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   "The Strange Story of Willis Carto - his fronts, his friends, his
                philosophy, his 'Lobby for Patriotism'

                           C.H. Simonds

   1. Mr. W.A. Carto Visits the Sick and Imprisoned

      Dimly, I could make out the form of this man - this strange and
      lonely many - through the thick wire netting. Inwardly, I cursed
      these heavy screens that prevented our confrontation. For even
      though our mutual host was the San Francisco County Jail, and
      even though the man upon whom I was calling was locked in
      equality with petty thieves and criminals, I knew that I was in
      the presence of a great force, and I could feel history standing
      beside me.

   History may well have wondered, that tenth day of June, 1960, why
   she had been called to attend the meeting of a former
   bill-collector turned proimoter of right-wing causes with a 'great
   force' being held on passport violation charges.  The great force
   was Francis Parker Yockey, and he was down and almost out - he
   would be dead in just a week, a suicide.  The promoter, Willis A.
   Carto, was on his way up; if History was on the ball that day, she
   beat it back to the office and told the staff to keep an eye on

   Today, eleven years later, Carto presides over a business empire
   with annual receipts of at least a million dollars.  His operations
   include publication of books, pamphlets and periodicals,
   direct-mail solicitation, campaign financing, fund-raising, a
   little travel agentry and data processing on the side.  He is the
   man behind such respectable-sounding organizations as Liberty
   Lobby, United Congressional Appeal, Save Our Schools, Americans for
   National Security, the 'Washington Observer,' the 'American
   Mercury.' Notwithstanding that these organizations affect a concern
   for American values and constitutionalism, Carto is driven by a
   philosophy of pure power, a philosophy essentially alien and
   fundamentally hostile to the American tradition, the philosophy of

   Like Yockey at their meeting, Carto is a shadow - a furtive man of
   middle height and middle build who shuns reporters, hates to have
   his picture taken, prefers to control his empire from behind the
   scenes while others front for him.  His friendships are few and
   brief, degenerating usually usually into acrimony.  He favors
   75-cent haircuts and $40 suits, and once raged at an employee for
   buying a gross of paperclips.  He delights in secrecy, conspiracy,
   and power.  He is every bit as 'strange and lonely' a man as his

   Carto was born July 19, 1926 in Fort Wayne, Indiana, and grew up in
   Mansfield, Ohio.  He served in the Army, probably on occupation
   duty in Japan (he is said to possess two Japanese rifles that he
   refers to as 'war souvenirs").  He attended college, but his mother
   will not say where 'because the newspapers can twist things.' In
   1952 he appeared in San Francisco, where he worked for the Anglo
   Bank, and for the Household Finance Corporation as an account
   collector.  After 1954, he appears to have devoted himself
   full-time to political activity as a director of the Congress of
   Freedom and executive secretary of another right-wing group,
   Liberty and Property.  In 1957, he was identified as a 'regional
   vice president' of We, the People.  In 1958 or 1959 he married
   Elisabeth Waltrud, a German National.

   At this stage, Carto appears - from the public record, at least -
   as a conservative of the free-enterprise, libertarian variety.  The
   Congress of Freedom was the child of an ardent libertarian, Robert
   LeFevre, and the two other groups Carto was associated with were at
   least ostensably libertarian-oriented - although Liberty and
   Property has been characterized by the Anti-Defamation League of
   B'nai B'rith (which is occasionally accurate) as 'an outlet for
   anti-Semitic propaganda and a clearing house of information about
   the activities of Anti-Semites and Anti-Semitic organizations.'

   But Carto desired more, and in 1959 went to Belmont, Massachusetts
   to work for the John Birch Society.  He stayed a little less than a
   year, leaving after a dispute (nature unknown) with Robert Welch.
   While there, he contributed two short articles to the Society's
   magazine, 'American Opinion.' In 'The Hundred-Year Hoax,' a
   critique of marx's labor-capital division from the viewpoint of
   classical economics, Carto is still very much the libertarian.  But
   in 'What's _Right_ in America,' a descriptive listing of six types
   of opponents of 'Marxist equalism,' there is a new, racist
   emphasis, centered on the 'Eugenic' opponents of such equalism.

   Carto expressed his views on racial purity more frankly in private
   correspondence.  In 1960 he wrote to Frank Hanigan, the founder of
   'Human Events,' objecting to the paper's publication of articles by
   Phillippa Schuyler, the journalist and concert pianist (and
   daughter of George Schuyler, with Carto an occasional contributor
   to 'American Opinion'), whom he described as 'the hybrid offspring
   of George Schuyler and his White wife...[who] eschew the Supreme
   Court as the 'solution' for segregation...  [and are] avid
   crusaders and practitioners of a far speedier road towards racial
   mongrelization - the road leading through the boudoir.'

   The danger of 'racial mongrelization' was not a new preoccupation
   for Carto.  All through the years with Liberty and Property, he
   corresponded tirelessly with segregationist leaders.  In 1956, in a
   letter to Judge Tom P.  Brady of the Mississippi Supreme Court, an
   originator of the White Citizens' Council, Carto proclaimed (in

   'The revolutionists have seen to it,' Carto wrote the racist author
   Earnest Sevier Cox in 1955, 'that only a few Americans are
   concerned about the inevitable niggerfication of America.' But
   Carto had a plan, for a 'flank attack.' He established, and
   promoted secretly, the Joint Council for Repatriation - a
   send-'em-back-to-Africa movement with an added benefit: '...  such
   a movement would be the strongest blow against the power of
   organized Jewry that can be imagined.'

   Carto always had his eye on Jewry. From a letter to one Norris Holt:

      There are 600 million Chinese and about 200 million Russians.
      All united in a determinmation to destroy the West.  And we have
      been so misled that we live in a dream world - far away from
      reality.  Hitler's defeat was the defeat of Europe.  And
      America.  How could we have been so blind?  The blame, it seems,
      must be laid at the door of the international Jews.  It was
      their propaganda, lies and demands which blinded the West to
      what Germany was doing.

   Carto put it all more succinctly in a memo to himself:

      Who is using who?  Who is calling the shots?  History supplies
      the answer to this.  History tells us plainly who our Enemy is.
      our Enemy today is the same Enemy of 50 years ago and before -
      and that was before Communism.  The Communists are 'using' the
      Jews we are told.  ...who was 'using' the Jews fifty years ago -
      one hundred or one thousand years ago.  History supplies the
      answer.  The Jews came first and remain.  Public Enemy No.  1.

   The indefatigable Willis Carto had yet another project cooking in
   the late Fifties.  In January 1957 he wrote to Judge Brady:

      Now Judge, I do not think that I have ever mentioned to you that
      for over a year I have been working on something tentatively
      called the LIBERTY LOBBY.  Briefly, this involves the
      establishment of an office in Washington to lobby for
      patriotism...  you can readily see the tremendous importance to
      the Repatriation scheme if this LOBBY ever gest [sic] set up.
      on the other hand, you can see that there must never be an
      obvious connection between the two, for if there is, either
      would kill the other off, or at least harm it very gravely.
      Therefore, I have had to make a decision and it is that the
      logical thing to do is to become publically [sic] identified
      with the LOBBY only....

