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     ...and the gases of this engine were going to be
     directed inside and the Jews would be poisoned. This
     was terrible for me. I do not have such a steadfast
     nature for something of this kind...of this kind to
     pass over me without reaction.
     If today I see the gaping injury of an open cut on a
     person, I cannot look at it. I belong to such a class
     of people and I am often told that I could never have
     been a doctor. Even now, I still don't know how I
     immediately pictured the thing to myself, and that my
     demeanour became somewhat uncertain, as if I had gone
     through something upsetting...upsetting, as sometimes
     happens when we afterwards feel a slight inner shaking,
     or I would express it somewhat like that. With this my
     task was fulfilled and I went back to Berlin and
     reported on the matters to the Chief of the Security
     Police and the SD.
     L. Mueller?
     E. Mueller, too, of course.
     L. And Heydrich?
     E. Yes, Heydrich, but Mueller was my immediate
     superior; so I had to inform him of my journey and I
     also reported to him. I told him what I have now said.
     Possibly now I am confusing several matters; may I be
     permitted make myself...
     L. Yes, please go on.

     E. Which were the make myself notes possibly
     because of my attempts to keep some order. For it
     was...I said previously that it must have been at the
     end of the summer - in autumn, as I still remember,
     that these wooden huts were...they were in a region of
     deciduous trees, in a thickly wooded area of deciduous
     trees, large trees and their leaves were in full
     L. In what year?
     E. This was forty one.
     L. And so: after the...
     E. After the outbreak of the German-Russian War, '41,
     it therefore must have been the autumn of '41 - for
     then I was sent on to Kulm in the I
     must think: when was it in the Warthegau?
     L. Kulbin?
     E. Kulm, to Kulm.
     L. Kulm.
     E. Kulm, in the Warthegau. I have to reflect on this:
     When was this, Kulm in the Warthegau? Then I...this was
     the first time that I had to watch something like this,
     but this time I was sent by Gruppenfuehrer Mueller.
     Let me say this right away: Warthegau...'41, this was,
     at all events, after this event, it was not winter,
     there was no snow, I remember that it was cold. I don't
     know whether it was autumn '41, or was it now '42. But
     we can easily reconstruct this, as follows: There must
     certainly be other testimonies when the Ghetto of
     Litzmannstadt was dealt with and generally the matter
     of the Warthegau, when the Jews there were
     exterminated. Because approximately at this initial
     period I received an order from Mueller to go to
     Litzmannstadt and to report to him on what was
     happening there. He did not say this to me as exactly,
     as crassly as did Heydrich, he said to me:

     "There is a Jewish Operation going on over there."
     Mueller would never have expressed himself in such a
     blatantly cruel manner: a person like Mueller would
     never have done this: he said roughly as follows:
     "A Jewish Operation is taking place there, Eichmann, go
     there; try to find out what is happening there. Report
     to me."
     I went there, I reported to the Stapoleit at
     Litzmannstadt, I enquired there and they gave me an
     account: this was a special unit which the Rechsfuehrer
     had detailed and it was under the command I do
     not know whether the SS and Police Leader of the
     Warthegau or the Higher SS and Police Leader of the
     Warthegau. This is as much as I remember, but I was
     given an exact description where Kulm was situated,
     where it was. Perhaps they also sent an official with
     me to find my way, certainly because I had to approach
     an authority which...which, let us say: this mediation,
     that it came from the Head Office of Reich Security on
     a mission on behalf of Gruppenfuehrer Mueller, that I
     should watch this in order to report to Gruppenfuehrer
     Mueller, this is no longer known to me today. I only
     know this: that I saw what could be described as
     A room - if I remember correctly - possibly five times
     the size of this one, perhaps only four times as large.
     There were Jews inside, they were required to undress,
     and after that a completely closed truck arrived and
     the doors in front were opened and it came up to some
     kind of platform; and the naked Jews were obliged to go
     inside. Afterwards the truck was closed and began to

     L. How many people were in the truck?
     E. I cannot tell you this exactly. I could not even
     watch what was going on exactly, all the time I did not
     look at it; I was far too upset. I told this to Mueller
     also, at the time I reported.
     He did not derive much benefit from my report.
     Afterwards I rode after the truck, certainly with one
     of the men who knew the way - and there I saw the most
     horrible thing that I had ever seen in my life:

