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1.  It has already been emphasized above that the war crimes
imputed to the Accused in substance are crimes against
humanity within the meaning of the Nazi Punishment Law; it
is therefore unnecessary to enter into a separate discussion
of the offence of war crime, as defined in the Nazi
Punishment Law.

2.  The same view is held, in respect of art. 10 (1) (c) of
the Control Council Law No. 10 and the attitude of the
Allied Powers, by Feldmann, Das Verbrechen gegen die
Menschlichkeit, 1948, p. 15.

3.  A detailed description of the development is to be found
in Schottlaender's article: Die geschichtliche Entwicklung
des Satzes nulla poena sine lege, Strafrechtliche
Abhandlungen, No. 132, Breslau, 1911; see also Maurach,
Deutsches Strafrecht, Allgemeiner Teil, 2nd ed., 1958, p.

4.  See Jescheck, Verantwortlichkeit, p. 239.

5.  See in this respect also ibid., p. 238.

6.  See generally: Friedrich Christian Schroeder, Die
Grundsaetze der Strafgesetzgebung der UdSSR und der
Unionsrepubliken, Studien des Instituts fuer Ostrecht, Vol.
10, 1960, p. 24.

7.  Ibid., pp. 24-25.

8.  Law Reports 1933, I K. B., 529 - quoted also by
Schoenke, ibid., p. 11.

9.  See reference in Schoenke, Materialien zum englisch-
amerikanischen Strafrecht, 4th supplement to Deutsche
Rechtszeitschrift, 1948, p. 4.

10.  See ibid., p. 5; Jescheck, Verantwortlichkeit, pp. 236-

11.  Der Geist des englischen Rechts, 3rd ed., Goettingen,
1956, p. 60, note 1 [the quotation from Holdsworth is a re-
translation, Radbruch's book not being available to the
translator and no mention being made where Holdsworth's
statement may be found - Translator].

12.  United States Military Tribunal IV, Case No. 11 (the
case of the "Wilhelmstrasse"), dissenting opinion p. 43.

13.  Pal, op. cit., pp. 17-18.

14.  Jeschek, Verantwortlichkeit, p. 232.

15.  In agreement: ibid., p. 233; Schoenke, op. cit., .  p.

16.  Ibid.

17.  See, inter alia: Schoenke-Schroeder, Kommentar zum
StGB, 9th ed., 1959, Ann. XIV to para. 2.

18.  Legal Control of International Conflicts, London, 1954,
p. 368.

19.  Vorschule der Rechtsphilosophie, 2nd ed. Goettingen,
1959, p. 112.

20.  Der Geist des englischen Rechts, p. 60, note s.

21.  In this context it has not been overlooked that the
original meaning of the ex-post-facto prohibition has been
to guarantee that criminal proceedings be held in a court of
law; see Maurach, Deutsches Strafrecht, Allgemeiner Teil, p.
85; Sax, Grundsaetze der Strafrechtspflege, in Bettermann-
Nipperdey-Scheuner, Die Grundrechte, Vol. 3, Part 2, 1959,
p. 992, note 250.

22.  Stone's comments (Legal Controls, p. 368) are
characteristic for this kind of argumentation.

23.  Radbruch, Vorschule der Rechtsphilosophie, p. 112.

24.  In this sense i.a.: Smith, The Nuremberg Trials, in
Free Europe, Vol. 13 (1946), p. 202; Pal, ibid., p. 12;
Quincy Wright, The Law of the Nuremberg Trial, Am. J. Int.
Law, 41, 1947, p. 53; Memorandum of the Evangelical Church,
p. 22; Morgan, The Great Assize, p. 23; in favour of the
recognition of the rule as a principle of international law
- see also Donnedieu de Vabres, Principes, p. 429 and
Schoenke-Schroeder, Note III 5 to paragraph 2; Lord Hankey,
Politics, Trials and Errors, p. 131 ff.

25.  Smith, The Nuremberg Trials, p. 202.

26.  Smith, The Crisis in the Law of Nations, p. 46.

27.  See, e.g., Kelsen, Peace through Law, p. 87; Schick,
The Nuremberg Trial and the International Law of the Future,
Am. J. Int. Law, 41, 1947, p. 793; Viscount Maugham, in his
preface to Morgan, The Great Assize, p. vii.

28.  See Sax, Grundsaetze der Strafrechtspflege, .  p. 992;
Maurach, Deutsches Strafrecht, Allgemeiner Teil, pp. 85-86;
also Bauer, Die Kriegsverbrecher vor Gericht, p. 167. As to
prior origins, see the authors just mentioned, ibid., and
Schottlaender, Die geschichtliche Entwicklung des Satzes
"Nulla poena sine lege," 1911, passim.