   In a mailing to seven hundred conservatives, Carto outlined his
   plan for a 'pressure group for patriotism,' and sought to raise
   $75,000.  By January 1958 only $15,000 had been raised; however,
   Liberty Lobby set up a 'research department' July 4, in the offices
   of the American Council of Christian Laymen.

   The previous summer, Carto had announced a sixteen-man 'Advisory
   Board' for his new operation.  Later to be renamed the 'Board of
   Policy,' it included Judge Brady, General Pedro Del Valle, and W.L.
   Foster of Tulsa, Oklahoma, active in We, the People and Congress of
   Freedom, and a financial supporter of veteran antisemite Gerald
   L.K.  Smith.

   Later in 1958, Colonel Eugene C.  Pomeroy became Liberty Lobby's
   'Washington Secretary,' operating out of the offices of his own
   organization, Defenders of the American Constitution (later taken
   over by General Del Valle).  A second fund-raising campaign, for
   $44,500, ended July 4, 1959, far short of its goal.  But Carto had
   established a presence in Washington.  His lobby, meant from its
   very inception to serve as a front for less savory enterprises, was
   under way.

   2. A philosopher Who Had Too Many Passports

   The man Willis Carto visited in jail had been arrested after a
   piece of his luggage that had strayed to the wrong airport was
   opened, and three passports discovered, made out in three different
   names.  When picked up by FBI agents in Oakland, Yockey was
   carrying German press credentials bearing yet another name.
   Brought before U.S.  Commissioner Joseph Karesh on June 8, 1960, he
   was charged with making a flase statement in an application for
   [text illegible.  knm]

   Over the weekend, the San Francisco papers published interesting
   information about the 'mystery man,' Yockey.  He had been medically
   discharged from the Army in 1943, suffering from 'dementia praecox,
   paranoid type.' In 1954 he had been identified as a U.S.  agent for
   Rudolf Aschenauer, a neo-Nazi of Frankfurt, Germany.

   Yockey's lawyers fought to get his bail reduced.  The U.S.
   Attorney urged that it be kept at $50,000 because of 'an extreme
   risk of flight - a grave risk of injury to himslef and others.' On
   June 15, the judge ordered a psychiatric examination, after which
   the bail hearing was to resume July 11.  Sometime during the night
   of June 16-17, Yockey swallowed potassium cyanide.  He was found
   dead in the morning.

   Yockey was born September 18, 1917, in Michigan, grew up in
   Chicago, graduated from high school with honors, attended five
   colleges and graduated cum laude from Notre Dame Law School in
   1941.  Late in 1945, he took a job preparing trial briefs and
   background reports for the War Crimes Tribunal in Wiesbaden,
   Germany.  After eleven months he quit, because of differences with
   his superiors over what he felt was unfair treatment of Nazi
   military and political leaders.  He returned briefly to the United
   States; then went to Brittas Bay, Ireland, a remote settlement on
   the Irish Sea, where - in six months - he composed his personal
   Summa: 'Imperium: The Philosophy of History and Politics.'

   'Imperium' is most celebrated for its dedication: 'To the hero of
   the second world war' - a veiled reference, it becomes clear on
   reading the book, to Adolf Hitler.

   Yockey traces the growth of the 'High Culture,' culminating in
   crisis: the Age of Nationalism, 'when the parts of the Culture [the
   nation-state] tear one another to bits, even as outer dangers loom
   threateningly....' Always, this crisis is resolved 'by the
   resurgence of the old forces of Religion and Authority, their
   victory over Rationalism and Money, and the final union of the
   nations into an Imperium.' And in that final stage is accomplished
   'the enormous final life-task of the Culture, namely the subjection
   of the known world to its domination.'

   As the external expresison of Imperium is absolute imperialism, so
   its internal expression is 'absolute politics' - the total state:
   'Public power can no longer be held by individuals; public
   enterprises pass under public control and ownership; the
   money-monopoly of the few individuals is transferred to the State.
   *** With the coming of the Age of Absolute Politics, the necessity
   for pretexts falls away.  Plebiscites and elections become
   old-fashioned, and finally cease altogether.'

   The Western 'High Culture' and the idea of Absolute Politics,
   Yockey makes clear, are fulfilled in National Socialist Germany;
   what he calls 'the German revolution of 1933' represents the
   beginning of the resurgence of 'the old forces of Religion and

   If the Imperium of Germany/Europe was the organic destiny of
   Western Culture, then clearly something went terribly wrong.
   According to Yockey, 'outer forces' intervened - forces located in
   Washington and Moscow.  America and Russia are in the hands of the
   'culture distorter' - 'the rear-guard in the West of the fulfilled
   Arabian Culture, the Church-State-Nation Pseudo-Race of the Jew.'
   The Jew is [illegible] destroy [illegible] massacres, robbery,
   cheating, burning, insults, mistreatments, expulsions, exploitation
   - these were the gifts of the West to the Jew.  They not only
   strengthened him, made him race-hard, but gave him a mission, the
   mission of revenge and destruction.'

   Carto's hero had scant use for his native land.  The forces of
   tradition, he said, disappeared in America with the election of
   Andrew Jackson in 1828, at which point money took over.  Later the
   Jew took over Money, and therefore America.  'The population of
   America only consists now of a bare majority that is indisputably
   American racially, spiritually, nationally.  The other half
   consists of Negroes, Jews, unassimilated South-eastern Europeans,
   Mexicans, Chinese, Siamese, Levantines, Slavs and indians.' But
   there is a flicker of hope: 'The latent heroism of the American
   People will again be summoned forth by the stern creativeness of
   the Age of Absolute Politics.  *** In 1915 began the nationalist
   reaction to the invasion of Culturally alien elements, with the
   founding of the second Ku Klux Klan.  This year will be marked in
   retrospect as the beginning of the second phase of the American
   Revolution.  *** When the American National Revolution takes
   political form, its inspiration will come from the same ultimate
   source as the European Revolution of 1933.'

   Shortly after Yockey's death, one of his sistems told an
   interviewer: 'He wasn't antisemitic.  He was anti-Zionist.  No, he
   wasn't pro-Nazi.  he never idolized Hitler.  In fact, he though
   Hitler made one mistake after another.' Why all the passports?
   'Maybe he thought three passports were better than one.'

   Willis Carto was also interviewed: 'Although I do not agree with
   all his ideas, I feel he was an authentic creative genius.  i feel
   that those individuals who are responsible for driving him to his
   death should feel a great sense of guilt.  The world has lost a
   great man whose ideas will be remembered until Western Civilization
   is exterminated.'