     It drove up to a long ditch, the doors were opened, and
     the bodies were thrown out, as if they were still alive
     - their limbs were so supple. They were thrown into the
     ditch - I could still see how a civilian was removing
     teeth with pliers, and then I moved away from there. I
     entered the car and went away, and I did not speak at
     all. From then on I sat next to the driver for hours
     without exchanging a word with him. By then I was
     "fixed," then I was "finished." I only know further
     that a doctor in a white coat said to me that I should
     look through the peephole in the partition to see how
     they were inside the vehicle. I refused to do this. I
     couldn't...I couldn't say another word. I had to get
     I came to Berlin, I reported to Gruppenfuehrer Mueller.
     I described those things to him exactly as I am doing
     now - more I couldn't say to him: More precisely I said
     to him...:
     Terrible," I said, "the Inferno...I cannot...this
     is...that I cannot..." I said to him.
     L. What did Mueller say?
     E. When I...Mueller was never in the habit of saying
     anything, never, not on these matters, nor on other
     matters. He was always very frugal with words and quiet
     and only said things that were the most essential. He
     said "yes" or "no" or when he said neither "yes" or
     "no" then generally he used to say "Comrade Eichmann" -
     that was, I didn't know, "yes" or "no." He was frugal
     with words.
     L. Did you hand in a written report on this?
     E. No, I was not authorized to do so, I was
     specifically forbidden to do so.
     L. By Mueller?
     E. But I...
     L. Mueller forbade you to do so?
     E. I believe that it was Heydrich,

     L. Did you report to him at all?
     E. Not on this, no, not on this. At that time I didn't
     reach...then Mueller sent me there...Mueller wanted to
     know first and foremost the much time it
     took. This I was incapable of saying. I couldn't tell
     him how long...I could not...I could not... I couldn't
     hear this. This was beyond me, I could not do it...the
     time... I was obliged to travel there a second time,
     but then understandably, I did not volunteer and
     nothing was said to me.
     This was, therefore, the second time I had something to
     do with these things; on the first occasion there were
     these hermetically sealed trucks, of some...exhaust gas
     from a submarine engine, this I heard, the second time
     I saw it. Because I related this experience to my my permanent deputy.
     Attorney General: Mr. Less - Would you be good enough
     to play to the Court the excerpt from page 210, which
     begins with the words "Herr Eichmann, Sie wollten..."
     and continue to page 221, up to the words "...dann hier
     diese Sache vertaten."
     Less Mr. Eichmann, you wanted to speak about your
     visits to...
     Eichmann Yes...
     L. ...the extermination camps
     E. Yes, surely, yes surely, I suppose that...And so, 3
     and 4, Minsk and Lvov - because I was sent to Minsk and
     Lvov, certainly, for I have already said previously
     that I do not at all remember what I had to do at Lvov,
     and this surely I would have connected. Mueller said to
     me "In Linz" I mean "In Minsk they are
     shooting Jews, I want a report on how this is taking

     After this I went to Minsk. In Minsk there was nothing
     for me to do, nor did I get to know anyone there. I
     went across the first areas where the double battle had
     taken place, that which had been in two places:
     possibly it was...I imagine: Minsk and Bialystok. I
     definitely went first to Bialystok and after that to
     Minsk, I presume - I do not know this exactly any more.
     I came to Minsk, going to the same authority - what was
     its name - how was it called? "The Commander of the
     Security Police" or it may have been called
     "Einsatzkommando." Really I don't know how it was
     called, and there I asked for the Commander, and I
     still remember that he was not present. I spoke to
     someone else whose name altogether escapes me today and
     I told him that I had orders to watch it, in order to
     report to Gruppenfuehrer Mueller. That was that. The
     next day - I remained in that city for the night - the
     next day I came there, but I came too late, because on
     that day in the morning the affair had already ended,
     was almost completed, a matter on which I, for myself,
     rejoiced. When I got there I only managed to see how
     young marksmen, I think there were these marksmen with
     the death-heads on their coat collars...they were
     shooting into the pit, which was quite a large size,
     let us say four or five times this room, perhaps even
     six or seven times. I have...I have...all my
     recollections of this instance are unreliable for I
     only saw this thing without any thoughts, without
     forming any thoughts about it whatsoever. I simply saw
     - and nothing more than that: they fired into the pit,
     and I can still see a woman...with her arms behind
     her...and then her knees buckled and I made off.
     L. You didn't look into the pit?
     E. Yes, I stood there, they fired, I saw it and I went
     away to...

