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Shofar FTP Archive File: people/e/eichmann.adolf/transcripts/Sessions/Session-048-02

Archive/File: people/e/eichmann.adolf/transcripts/Sessions/Session-048-02
Last-Modified: 1999/06/02

Judge Raveh:   Mrs. Mark, you said that someone obtained
permission for you to remain in Czernowitz. Was that a Jew
or a Romanian?

Witness Mark:   He was a Jewish colleague, who had studied
at university with me.

Q. How was it possible for him to request such a permit?

A. It was possible for special people.

Q. About how many people remained behind in this way?

A. I cannot say today - I don't know. We were not allowed to
leave the house, so we just did not meet one another.

Q. Throughout all these years you could not leave the house
- only during the first years, or throughout the entire

A. No, not all those years. We were not allowed to go out
for a couple of years - as long as the Germans were there,
we were allowed to go out only between 11 and 1 o'clock. And
then it was dangerous, because we wore the yellow star. We
were outlaws - anyone could just shoot us down.

Judge Halevi:   How long did the Germans remain there?

Witness Mark:   Until 1944. Then we came here.

Q. Was that after liberation by the Russians?

A. No, the Germans were still there, the Russians came only
later.  We were separated, we had received certificates from
Palestine, these were special certificates and we left
immediately. It was a ramshackle ship, but we made it.

Q. Did you go via Constantsa?

A. Yes, we travelled via Constantsa.

Q. And before the German occupation, the Russians were also
in Czernowitz?

A. Yes, the Russians were in Czernowitz for a whole year.

Judge Halevi: Thank you very much.

Presiding Judge: Just one more question: From whom could
this special certificate, this special authorization to
remain in the town, be obtained?

Witness Mark:   It was a sort of company.

Q. Were they Germans or Romanians?

A. I think they were Jews, who somehow received permission
to issue such and such a number of certificates.

Q. Just a moment, I am not now referring to the certificate
which you obtained to leave in 1944.  In 1941 you received
authorization to remain in Czernowitz.

A. From the Romanians, not from the Germans.

Presiding Judge: Thank you very much, Mrs. Mark.

State Attorney Bach:  I would now like to submit a series of

The first document is our No. 472. Here von Killinger, the
German envoy in Bucharest, informs the German Foreign
Ministry that since the problems of Aryanization and
Romanization of Jewish property in Romania have reached a
crucial stage, it is absolutely vital that Hauptsturmfuehrer
Richter, the Accused's emissary, come to Bucharest
immediately, either in person or someone else, in order to
help with these procedures, as an expert in these matters is

Presiding Judge: This document will be marked T/1001.

State Attorney Bach:  The next document, our No. 840, is an
agreement between Germany and Romania on the area of
Transnistria - the area between the Dniester and the Bug,
and between the Bug and the Dnieper. Here I would draw your
attention to paragraph 7 of this agreement, enclosed here in
a frame.  This appears in the original. The special emphasis
appears in the original, and it says here that "the
expulsion of the Jews across the Bug is not possible at the
moment. For this reason, they should be concentrated in
concentration camps and put to work - until it is possible
to move them eastward, after the operations are completed."

Presiding Judge: Of course, it is impossible to say who put
this into the frame.  You say that it was marked in the
original, but the document passed through a number of hands,
did it not?

State Attorney Bach:  I only wanted to point out that we did
make the marking.  I assume that this was not in the
original.  Somebody in one of the German offices added it.

Presiding Judge: Who signed it?  The Romanian General Staff
and the German Army?

State Attorney Bach:  General-Major Hauffe signed for the
German army and Brigadier-General Tataranu for the

Presiding Judge: This document will be marked T/1002.

Judge Halevi:  Was the river Bug the western border of

State Attorney Bach:  I think it was the eastern border.
The area between the Dniester and the Bug - that was
Transnistria, and they objected to deportation across the

Judge Halevi:  Who objected?

State Attorney Bach:  In this agreement, the Germans
objected to uncontrolled deportations at that stage.  We
shall submit more documents on this subject.  But it was
part of the agreement that, in the meantime, Jews were not
to be deported beyond the Bug.

The next document is our No. 43.  Dr. Braeutigam of the
Reich Ministry for the Occupied Areas reports about a
meeting between Rademacher and SS Obersturmbannfuehrer
Eichmann on the one hand, and Amtsgerichtsrat Dr. Wetzel on
the other, the same Wetzel who has been referred to in other
documents.  He transmits a copy of the Tighina agreements,
i.e., the document I have previously submitted.  He says (in
his letter): "I draw special attention to paragraph 7 of the
agreements."  This may be an indication who put in the

Presiding Judge: This document will be marked T/1003.