   The final macabre touch to the Yockey story is afforded by the
   tug-of-war that broke out over the dead man's best blue suit.  The
   authorities wanted to keep it as material evidence; Yockey's
   sisters wanted to bury him in.  The authorities kept the suit, and
   also Yockey's last words to the world:

      I shall write no messages which I know will never be delivered -
      only this, which will be: You will never discover who helped me,
      for even he is to be found in your own multitudinous ranks, at
      least outwardly.

   3. Carto Picks up the Torch and Tries to Set the World on Fire

   Almost before Yockey was underground, Willis Carto was busy
   establishing himself as Keeper of the Legend.  In the August 1960
   issue of Liberty and Preoperty's newsletter 'Right,' he told his
   version of the Yockey story with emphasis on his 'persecution' by
   the ADL, the FBI, the government.

   Turning to the arrest and subsequent proceedings, Carto volunteers
   the information that the U.S.  Commissioner, Joseph Karesh, was 'an
   ordained Rabbi,' and compares the high bail in Yockey's case with
   the high bail set for the accused bombers of an Atlanta synagogue
   that (according to Carto) was 'actually bombed by an agent of the

   Carto set out to make 'imperium' available to the American public,
   or at least Yockey's 'bare majority that is indisputably American,
   racially, spiritually, nationally.' he approached Professor Revilo
   Pendleton Oliver of the university of illinois, the brilliant,
   eccentric classicist who was dropped from the John Birch Society
   after an ambiguous reference to Jews which affronted Robert Welch
   and others.

   At Carto's request, Dr.  Oliver prepared a critique of 'Imperium,'
   armed with which Carto beat the bushes for funds.  The book came
   out in 1962 in a handsome edition, published under the imprint of
   'Truthseeker,' a crazy-right magazine.  The second and subsequent
   printings list the Noontide Press as publisher and holder of the
   copyright.  The sole owner and proprietor of Noontide is Willis

   This American edition of 'Imperium' includes a 35-page Introduction
   by Carto, who has said a number of times that he stands by what he
   wrote there in 1962.

   Carto makes it clear that he goes along with yockey, but not all
   the way.  he buys the Yockey line on the Jews, and peppers his
   Introduction with dark references to the 'aliens,' the 'inner
   enemy,' the 'Culture-Distorter.' He calls Yockey's European
   Liberation Front, whose 'Proclamation of london' urged the
   expulsion of jews and the establishement of national socialism 'a
   constructive movement.'

   But he parts company with Yockey on the question of race.  For
   Yockey, race is a matter of soul, not color, physical features or
   cephalic index.  For Carto, 'the genetic interpretation of race is
   a necessary, useful and valid one if we are to see all of our
   problems clearly and accurately.'

   We must have faith, says Carto, 'in our superiority and survival.'
   That faith will 'spark the single-minded and intolerant power which
   can clean and redeem our fast-decaying, rotting milieu.' We cannot
   clean and redeem without _power_: 'Political power is the essential
   criterion...  and to the goal of political power all else must be
   temporarily sacrificed.' Only those who hew to the Yockey line, as
   interpreted by Carto, can save the West.  All others - which is to
   say, the conservative movement - are 'dainty combatants' who would
   fight the Enemy with 'measured, `moderate` words and avoidance of
   `extremists`.' Anyone who is not wholly with him must be against
   him.  He warns of a crafty tactic of the Enemy: 'Infiltration into
   the movement and/or the building up of false leadership in order to
   sabotage the movement at the optimum time, meanwhile diverting
   patriot energies into harmless or controlled activities.' Carto is
   ready to consign other conservatives to outer darkness.  They are
   'Quislings,' 'ADL agents' - traitors.

   Carto has expounded his peculiar version of yockeyism ever since,
   through a number of books and periodicals, and even (carefully and
   quite subtly) through apparently quite orthodox conservative
   organizations under his control or influence.  He has even acted as
   a man-to-man evangelist, promoting the gospel among influential
   acquaintances.  One such acquaintance, an official of a leading
   conservative organization, was surprised not long ago to receive a
   telephone call from Carto, who wanted a favor.  When the man
   balked, Carto removed the gloves: 'Well, you should remember that I
   still have those letters from you, and orders for _Imperium_.  It
   might be very embarrassing for you if I circulated those letters to
   certain people...'

   In June 1964 the first issue of a new, thoroughly Yockeyite monthly
   magazine appeared - _Western Destiny_.  The masthead listed the
   business office as Box 713, Sausalito, California - the same
   address as Noontide Press.  The lead editorial, entitled 'A Word
   from the Publisher' (no publisher is listed on the masthead), is
   full of 'inner enemies' and the 'Spirit of the Age'; it refers to
   Carto's 'brilliant Introduction to _Imperium_.' Judging by the
   content and the distinctively shrill, rambling style, the author of
   this anonymous editorial, the unlisted publisher of _Western
   Destiny_, is most likely - Willis Carto.  On the facing page
   appears a congratulatory letter, emphasizing that subscriptions are
   'only $4 per year,' from - W.A.  Carto.  The three other
   congratulatory letters are signed by Tyler Kent, Kenneth Goff and
   Verne P.  Kaub, all then listed as members of Liberty Lobby's Board
   of Policy.

   Dr.  Oliver has named Carto as the 'founder' of _Western Destiny_.
   The connection with Noontide Press is suggestive, as is the
   presence of 'E.L.  Anderson, Ph.  D.' on the masthead.  According
   to the lead editorial, 'Dr.  Anderson was the guiding spirit of
   _Right_ for the five years of its existence...' According to former
   associates, 'E.L.  Anderson, Ph.  D.' is Carto himself.

   4. A Trial Balloon, Filled with Hot Air, Ascends

   Carto's Liberty Lobby, meanwhile, was picking up steam.  In January
   1961 the first issue of _Liberty Letter_ was published.  Later that
   year, Carto found the perfect front-man for his Washington
   operations in Curtis B.  Dall, a retired Air Force Reserve Colonel,
   former stockbroker and ex-son-in-law of Franklin D.  Roosevelt.  A
   handsome, vigorous man then in his early sixties, Dall was the
   epitome of seeming respectability - and he shared with his employer
   Carto belief in the Enemy.  In testifying for Liberty Lobby on the
   Trade Expansion Bill of 1962, Dall finished his prepared remarks
   and then shared with the Senate Finance Committee some of his own
   views: 'In this case, the real center and heart of this
   international cabal shows its hand; namely the political Zionist
   planners for absolute rule via One World government.' He wondered
   publicly whether President Kennedy had 'somehow become a working
   `pawn` in their game.'