     L. The pit was full?
     E. Pardon?
     L. Was the pit full of bodies?
     E. It was full, it was full. I went away to my car. I
     got in and started driving - I drove to Lvov. I had no
     orders to go to Lvov...even this I remember now but
     apparently the road passed through Lvov. Somehow I came
     to Lvov and saw the first encouraging picture, after
     the awful things I had seen there: This was the railway
     station building, which had been erected to mark the
     Sixtieth Anniversary of the reign of the Emperor Franz
     Josef - and seeing that I personally was overwhelmed
     with joy regarding this period of Franz Josef, possibly
     because I had heard an abundance of wonderful things in
     my parents' home about this period or about events that
     occurred during this period... - my relatives on the
     side of my step-mother were, at this time, as you would
     say, of a high social standing...It was painted yellow.
     This chased away for the first time - I still remember
     this today otherwise I wouldn't have realized this,
     that this sixtieth jubilee...that the figures of this
     Jubilee were engraved on the wall of this station
     building - those terrible thoughts which had not yet
     departed from me since Minsk. I came there, and visited
     the local commander of the State Police...please... I
     was...perhaps I even had an order, perhaps not, perhaps
     I went there only out of curiosity, and I paid a visit
     there to the commander since I was passing the place,
     and said to him: "Yes," I said to him "this is
     terrible, what is going on there," I said to him,
     "these young men are being brought up as sadists." This
     is exactly what I said, incidentally, to Mueller as
     well - later on. I also said so to Guenther, I said it
     to everyone; I even said it to Suhr, I said it to all
     of them. I also said this to Hunsche... I did not
     have... I told this to everyone and I said: "How can it
     be possible? Simply fire away at a woman and children?
     How can this be possible?" I said: "This cannot be
     possible, these people must become crazy or sadists,
     and they are our own people." And then he said to me:
     "Exactly so, this is also happening with us here, they
     shoot here, too. Do you want to see it once? Do you
     want to see it once?" I said: "No, I don't want to see
     anything." He said "Anyhow we are going to pass by."
     Then I saw something else which was terrible: there was
     a pit, perhaps it was already closed. There welled up
     like a geyser should I say this...a jet of
     blood. I have never seen anything like it. As far as I
     was concerned this assignment was enough and I drove to
     Berlin and related this to Gruppenfuehrer Mueller.

     L. Who travelled with you in Lvov. Who was he?
     E. , What, if you please...?
     E. Who was this in Lvov?
     E. This was the Commander - I don't know whether he was
     called "Stapolei" - this could not be - it couldn't
     have been the Head of the State Police - it certainly
     must have been the Einsatzkommando, possibly the
     Einsatzkommando of Lemberg, the Einsatzkommando of the
     State Security and SD - it was an Einsatzkommando -
     this was its official name. I am more inclined to
     believe this than that it was the State Police Office.
     State Police Offices were certainly not to be found at
     that time in Lvov but there were only operational
     units; surely Lvov used to belong to the
     Generalgouvernement? Or, at this moment I do not know
     if it belonged to the Generalgouvernement or to any
     other zone - I do not know, Captain. But at all events
     I said to Mueller, I said: "This is not a solution to
     the Jewish problem, this is not a solution."
     I said that to him, above everything else we were
     bringing up people to be sadists - we should not be
     surprised at all, we should not be surprised if they
     became criminals - all of them criminals. I still
     remember that Mueller looked at me with an expression
     which I recognized, and in it I read what he was saying
     to me.
     "Eichmann, you are right, this is not a solution." But
     he could do nothing, Mueller could do nothing about it.
     Mueller surely could not do anything, could do nothing,
     not a thing. I do not know any more who gave the order
     about those...about those things...gave the
     order...yes, gave the order...yes, of course the Chief
     of the Security Police and the SD gave the order - it
     was he who gave the order for this - this is absolutely
     clear. But even he was obliged to receive an
     instruction from the Reichsfuehrer-SS - namely Himmler
     - he could never have done such a thing on his own. And
     Himmler too, must have had his detailed orders from
     Hitler, otherwise, unless Hitler had ordered this, he
     would have been fired out of hand.
     L. But didn't Hitler give an order in writing about
     this final solution of the Jewish question?
     E. In writing? ...For exterminating them?... For
     exterminating them physically?
     L. For exterminating them physically?
     E. I never saw such an order in writing, Captain. All I
     know is that Heydrich told me: "The Fuehrer has ordered
     the physical destruction of the Jews" -  this he said
     clearly and as certainly in fact as I repeat it now.
     And these were now...these were the first consequences.
     These were...these were minor matters, these that I
     have now described. I even asked the Gruppenfuehrer, I
     said to him: "Please do not send me there. Send someone
     else, someone stronger. You can see that on no occasion
     did they allow me to [go to] the front, I was never a
     There are plenty of others who can watch this; they do
     not collapse - I cannot see it." I said: "I cannot
     sleep at night. I dream - I cannot, Gruppenfuehrer!"
     But this was not granted.
     L. So after this you had to [go to] Auschwitz?

