morgenthau Plan was the blunder of the American Civil War Reconstruction applied to Germany. The analogy is not altogether without validity. In the latter President Lincoln's 'malice-toward-none-charity-for-all' plan was supplanted by the old *vae victis* idea of Northern radicals whose plan for dealing with the Beaten South was to crush it thoroughly so that it would never rise again. Similarly, after the Second World War, the humanitarian ideal for the Atlantic Charter was sacrifieced to an ill-concieved plan which envisaged the elimination of the industrial potential of Germany by making it strictly pastoral land. The plan was worked out on the basis of a memorandum prepared by Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. for the Quebec Conference of 11-16 September, 1944, which was attended by President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Churchill, and by the Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King. Although the Morgenthau Plan was not officially adopted by the Western Allies, much of it reappeared in JCS/1067 and in this form played an important role in shaping American and British occupation policy in the first months and years following the German surrender, during which a thoroughgoing de-industriali- zation was carried out. JCS/1067 was a directive from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Commander-in-Chief of the United States Forces of Occupation, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, issued in April 1945. It instructed General Eisenhower in part: 'You will take no action that would tend to support basic living standards in Germany ON A HIGHER LEVEL [emphasis mine: HWM] than that existing in any other of the neighboring United Nations and you will take appropriate measures to ensure that basic living standards of the German people ARE NOT HIGHER [emphasis mine - HWM] than those existing in any one of the neighboring United Nations when such measures will contribute to raising the standards of any such nation. For numerous reasons this directive was disproportionately harsh [!!! - HWM]. For one, Germany had traditionally enjoyed a higher standard of living than most of her neighbors, being the most highly indistrialized country in Europe. [...]" Dr. de Zayas felt that a defeated German nation deserved to have a _higher_ standard of living than that of the Poles, Czechs, French, Jugoslavs, etc. whose economies had been devastated by the Nazi invadors. Strange logic... +> A TERRIBLE REVENGE (see above) > and THE WEHRMACHT WAR CRIMES BUREAU? +I know only the German version of this book. +As it is a thesis, basically DeZayas studied a certain group +of sources. I.e. the files and history of the German Military +jurisdiction which investigated Allied war crimes during WWII. +Basically, he finds the sources reliable, i.e. based on real +criminalist investigations, despite all political pressure. de Zayas tells us in his Itroduction to _The Wermacht War Crimes Bureau_ "The task assigned to the *Wermacht-Untersuchungstelle* was to investigate reports of alleged violations of the laws and customs of war, whether committed by members of the Allied or Axis forces; however the extant files of the Bureau -- estimated to be half of its total records -- include NO INVESTIGATIONS OF AXIS WAR CRIMES [my emphasis - HWM] apart from a thin volume concerning the killing of British prisoners of war in North Africa in 1942. The remaining 225 volumes deal with alleged Allied violations, primarily by the Soviet Union. The bulk of these available records is made up of WITNESS TESTIMONY [emphasis mine - HWM. I though witnesses didn't count! - HWM] sworn to before German military judges; military intelligence reports, and captured Allied documents add valuable information." +This again attracts Revisionist interest, as they can present +German victims, quoting his book. Revisionists will find little in de Zaya's books to comfort them. While de Zaya makes little mention of the Holocaust (he never actually uses the word), there is no question that he believes Jews and gypsies were murdered in huge numbers. Some of the so-called Revisionists will attempt to excuse the Nazi excesses by claiming that the Allies did the same after WWII. JCS/1067 hardly matches up to the Nuremberg Laws. The most telling attitude about the extermination of the Jews appears in Chapter Eleven: "Other Germans at the Nuremberg trials have tried to excuse themselves by claiming ignorance and explaining this ignorance on the grounds of Hitler's fundamental 'Order No. 1' with respect to the keeping of official secrets -- including, of course, *Sonderbehandlung* (special treat- ment) of the Jews and Endl=F6 sung (Final Solution) of the Jewish question which was classified *geheime Reichssache* (literally, Reich secret matter, the highest level of state secret). The so-called *F=FChhrerbefehl Nummer 1*, dated 11 January 1940, specified that (1) no one shall know about secret matters that do not belong to his own range of assignments; (2) no one shall learn more than he needs to fulfill the tasks asigned to him; (3) no one shall receive information earlier than is necessary for the performance of the duties assigned to him; (4) no one shall transmit to subordinate officers, to any greater extent or any earlier than is unaviodable for the acievement of the purpose, orders that are to be kept secret. One of the most amazing single documents in support of the thesis that knowledge of the exterminations was limited to a relatively small percentage of Germans is Heinrich Himmler's Posen speech of 4 October 1943 to top SS leaders: 'Most of you know what it means when 100 corpses lie there, or when 500 corpses lie there, or when 1,000 corpses lie there. To have gone through this and -- apart from a few exceptions caused by human weakness -- to have remained decent, that has made us hard. This is a page of glory in our history *which has never been written and which never is to be written.* (emphasis by de Zayas) There were, of course, visible signs of abuses against Jews, but deportation to the east was not perceived even by the victims as a step towards extermination. Even persons high in the Nazi hierarchy appeared to have been ignorant of the truth. [...]" de Zayas has an interesting comment to make about the Malmedy trial: "The German units involved were easily identified after the war, and a trial against seventy-three former SS soldiers began on 16 May 1946 at Dachau, the former Nazi concentration camp near munich. The accused, presenting their version of the events claimed that the American soldiers -- caught by surpriseby the Germant armored attack--did surrender and were in the process of being sent to the rear of the German lines, but that in the confusion of the second day of the Battele of the Bulge, a new wave of German tanks apparently mistook the Americans in uniform for regular combatants. Counsel for the defense also noted that according to the testimony of some American witnesses -- that no shots fell until the American soldiers started to flee-- thge killings were so closely related to the fighting that the case for deliberate murder was rendered somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, on 16 July 1946, forty-three of the accused received the death sentence; thirty were condemned to long prison terms. Five years after the Nuremberg and Dachau trials, the American Military Government in Germany implemented a policy of reconciliation and amnesty in the course of which the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Armed forces in Germany, General Thomas T. Handy, reduced the sentences of many of the Malmedy convicts and changed all death sentences to life imprisonment. Without expressing a doubt about their actual guilt, General Handy explained his decision of 31 January 1951 by conceding mitigating circumstances since the killings had 'ocurred in connection with confused, volatile and desperate fighting.' " WHAT? No torturing? No crushed testicles? If de Zaya, who is a serious historian albeit with a penchant for overlooking Nazi crimes and enlarging Allied crimes, makes no mention of torture in this case, one can feel fairly secure that torture did not take place. Thank's, Ulrich, for your fine research and comments. Thanks also for the copies of the Zyklon patent! Do you want more, Jamie? Kindest regards, Harry Nizkor (USA) - An Electronic Holocaust Educational Resource Anonymous ftp: http://www.almanac.bc.ca/cgi-bin/ftp.pl? European mirror: ftp://nizkor.iam.uni-bonn.de/pub/nizkor/ Nizkor Web: http://www.almanac.bc.ca/ (Under construction permanently!)
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