   In 1963 two new fronts were established.  Americans for National
   Security, evidently meant to be Liberty Lobby's contact-point among
   the military, boasted a 'Board of Endorsers' composed of thirteen
   retired officers plus Dr.  Oliver.  It operated out of the Liberty
   lobby offices under the nominal direction of Stanley M.  Andrews,
   fundamentalist preacher, former aide to Ohio Senator Frank Lausche,
   and a member of the Board of Policy.  In fact he was then, as he is
   today, its sole owner and proprietor.  According to a 1964
   statement, "Liberty Lobby cannot act on any issue without prior
   approval of the Board.' In fact, the Board of Policy never met - as
   its Chairman, Col.  Dall, admitted under oath late in 1963.  At
   that time, Col.  Dall identified Carto as 'chief executive officer
   of Liberty Lobby and the main motivating individual in it.' John W.
   Wood, the Lobby's General Counsel, called Carto the 'operating
   head' of the organization, and noted that Carto had full custody of
   its funds.

   Early in 1964, Liberty Lobby's Board of Policy was expanded from
   thirty members to forty-five.  Among the newcomers were some
   strange figures: rev.  James F.  Dees, wwho once called Gerald L.K.
   Smith 'the greatest patriot in this country today'; Ed Delany, an
   American who broadcast over Berlin Radio until America's entry into
   World War II; Kenneth Goff, a former associate of Smith; Joseph P.
   Kamp, who served a term in priosn for contempt of Congress; Tyler
   Kent, convicted in 1940 by a British court of divulging secrets to
   the Axis while working in the American Embassy, and whom Ambassador
   Joseph Kennedy branded as an antisemite; Robert Kuttner, associated
   with _Right_ from 1958 to 1960, and with _Western Destiny_ (where
   he would soon write: 'Evolutionary ethics defends the duty of the
   state to control the biological composition of its future
   population.'); W.  Henry McFarland, another former Smith associate
   and operator of the Nationalist Action League, listed as 'fascist'
   by the Attorney General; Ned Touchstone, contributing editor of
   _Western Destiny_ and editor of _The Councilor_, journal of the
   White Citizens' Councils; Major Arch Roberts, author of the
   Birchite 'Pro-Blue' program that got General Edwin A.  Walker into

   The Presidential campaign of 1964 sparked Liberty Lobby's Great
   Leap Forward.  That campaign evoked a torrent of books and
   pamphlets.  Liberty Lobby cashed in on the phenomenon with a
   tabloid-size publication, 'LBJ: A Political Biography.' Owing
   almost entirely to the tabloid, Liberty Lobby's income jumped
   six-fold, to $346,000 in 1964, of which $280,000 came from the
   sales of printed matter.  Expendatures rose comparably, to $374,000
   ($281,000 for printing and mailing).  A subscription blank was
   included in the tabloid, of which the Lobby claims to have
   circulated over ten million copies.  This, it was later claimed,
   brought in fifty thousand new subscriptions to _Liberty Letter_.
   By September 1965, Liberty Lobby claimed a paid circulation of

   Much of the credit for the rapid growth of Liberty Lobby in 1964,
   and for its continued prosperity in the years that followed,
   belongs to W.B.  Hicks, who was brought in (taken in?) as Executive
   Secretary early that year after working five years as Business
   Manager and Assistant Publisher of _Human Events_.  An amiable
   live-wire of anarchist disposition, Hicks oversaw all phases of
   Liberty Lobby's business, wrote for its newsletter, and testified
   before congressional committees.  Except for brief forays into
   Washington, Carto stayed on the West Coast, devoting his time and
   energy to collateral operations.  But he kept firm control of
   Liberty Lobby.

   Early in 1965 Liberty Lobby issued a 23-page memorandum on the 1964
   election, entitled 'Conservative Victory Plan.' It concluded with
   these words: is through the political means and onlyu the political
      means that power can be captured and America saved; ...all
      efforts must be directed toward the goal of capturing political
      power...  those who offer other avenues of activity for
      Conservatives may be retarding the fight and confusing the

   'Those who offer other avenues' sound like the 'dainty combatants'
   mentioned in Carto's Introduction to _Imperium_ - or are they the
   agents of the Enemy, 'diverting patriot energies into harmless or
   controlled activities'?  Later in 1965 the 'Conservative Victory
   Plan,' appeared in finished form under the title 'Looking Forward.'
   There are certain revisions.  For instance, in 'Looking Forward,'
   politics is defined as 'activity in relation to power' - a direct
   quotation from Yockey's _Imperium_.

   Political power is to be seized through the 'party-within-a-party'
   technique that enabled the conservative majority in the GOP to
   nominate Goldwater.  The 'party-within-a-party' approach was to be
   tried 'through the congressional elections of 1966 at which time a
   decision can be made whether or not the efforts had been successful
   enough to warrant further such activity or whether the time had
   come to make a clean break and form a new party aimed toward
   electing a Conservative Presisent in 1968.' Should this approach
   fail, Liberty Lobby early made its choice for the leader of that
   third-party 1968 ticket: Late in 1965 it kpublished a new tablooid,
   _Stand Up for America_, an adulatory biography of George C.

   Perhaps the 45-man Board of Policy proved embarrassing; perhaps
   Carto saw a new way to raise money.  Whatever the reason, in
   January 1966 the Board of Policy was thrown open to all comers -
   all, that is, who were willing to pledge at least a dollar amonth
   to Liberty Lobby and sign a 'loyalty oath' affirming loyalty to the
   Constitution and the Republic.  In a letter to 'Dear Alerted
   American,' Col.  Dall announced that 'LIBERTY LOBBY is now being
   turned over to your control.'

   The bait in this exercise in participatory democracy - besides the
   sense of belonging, the chance 'to share the thrill of victory for
   good government' - was, and remains; a 'lifetime' subscription to
   _Liberty Letter_, one to _Liberty Lowdown_, a 'Confidential Report
   on Washington and world events,' placement of one's name on 'a
   special PRIORITY mailing list of Activists that entitles you to
   receive Emergency Bulletins by _Air Mail_,' and a nifty
   red-white-and-blue membership card.  Within a year, twleve thousand
   people had signed up.  Today the figure claimed varies; most often,
   it's 23,000 or 25,000.

   Liberty Lobby strives to maintain the illusion of participation for
   Board members.  'Board of Policy National Conventions' are held
   from time to time, at which speakers from Liberty Lobby's stable
   are featured and at which occasional votes are taken.  But the
   member doesn't lose his vote if he stays home - ballots are
   forever arriving in the mail, and forever being faithfully mailed
   back to the Liberty Building, where they are never counted.  The
   air-mailed 'Emergency Bulletins' are pitches for money, over and
   above the member's pledged $12 per year.  The 'lifetime
   subscription' to _Liberty Letter_, it turns out, goes into effect
   only _after_ the pledger has given Liberty Lobby the price of a
   lifetime subscription - at this writing, $50.