     E. I returned and received the orders. I was forced
     also to visit Auschwitz...because...not in order to see
     this  there, first and foremost...but also on that,
     incidentally, he obliged me to report. I told him that
     I would see it because they were building extensions
     there - I did not know at all that there were other
     buildings - I had to report to him on this as
     well...yes, furthermore, I must also say this,
     Captain...these people, when you came to them, made a
     special amusement for themselves  of the whole matter,
     to give a man who had come to them directly from an
     office desk the most horrifying description and to
     intimate the whole thing in as abrupt a fashion as
     possible and they rejoiced, obviously, from time to
     time, if here, from the point of view of his
     nerves...the person could not retain his composure as
     they were accustomed to call it, in the way they did,
     is that not so? Hoess once said...I think that I was
     there three times, two or three times in Auschwitz.
     Three times, I was there once because of Storfer...he
     had said to me, Hoess said to me that Himmler was there
     and took everything in, he watched everything exactly
     and that even his knees shook, Hoess said to me. He
     raised this...he obviously intended it as a
     condemnation, for Hoess was very hardened. It was on
     the same day about which Hoess said to me that Himmler
     saw this, he said - surely also in order to encourage
     his own spirits and so that his SS men of the
     concentration camp should not notice his weakness -
     which in fact Hoess noticed, otherwise he couldn't
     surely have said this to me - he said that "these are
     battles which coming generations will not have to
     fight, will not have to fight." I said, Captain, I was
     in Auschwitz three times. I was twice in Auschwitz
     because of the problem of Hungary, and I was in
     Auschwitz once, because in my absence while I was in
     Hungary the Kommerzialrat Storfer of Vienna was
     arrested by the Police Commander of the Vienna
     District, Ebner, and afterwards brought to the
     concentration camp at Auschwitz. On this matter I
     participated in a joint meeting with Ebner, for Ebner
     knew and ought to have known that Storfer, in the same
     way as Loewenherz, was active for years in Jewish life,
     and in no circumstances was it permitted to have
     imprisoned him in a concentration camp. I did not do
     this with anyone else. I did not [arrest] any of those
     persons who in the course of all those years...I do not
     want to say "who collaborated" - this would be
     criticized by people even today - this was not
     "collaboration." Jews, these Jewish functionaries
     actually worked for their community. Surely someone
     from amongst this group had to meet with me, in order
     to discuss these matters with me, and such were these
     people; they knew that if I promised something, I would
     carry it out. When Dr. Rothenberg asked me, right at
     the beginning that at a certain time, at a reasonable
     time, after various questions had been arranged and had
     been started [I would make it possible for him] to
     emigrate to Palestine, then when he approached me in
     this matter on the first occasion, I said to him:
     "Please let us wait a little, even if this will be a
     matter of some months, until this and other matters
     [would be arranged] and afterwards - certainly." And
     this is how it was, and he approached me again, and
     then I said: "Yes, definitely, Dr. Rothenberg if you
     please, go, everything is ready for you." He went.
     Loewenherz asked me in the same way that he should be
     allowed to travel to England after the matter was
     concluded, seeing that his children and relatives were
     there. I said to him: Certainly he could do so. He
     could travel wherever he wished. The fact that this was
     not carried out was not my fault, seeing that the
     occurrences of the War prevented the matter."

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