State Attorney Bach:  Our next document is numbered 573.
Here Richter has already arrived in Bucharest and reports
about a meeting with Prime Minister Mihai Antonescu on 12
December 1941.  He says that draft laws prepared in co-
operation with Commissioner Lecca were discussed; the
population census is mentioned; there is mention of the
dissolution of the "Union of Jewish Communities in Romania"
headed by a man named Filderman - who will be mentioned
later; Antonescu is reported to be in agreement with the
German proposal; and the request of the Reichsfuehrer to
prevent emigration (of Jews) from Romania is raised and
reasons are given for it; then we find objection to the
emigration of five thousand Jews to Palestine; Richter says
that he suggested the establishment of a central Jewish
organization after the French pattern - basing himself on
the new law in Romania, under which it would be possible to
deal appropriately with Filderman.  Finally, he reports
about the case of Max Ausschnitt, a very rich Romanian Jew,
to whom the Romanians are willing to give permiasion to
emigrate, on condition that he leaves his entire fortune
behind.  Antonescu had said that he was no longer dangerous
because his health had already deteriorated.

Presiding Judge: This document will be marked T/1004.

State Attorney Bach:  In order to save time, may I now
submit two documents together, as they belong to the same
subject - our documents Nos. 576 and 577.  Richter informs
Lecca that several Jews, whose names are mentioned in the
documents, must not be allowed to pass through Germany for
the purpose of emigration.  He asks to check whether it is
possible to recruit these Jews for work.  In document No.
577 he says: "It seems appropriate to put Baratz (the
applicant) into a work camp."

Presiding Judge: Document No. 576 will be marked T/1005.
Document 577 will be marked T/1006.

State Attorney Bach:  Our next document is No. 571.  It was
shown to the Accused and was then numbered T/37(173).  Here
we find that Richter already reports directly to the
Accused.  He mentions once more that Antonescu has agreed to
stop the emigration, and for the first time he mentions the
"Struma," the ship on which seven hundred Jews are trying to
reach Palestine.  He says that as a result of his
intervention, the ship was actually forbidden to sail.  But
while he was away, the former chief of the Siguranta
(Security) ordered the ship to sail, contrary to his
decision.  He says that the "Struma" was now anchored in
Istanbul, and would apparently be sent back to Romania
because the Turks have had refused entry to the seven
hundred Jews into Turkey.  The Accused makes his remarks on
this document on page 2161 (of his statement).

Presiding Judge: This document will be marked T/1007.

Mr. Bach Our next document is No. 1225, another report

about a conversation between Richter and Prime Minister
Mihai Antonescu.  Richter reports that he asked the Prime
Minister to publish the organizational regulations of the
"Judenzentrale" (Central Board of the Jews) as soon as
possible.  He again mentions the cessation of emigration and
the "Struma" affair.  He more or less repeats similar facts.
I draw special attention to the third paragraph, which shows
the control Richter exercised over events concerning Jewish
affairs.  He told Antonescu about the division of functions
between Representative for Jewish Affairs Lecca and Dragos,
who was Undersecretary of State for Romanization.  He
reports how he proposed to divide the various tasks, and
that Antonescu was pleased with the arrangement.  Finally,
in paragraph 4, he mentions the case of a Jew named Clejan,
who was apparently asked to be a kind of leader of the
Romanian Jews, and who made a number of conditions before
accepting this function, and Richter adds this remark: "I
pointed out to the Deputy Prime Minister that nowadays it is
no longer proper to allow Jews to make conditions."

Presiding Judge: This document will be marked T/1008.

State Attorney Bach:  Our next document is No. 1226.  It was
shown to the Accused and marked T/37(310).  While Richter
had addressed the report I submitted before to the German
Minister, he sends a copy of this present report directly to
Obersturmbannfuehrer Eichmann in Berlin.  The Accused was
interrogated about this document beginning on page 3520, and
on page 3524 he was asked by Inspector Less: "Did Richter
always send all his reports to you?"  And the answer is: "To
the extent that the subject concerned Jewish matters, as for
instance in the present case, of course, that was his duty."

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/1009.

State Attorney Bach:  I now submit to the Court several
Romanian reports relating to the district of Transnistria.
The first document is our No. 474.  Here, the commander of
the gendarmerie (constabulary) reports to his superiors that
German SS men have taken 120 Jews out of a Jewish camp and
executed them by shooting.  This has caused general panic
and flights from the camp.  He adds: "The information is

Presiding Judge: Have you given Dr. Servatius a translation
into a language which he understands?