   Board of Policy members also receive mailings directed to the
   _Liberty Letter_ subscription list, offering for sale things which
   board members are, in fact, entitled to receive free.  In 1969, for
   instance, _Letter_ subscribers _and_ board members were sent a
   special half-price lifetime subscription offer.  Only a few members
   complained that by virtue of their pledges, they were already
   lifetime subscribers; thousands sent in their $25.  If an innocent
   joins the Board of Policy and pledges in advance to donate $100 a
   year, money he sends Liberty Lobby is credited to his pledge
   account only if he so specifies.  PPlkedge accounts have been known
   to be doctored: Pledgers who have paid in advance are billed
   anyway; those who pledge to pay quarterly are billed monthly - all
   on the assumption that most will go ahead and pay anyway.  The few
   who complain are sent letters of apology for the 'clerical error.'

   Through all this energetic self-promotion and all this dabbling in
   Republican politics, Liberty Lobby was also busy on Capitol Hill.
   Its principal function was to stimulate pressure on legislators
   from the folks back home; its actual 'lobbying' amounted to very
   little.  Liberty Lobby itself admits in its reports to the Clerk of
   the House that only 10 per cent of its income is devoted to

   By 1965, the format of _Liberty Letter_ had jelled.  The first page
   of each issue features a scare headline and scare copy about some
   impending wickedness that only the reader can avert.  The issues
   trumpeted on Page One are always guaranteed to appeal to good
   conservatives.  The more emotional the issue, the better: 'CONSULAR
   Administration plan to allow Soviet spy nests in American cities is
   with us again after being repulsed by horrified public outcry in
   1965...' (Notice the imputation of _deliberate intent_: Foreign
   spies will come into the country not as a consequence of an unwise
   treaty, but as part of a _plan_.)

   Inside _Liberty Letter_, things get spicier - and a whole lot more
   conspiratorial.  An editorial in the April 1967 issue blamed
   passage of the Consular Treaty on the 'Invisible Government,' on
   'the billionaires and their Communist allies.' In another issue Ray
   Bliss, then GOP National Chairman, is dismissed as 'merely a puppet
   for the INTERCOMMS (billionaire internationalists and communists).'
   The Export-Import Bank is 'an instrument of the Administration's
   pro-Communist foreign policy' - again, possible effect becomes
   deliberate intent.

   Aside from the calls to action on Page One and the somewhat
   eccentric editorial theorizings on Page Two, _Liberty Letter_
   consists mostly of plugs - for the Lobby's pet congressmen; for
   books it sells (_The Drew Pearson Story_, a McNamara attack, the
   Wallace tabloid, a whitewash of Tyler Kent, politely racist books
   like Carleton Putnam's _Race and Reason_ and not-so-polite ones
   like Earnest Cox' _White America_, published by Noontide Press);
   for expensive group tours arrange by Liberty Lobby's front, Friends
   of Rhodesian Independence (FRI); for a bewildering variety of
   'special projects.'

   _Liberty Lowdown_, the 'Confidential Report' for pledgers, turned
   out to be more explicitly conspiratorial.  The defeat in 1967 of
   Mrs.  Phyllis Schlafly for the presidency of the National
   Federation of Republican Women, for instance, is laid to the Enemy:
   '...  the `Invisibile Government,' (whether you call it
   `Inter-Comms,' Council on Foreign Relations or Wall Street), which
   has so much at stake in the continued dominance of the Left over
   America.' Mrs.  Schafly was done in, says _Liberty Lowdown_, by the
   GOP National Committee, through General Lucius D.  Clay, who is
   'front man' for Sydney J.  Weinberg of Goldman, Sachs & Co.  'Since
   the death of Bernard Baruch, many sophisticated observers have
   considered the enigmatic Sidney Weinberg to be the most powerful
   man in America.' Allusions to the 'Invisible Government' and such,
   in Liberty Lobby publications and elsewhere, almost always bring in
   a Jewish name or two.

   All in all, things were going nicely at the end of 1968.  Income
   that year was $850,000; distribution of _Liberty Letter_ was
   pushing 200,000.  Hicks took excellent care of the day-to-day
   business of Liberty Lobby; Carto spent most of his time in
   California, frying other fish.  Then, early in 1969, Hicks asked
   for a leave of absence to write a book.  Carto agreed reluctantly,
   and Hicks and his father-in-law set out February 8 to sail Hicks'
   schooner, _Dreamer_, down the Intercoastal Waterway to Fort
   Lauderdale, to meet Mrs.  Hicks and their young son.  The next day,
   in the mouth of the Potomac, _Dreamer_ capsized in a windstorm.
   Both men were lost.

   With Hicks gone, Carto had to take a more active role in running
   Liberty Lobby.  The moment he did, things began to come unglued.
   As one former associate of the two men recalls: 'When W.B.  and I
   were there, it was possible for us to exercise a certain degree of
   influence on Carto, to keep him from going off the deep end.  I
   realized when W.B.  was killed that I couldn't restrain Willis
   alone, to keep him from injecting his philosophy into the
   organization.' According to the same man, Hicks 'never meant to
   come back from the cruise,' he had wanted to leave Liberty Lobby
   for several months and had mused in November: `I wonder...What if I
   told Willis I was dying of cancer?`'

   5. The Carto Cartel Expands

   Carto had taken over the venerable _American Mercury_ in 1966, via
   the Legion for the Survival of Freedom, a Texas corporation of
   which he became an officer sometime after February 1965.  In June
   1966 he signed, as Vice President of the Legion, articles of merger
   with the Committee for Religious Development, a District of
   Columbia corporation and evidently a Carto front.  (As listed in
   the merger papers, assets of CRD included 1,600 copies of
   _Imperium_, back issues of _Western Destiny_ and rights to
   exclusive use of the names Noontide Press and _Western Destiny_.)

   Seven of the Contributing Editors to the new _Mercury_, including
   'E.L.  Anderson, Ph.D.,' had been editors of _Western Destiny_
   (which was discontinued when Carto gained control of _Mercury_).
   Fourteen more were on the 1965 Liberty Lobby Board of Policy, or
   have been closely associated with the Lobby - among them Col.
   Dall, Stanley M.  Andrews, Taylor Caldwell, Maj.  Roberts and Ned
   Touchstone.  Bruce Holman, associated with Carto on _Right_ from
   1955 to 1960, is listed as Chairman of the Board.  The Managing
   Editor is La Vonne D.  Furr, an officer of the Legion for the
   Survival of Freedom.

   Staples of _American Mercury_ since 1966 have been:

   --_Revisionist history_, usually with a pronounced pro-German,
   anti-Jewish slant.  '`This Judeo-Christian Heritage` Hoax' by
   Joseph P.  Camp, for instance, exposes a 'malicious myth' promoted
   by 'the ADL and the AJC (American Jewish Committee) and their
   associated groups, stooges and sycophants.'

   --_Yockeyism_.  Whole sections of _Imperium_ have been reprinted in
   _Mercury_; the magazine celebrated the first moon landing by
   quoting Carto's meditations on outer space from the Introduction to
   Yockey's book.