29.  Maurach, Deutsches Strafrecht, Allgemeiner Teil (2), p.

30.  See Donnedieu de Vabres, Principes, p. 407.

31.  Wintrich, Die Bedeutung der "Menschenwuerde" fuer die
Anwendung des Rechts, Bay VB1, 1957, p. 137.

32.  In the first place, Forsthoff is to be mentioned: Die
Bindung an Gesetz und Recht (art.20 (3) GG) DOeV 1959, p. 41
ff; Der Jurist in der industriellen Gesellschaft, NJW 1960,
p. 1273 ff.

33.  Ibid., p. 41.

34.  Ibid.

35.  Ibid.

36.  Ibid.

37.  Verantwortlichkeit der Staatsorgane, p. 226.

38.  Schwarzenberger, Power Politics, A Study of
International Society, New York, 1951, p. 224.

39.  Ibid., p. 224; a similar view is held also by Bauer,
Die Kriegsverbrecher vor Gericht, 1945, p. 82; see also Lord
Hankey, Politics, Trials and Errors, Oxford, 1950, p. 9;
most critically also Morgan, The Great Assize, pp. 22-23.

40.  Schwarzenberger, op.cit.

41.  This reserve is expressed in various passages of
Schwarzenberger's book: pp. 224, 230, 635; see Bauer, op.
cit., p. 84: "This universal opinion [is]) a very nebulous
term which it is extremely difficult to define more

42.  Smith, The Crisis in the Law of Nations, p. 17 ff.

43 .  Ibid., p. 95.

44 .  In Strupp-Schlochauer, Woerterbuch des Voelkerrechts,
Vol. I, 2nd ed., 1960 - item "Ethos, Internationales" (p.
444 ff.).

45.  See Schwarzenberger, Power Politics, p. 636.

46 .  See ibid.

47 .  As quoted by Schwarzenberger, ibid., p. 636.

48.  See ibid.

49.  Ibid., p. 636; see also in this context the similar
note by the same author in Current Legal Problems, 1956, p.
293; Kelsen arrives at the same result (Principles of
International Law, 1952, p. 152) - ("only the character of a

50.  Schwarzenberger, op. cit., p. 636.

51.  As quoted by Schwarzenberger, ibid..

52.  Ibid., p. 638.

53.  Forsthoff, Bindung, p. 41.

54 .  See The Trial of the Main War Criminals in the
International Military Tribunal, Exhibit 630 - PS, Vol.
XXVI, p. 169.

55 .  In the collection "Der Fuehrer ins Nichts. Eine
Diagnose Adolf Hitlers," with further contributions by Edith
Eucken-Erdsieck, Gert Buchheim and H. G. Adler, Rastatt,

56.  Ibid.

57.  Emphasis added.

58.  RGB1. I, p. 83.

59.  See Hofer, Der Nationalsozialismus, Dokumente
1933_1945, Frankfurt, 1957, p. 43.

60.  See also Hofer, ibid.

61.  RGB1 I, p. 151.

62.  RGB1 I, p. 141.

63 .  RGB1 I, p. 134.

64.  See in detail the references in Poliakov-Wulf, Das
Dritte Reich und seine Diener, Berlin, 1936, p. 231 ff.

65.  RGB1 I, p. 372.

66.  A complete description of the development is made by
Kern, Geschichte des Gerichtsverfassungsrechts, 1954, p. 197

67.  In this sense, expressly Freisler, Der Rechtsstaat,
Deutsche Juristenzeitung 1937, p. 151 ff, 152.

68.  Krauss-v.Schweinichen, Disputation ueber den
Rechtsstaat, Hamburg, 1935, p. 30 ff.

69.  Ibid., p. 30.

70.  Ibid, p. 86; Schmitt's sneering remark on F.J. Stahl,
one of the most remarkable scholars of German constitutional
law, is likewise noteworthy: "...the miserable artifices of
a Jolson-Stahl whose German_Christian mask has been torn off
so convincingly by the advocate of the thesis."

71.  Lange, Vom Gesetzesstaat zum Richterstaat, Tuebingen,

72.  See, e.g.,Schutz des Volkes oder des Rechtsbrechers?,
Deutsches Strafrecht, 1935, p. 1 ff; Richter, Recht und
Gesetz, Deutsche Justiz, 1934, p. 1333 ff; Guertner-
Freisler, Das neue Strafrecht, 1936, p. 33 ff; Freisler, Der
Rechtsstaat, Deutsche Justiz, 1937, p. 151 ff.

73.  Deutsche Justiz, 1937, p. 152. Emphasis added.

74.  Maurach, Deutsches Strafrecht, 1935, p. 16.

75.  In Guertner-Freisler, Das neue Strafrecht,  p. 22 - set
in spaced type in the original.

76.  Maurach, Deutsches Strafrecht, 1935, p. 13.

77.  OGHSt 1, 1 ff (4-5).

78.  OGHSt 2, 231 ff (232).

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