State Attorney Bach:  I think so.  A complete list of all
the documents which are not in German was drawn up, and we
supplied translations of all those documents.  I hope that
this is one of them.  The list was given to us at the time
by the Defence, and thus I hope that they are aware of the
contents of this document also.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/1010.

Dr. Servatius Your Honour, the Presiding Judge, I have not
yet received this document in German or in any other
language.  True, I can somehow decipher the general
contents, but I should be very grateful if I could receive
the document in German.

State Attorney Bach:  We shall provide translations of these
documents to the Defence.

The next document is our No. 475.  In it the same commandant
of the constabulary reports to his superiors that German
policemen took 1,400 Jews from the camp in two days and
executed them by shooting.  The property of the Jews was
seized and the bodies were burned.  All these things
happened in the district of Berezovka.  It says that the
information is reliable.

Presiding Judge: Do we know under whose command these camps
in Transnistria were?

State Attorney Bach:  Your Honours, later on we shall
produce another witness, who will describe conditions in
Transnistria for us.  As I demonstrated by that Tighina
Agreement, it was actually a joint German-Romanian
administration, and I think that matters were not always the
same in every place.  Later there were also sporadic
operations, there were German units and special operations
units; they would come and carry out special operations.  I
also think that some of the reports of the special
operations units, which have already been submitted in
connection with their general operations, included these
operations as well.  I have included only one report of a
special operations unit, which referred to Czernowitz only.
But there are also joint operations for the district of
Transnistria and special operations in the southern area.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/1011.

State Attorney Bach:  The next document is No. 476, which
reports that twelve hundred Jews were transferred to the
area of the constabulary post in Huliacovka, and from there
to a certain kolkhoz, and that afterwards the Germans, SS
men, took these Jews from the German settlement of
Lichtenfeld and shot them.  The information is reliable.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/1012.

State Attorney Bach:  Our next document is No. 83, which was
shown to the Accused and numbered T/37(256).  The Accused
writes to the German Foreign Ministry in connection with the
expulsion of the Romanian Jews to the Ukraine.  And here he
describes this process of expelling the Jews.  In principle,
he says, we agree to the removal of the Jews from Romania,
but this disorderly expulsion entails various dangers both
for the army and for the population, and this is detrimental
to the progress of the deportation of Jews from Germany.
Therefore, in order not to lose sight of the general plan,
he objects to these unorganized, haphazard expulsions.  So
far, he says: "I have abstained from taking Security Police
measures, but if these activities continue, I reserve to
myself the right to let the Security Police take action."
We shall see what that means in the next document.  The
Accused comments on this document on page 3068.

Presiding Judge: This will be marked 1013.

State Attorney Bach:  The next document is our No. 99, which
was before the Accused and was numbered T/37(257).  Here,
Your Honours, you actually see two documents.  In the first
one Rademacher informs the Accused that measures have in
fact been taken in accordance with his previous letter, but
I should like to direct special attention to the second
document concerning the same matter.  What Rademacher says
here is not especially important - he repeats the same
request - but I draw attention to the hand-written note at
the foot of the document, which says: "About 28,000 Jews
have been taken to German villages in Transnistria; in the
meantime they have been liquidated."  Rademacher's signature
follows, then the date - the 18th of the month.  This
document was shown to the Accused, and when his attention
was drawn to the hand-written note at the bottom, he said -
on page 3074: "Naturally I have nothing much to say about
this.  If they were brought to Romania illegally (those
60,000 persons whom I mentioned in the preceding letter),
then naturally action was taken in accordance with the
instructions of the Reichsfuehrer-SS."  And then he adds
this: "...und haben durch ihre Kommandos die Sache auf ihre
Art und Weise bereinigt" (...and they settled this through
their special detachments in their own particular way).

Less: "Indem man sie liquidiert hat?" (By liquidating them?)

Eichmann: "Jawohl" (Yes).

This appears on page 3074, second part (of the statement of
the Accused).

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/1014.

State Attorney Bach:  The next document is our No. 471, a
report from Richter concerning the negotiations about a
central authority for the Jews, negotiations with Antonescu,
and about drafting all the Jews for work assignment in

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/1014.

State Attorney Bach:  The next document is our No. 471, a
report from Richter concerning the negotiations about a
central authority for the Jews, negotiations with Antonescu,
and about drafting all the Jews for work assignment in

Presiding Judge: This will be marked T/1015.

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