   ---_Antisemitism_.  Whatever the issue, the Jew almost always lurks
   nearby.  Often the message is put across merely by the gratuitous
   inclusion of his name.  Col.  S.S.  McClure, for instance, calls
   the Department of Defense Office of Civil Rights a 'group of
   political commissars header by Jack Moskowitz.' On the same
   subject, 'E.L.  Anderson, Ph.D.' declares: 'The Communist-devised
   system of `integration` in an army will ruin it.  Nationalists have
   known this for years, and most of them protested when Anna
   Rosenberg, the Communist Assistant Secretary of Defense, under
   Truman, forcibly integrated Negro and White units, during the
   Korean War.' Sometimes it becomes absurd - as when _Mercury_ writer
   John Mitchell Henshaw insists on renaming the Kerner Commission
   after its Executive Director, David Ginsberg.

   ---_Conspiracy theories_.  Here again, _cherchez le Juif_.  In a
   typical article, 'Who Makes Our Anti-American Foreign policy?'
   Henshaw pulls out all the stops.  For fifty years, he says, the
   'high elite' in the Council of Foreign Relations has controlled
   U.S.  foreign policy.  The CFR, he informs us, was founded in 1919
   by a flock of International Bankers with Jewish names (he lists
   them).  Then he shifts gears: 'The genesis of conspiratorial
   underground to establish a one-world government occurred May 1,
   177655 when Adam Weishaupt founded the Order of Illuminati...'
   Then, abruptly, back to the CFR: 'Scholars...  trace the lineage of
   the CFR back to Cecil Rhodes, who was bankrolled by the Rothschilds
   in the exploitation of the diamond and gold resources of Southern
   Africa.' Rhodes established the Rhodes Scholarships.  'Virtually
   all of the Rhodes Scholars in the United States are members of the
   CFR.' Then, back to the International Bankers: 'It is highly
   significant that some of the founders of CFR are also founders of
   the American Jewish Committee.' _Then_: 'The Jews in New York...
   did not want the Eastern European Jews as competitors in business,
   so Jacob Schiff and his partners in Kuhn, Loeb & Co.  conceived the
   idea of bankrolling Leon Trotsky and his cohorts in overthrowing
   the Czarist regime in Russia....' Henshaw goes on and on and on,
   circling back every so often to the CFR, throwing in another
   handful of Jewish names, never tying it all together.  One pictures
   the bewhildered reader flipping over to one of the _Mercury's_
   occasional noncontroversial articles, such as 'Remember Penny
   Candy?' or 'That Pain Could Be Bursitus.'

   Simultaneously with the strange, new-look _American Mercury_ came
   another publication, the newsletter _Washington Observer_.  The two
   publications may be subscribed to only in tandem, at a combined
   price of $10 per year for the semi-monthly _Observer_ and the
   quarterly _Mercury_.  The editor of _Observer_, according to its
   masthead, is 'Lee Roberts' who, the ADL gravely reports, is 'as
   elusive as Carto himself' - hardly surprising, because Roberts does
   not exist.  The bulk of the writing is done by that student of
   conspiracies, John Mitchell Henshaw.

   [Photograph of four distinctly different signatures by "Lee
   Roberts, Editor", along with the comment "Signatures of 'Washington
   Observer' editor, from promotion letters.  The real Roberts can't
   possibly stand up."]

   _Observer_ imitates _Mercury's_ insistent dropping of Jewish names:
   '...  the Kennedy-Yarmolinsky-Rostow Administration' ...  'New
   Assistant Secretary of the Navy James D.  Hittel is a 'soul
   brother' of Max M.  Kampelman, Hubert Humphrey's bagman and master
   fixer.' ...  '[Presidential Assistant Peter] Flanigan is a
   fair-haired boy of the old Wall Street buccaneer Clarence Dillon,
   whose real name is Lapowski.' The reader is never permitted to
   forget who's Jewish.  Take three associates of President Nixon:
   'Arthur F.  Burns (real name: Bernstein)' ...  'an Austrian Jew'
   ...  'succeeding Leon Keyserling, a German Jew.' Leonard Garment is
   invariably referred to as 'Nixon's Jewish law partner.' But
   _Observer's_ favorite is Henry Kissenger - 'This 46-year old
   German-born Jew' ...'alien-born' ...  'Henry Kissinger, alien-born
   Jew' ...  'His father was Rabbi Louis K.  Kissenger, a prominent
   Zionist leader in Germany'...

   In 1969 Carto moved to conceal his connection with
   _Mercury/Observer_ by 'resigning' from their parent corporation,
   the Legion for the Survival of Freedom.  Even if Carto were to
   swear on a stack of _Imperiums_ that he and _Mercury/Observer_ had
   nothing to do with each other, he should get the horselaugh.  The
   most casual observer soon detects a tight relationship between the
   various components of Carto's empire.  The same names keep popping
   up on this letterhead, that masthead or board; it's a closed group,
   and only very rarely will the name of an 'outside' appear.  The
   various enterprises plug one another assiduously, often effusively:
   _Observer_ and _Mercury_ take due notice of FRI's latest African
   tour, Liberty Lobby fund pitches include off-prints of 'uncorrected
   galley proofs' of articles from _Mercury_, of _Observer_ clippings
   'from LL files.'

   _Liberty Letter_, _Mercury_, and _Observer_ hardly ever mention
   (except in the most negative terms) 'outside' conservative
   organizations or efforts; they boost only FRI, Americans for
   National Security, Government Educational Foundation, Noontide
   Press and _Mercury/Observer_; and, more recently, Youth for
   Wallace, National Youth Alkliance, Save Our Schools.

   But there is more than just surface evidence to connect Carto's
   various operations.  Many operate out of the Liberty Building -
   e.g., Friends of Rhodesian Independence; the campaign-fund raising
   United Congressional Appeal.  A former employee of Liberty Lobby
   remembers designing the format of _Washington Observer_ (the logo
   of which is set in the same typeface as that of _Liberty Letter_);
   another recalls shuttling back and forth with _Observer_ copy and
   proofs between the Liberty building and the Gray Printing Company.
   C.  William Gray of that firm describes Carto as 'the main man in
   the whole thing.' Carto is said sometimes to prepare _Mercury_
   areticles for the printer himself; a copy of one manuscript exists
   with emendations in his handwriting.

   6. Carto Undertakes to Make the Word Flesh

   As the 1968 Presidential campaign neared, Liberty Lobby was well
   established and prosperous, but the ultimate goal, political power,
   seemed as far away as ever.  The 'party-within-a-party' approach
   had failed; Carto moved to set up a national Youth for Wallace
   organization.  Youth for Wallace was financed by Carto via the
   front Action Associates.  In all, $40,000 to $50,000 went to Youth
   for Wallace.  The group used Liberty Lobby's mailing list, sold the
   Lobby's Wallace tabloid, and was given the services of Doug Clee, a
   Lobby employee, for clerical and administrative work.

   National Chairman of Youth for Wallace was John Acord, and
   independent operator who had bought the Friends of Rhodesian
   Independence mailing list and set up the American-Southern Africa
   Council.  About seventeen thousand members were recruited.  Acord's
   understanding from the first was that regardless of the outcome of
   the election, Youth for Wallace would continue after November under
   some other name.  On November 15, at a meeting at the Army-Navb
   Club, Youth for Wallace was renamed the National Youth Alliance.
   Acord was made National Chairman and Dennis McMahon, National Vice
   Chairman.  A four-point program was adopted, opposing drugs, Black
   Power, the SDS, and American involvement in foreign wars.  Acord
   later said that copies of _Imperium_ were passed around at the
   meeting, which was chaired by Carto and attended by Col.  Dall and

   In January and February, organizational meetings were held on
   campuses in Atlanta, New Orleans, Washington, Chicago, Pittsburgh,
   and in Utah and California, to bring members of Youth for Wallace
   into the new operation.  Carto was on hand, peddling Noontide Press
   books.  In Chicago, Col.  Dall gave a speech in which he went on
   about the 'international bankers.' And in Pittsburgh --

   In Pittsburgh, something went wrong - just what isn't clear and
   probably never will be.  As Acord tells it, he and McMahon were
   invited to a partyu in Carto's honor, to be held after the NYA
   session at the Conley Motel in nearby Monroeville.  The party was
   thrown by something called the 'Francis Parker Yockey Movement.'
   The host was Louis T.  Byers, a leader of the Wallace campaign in
   Western Pennsylvania.  At a cocktail party attended by Carto and
   Col.  Dall, guests allegedly wore Nazi insignia and the hi-fi
   blasted Nazi war songs.  After a buffet supper, a formal meeting
   was held.  It began, according to Acord, with the singing of the
   'Host Wessel Lied.' Speeches on 'Plato athe Fascist' and 'Negrified
   and Judaized America' foillowed.  Byers gave a rundown on recent
   books of interest, paying special attention to a forthcoming
   Noontide Press book, 'The Myth of the Six Million.' Then Carto took
   the rostrum:

      He spoke of his meetings with Yockey and how the movement was
      growing throughout the nation.  He expressed his belief that
      political power, like that he was building in Liberty Lobby,
      would soon bring the 'Imperium' of which all Yockeyites
      dream....  In the meantime, it was necessary for Yockeyites to
      collect as much political power as possible within all existing
      political institutions and to capture the leadership of as many
      conservative elements as possible as the nation swings to the
      right.  In this manner, said Carto, the FPYM members will
      capture the nation.

      Next to Jews, the most despised of all are the leaders of the
      legitimate Right like such as Bill Buckley Jr., John Ashbrook,
      Fulton Lewis III, ad infinitum [sic].  They, said Carto, are the
      real enemies of the Yockeyites.  They are the principal
      obstacles to be overcome.

   In an affidavit of his own, McMahon confirms the essence of Acord's
   story, and says that afdter the meeting the group adjourned in
   small groups to a room where Robert Johnson, operator of the Sabre
   and Sword Curio Shop in Buffalo, N.Y., had for sale swastika
   banners, recordings of German war songs, genuine and fake Nazi war
   relics, and even (for $150) an SS uniform.

   Acord says he confronted Carto March 2 and told him that 'we would
   no longer have his influencing the future course of the NYA.' Carto
   then ordered the NYA telephone rerouted and its address changed
   and, according to Acord, broke into the office at 200 Third Street
   S.E.  and took the NYA files.  Acord resigned from NYA March 24,
   taking with him McMahon, who just a month before had written a
   bloodthirsty article bragging on "NYA terror squads,' that Carto
   had tidied up somewhat for publication in the Spring 1969 _American
   Mercury_.  By early April new letterheads had been printed, showing
   the NYA address as 1340 Third Street S.E., the Liberty Building. 

   Clearly, the Acord-McMahon story of the events of January 25 is the
   work of men who feel considerable bitterness over their ouster from
   NYA.  But it is significant that the story falls into two parts,
   lurid stories of Nazi talk and Nazi trappings, and an account -
   calmer in comparison - of Carto's speech.  It is significant, too,
   that the speech as paraphrased by Acord is exactly in line with the
   power-oriented political philosophy that Carto has expounded,
   publicly, for years (cf.  his Introduction to _Imperium_).

   With Acord out of the way, Carto was ready for the next NYA meeting
   - another session in Pittsburgh March 29-30, at which national
   officers were to be elected.  The featurered speaker was Dr.
   Oliver, who had consented to support NYA on the conditions that
   Carto eliminate his 'unsavory and scabrous playmates, particularly
   Acord' and guarantee NYA a subsidy of at least $50,000 per year for
   two years.  After the evening meeting on the twenty-ninth, a party
   took place on the tenth floor of the Pick-Roosevelt Hotel.
   According to Thomas J.  Pallone Jr., then Connecticut NYA Chairman,
   '...many people [were] singing German songs (one of which was the
   Nazi national anthem).  One member boasted about having his own SS
   uniform.  There were toasts to Adolf Hitler and Nazi armbands
   displayed.' James Sullivan, and NYA member from New York, described
   the party in these words: 'There were Nazi and only Nazi banners on
   the walls, Nazi songs were sung and lewd anti-Christian and Jewish
   remarks were made, there was a vast arrary of people wearing Nazi
   WWII medals...  Mr.  Louis Byers...  was proudly flaunting his new
   custom made swastika cufflinks.  Almost everyone present ...  had
   on Nazi medals, or paraphernalia.'

   Probably the most disinterested account of the party comes from
   John C.  Watley, head of Georgia NYA, who disassociated his group
   from both the NYA factions that subsequently arose.  In one
   affidavit, Watley says the party was attended by 'associate
   members' (under NYA rules, persons over thirty years of age) who
   'sang decidedly racist songs with denigrating lyrics, supported
   [sported?] American Nazi cufflinks, and in general showed their
   intentions to be somewhat less that the original four-point purpose
   of the NYA.'

   In another, he says:

      At no time did I see anywhere any Nazi emblems, swastikas or
      armbands, except on one rather drunk person who had on some
      'genuine' German Nazi buttons made into cufflinks.  The German
      songs I heard were sung in general beer-drinking songs with
      'Deutschland, Deutschland, u"ber Alles' the only one that could
      have been called a Nazi song.  A tape recorder was turned on
      which had a song called 'The Cajun Ku Klux Klan' on it.  It was
      played twice.  I then left, all the scotch being gone.  Out in
      the hallway I ran into Willis Carto.  ...I remarked to him then
      that some people might get the wrong idea about what was going
      on inside.  He told me they were just drunk, and 'blowing off

   The next day an election of officers took place, in which an
   'anti-Nazi' slate header by Patrick Tifer, a pale, wispy boy from
   Michigan, won.  During the voting, according to Sullivan, Carto
   delivered an impassioned plea for 'unity'; when the voting
   continued to go against him, he threw a collosal tantrum.  Sullivan
   says the meeting ended with the Tiferites believing they were now
   in control of NYA; as Pallone tells it, the Cartoites ignored the
   election results, 'proposed that _Imperium_, a book which no one
   had read, be the guiding light of the NYA and broke up the
   meeting.' Certainly, the voting was a mere formality: Almost a
   month before, on March 5, Carto had had three Liberty Lobby
   employees, Gerald and Carol Dunn and Anne Dabney, incorporate NYA
   in the District of Columbia.  Its announced purpose was
   'distribution of material to young people advocating good

   Carto placed Byers in charge of his NYA.  Byers' first official act
   was to sign a note for $50,000 owed to Action Associates.  NYA
   offices were moved to a room on the eighth floor of the Dupont
   Circle Building.  A slogan - 'Free Men Are Not Equal ...  Equal Men
   Are Not Free' - and a symbol - the mathematical sign denoting
   inequality - were adopted.  Noontide Press reprinted _Imperium_ in
   a paperback, primarily for sale by the NYA.  In an early
   promotional letter, Byers wrote: 'NYA has a purpose, a cohesion,
   and a dynamic all its own.  Our approach is _unique_: It is based
   on the philosophy of Yockey's monumental _Imperium_...'

   In June, 1969, Carto published in _Liberty Letter_ a notice to the
   effect that the Lobby's mailing list was not available to other
   groups.  That included NYA, he informed Byers.  Carto provided
   other lists, including the _Mercury/Observer_ list, that didn't
   pull well.  By the end of the summer, NYA was in a tightening bind.
   Says Byers: 'Carto kept telling me that money was 'just around the
   corner,' and encouraged me to keep operating on credit, running up
   bills.  He selected the mailing lists, he approved the pitch
   letters - and every time I sent out a mailing, it lost money.  At
   that time, however, I still trusted Carto.  In fact, I thought he
   was Francis Parker Yockey reincarnated.'

   [photo of John Acord, Carto, and Hicks.  'In happier days: John
   Acord, sometime head of NYA; Willis Carto; the late W.B.  Hicks']

   7. Things Do Not Go Nicely

   'Willis can't stand for anyone to leave him,' a long-time associate
   says.  One is not supposed to quit; one is expected to stay at
   Liberty Lobby forever, or until fired.  Now, shortly after Hicks'
   death, Carto lost two key employees: Leo Donald Phillips, Managing
   Editor of _Liberty Letter_ and the man on whom Carto depended to
   keep the office running smoothly, and Michael D.  Jaffe, Liberty
   Lobby's General Counsel and chief contact-man on the Hill.

   In July 1969, Phillips took over the American-Southern Africa
   Council from the departed Acord - whereupon Carto attacked,
   re-establishing his old Friends of Rhodesian Independence with
   Taylor Caldwell fronting.  The Council was attacked in _Washington
   Observer_ and an obscure, viciously antisemitic paper called
   _Statecraft_.  Carto is believe to have sent copies of the attacks
   to the entire A-SAC mailing list.

   Meanwhile, Carto and his lobby were coming under heavy attack,
   mostly from sources which rejoice at any evidence that the right
   wing in America is latently racist and fascist.  Here the evidence
   was pretty nearly undeniable.  Acord and McMahon took their
   affidavits relating the events at the first meeting in Pittsburgh
   to Drew Pearson and Jack Anderson.  The story came out in a series
   of columns in April and May 1969.  Late in May, conservative
   columnist James Jackson Kilpatrick picked up the story.  His colum,
   based on the Acord-McMahon account, concluded: 'Never let it be
   said that conservatives don't have embarrassments also.' The reply
   was a smear in _Statecraft_ by Editor C.R.  Baker, duly reprinted
   in the Fall 1969 _American Mercury_, about 'James J.  Kilpatrick -
   Conservative Quisling.' Kilpatrick's ultimate treachery was not
   being Jewish.

   In October 1969 Carto learned of the plans of his former associate
   Phillips to set up his own lobby.  The _Observer_ promptly broke
   the story of 'a fake conservative lobby to enlist support for the
   Nixon Administration by siphoning off funds and support from
   reputable pro-American institutions.' The Anti-Defamation League,
   the _Observer_ suggested, was the secret backer of the new lobby.
   A little later Phillips was extensively smeared in _Statecraft_,
   which was luanched early in 1969 by C.R.  Baker and Danial Paulson
   - two more of the 'unsavory and scabrous playmates' that Dr.
   Olivere says he compelled Carto to exclude from NYA.  The paper is
   explicitly, super-obnoxiously racist and antisemitic, whose
   cartoons depict apelike, thick-lipped Negros, and mincing,
   hook-nosed Jews.  Baker had been seen often in the Liberty
   Building.  There is testimony to direct support for _Statecraft_
   from Carto: a check from Liberty Lobby for $1,500.  It was not
   cashed by _Statecraft_, for reasons unknown.

   To underwrite all these ventures, Carto had to keep the money
   coming.  He proved himself capable of coming up with emergency

   A letter went out from Col.  Dall March 11, 1969, announcing that a
   $55,000 loan on the Liberty Building had been called, that 'if we
   are unable to come up with $55,000 by midnight of March 25, we will
   be EVICTED.' The money rolled in - more than $100,000, according to
   one estimate.  Interestingly, the name 'Liberty Lobby' appears on
   none of the instruments connected with the purchase of the Liberty
   Building.  The purchaser in 1965 and sole owner since 1969 is - the
   'Government Educational Foundation.' On the original papers, Carto
   signed as Chairman of the Board of GEF; as recently as a year ago
   he signed, as President of the Foundation, an agreement with the
   District of Columbia relating to the construction of an underground
   vault on the property - to contain what, one certainly wonders.

   Carto worked a similar game toward the end of 1969.  That fall
   Liberty Lobby acquired a computer.  The Capitol Hill Data
   Processing Company was set up to bring in outside work to cover
   leasing costs.  From the beginning there were foul-ups of
   subscriber and pledger records stored in the computer.  The best
   guess is that the problems were caused by incompetent, underpaid,
   untrained help.  On December 11, a 'Confidential Memorandum' went
   out from Col.  Dall to the Board of Policy, announcing that
   'LIBERTY LOBBY has been sabotaged in its computer department.' He
   explained: '...the forces of the enemy do not play games...The
   prize is sole money and political control of the world.  The
   international one-world money merchants are steadily closing their
   grip on what is left of our uninformed society...' Following the
   'sabotage' of the computer, Carto tightened security.  Employees
   were not permitted to be away from their desks without permission;
   anyone caught wandering was interrogated.  Mike Russell, an NYA
   field worker, was brought in to babysit the computer and otherwise
   guard against the Enemy.  In May 1970 all employees were ordered to
   take lie detector tests.  They were asked if they had stolen money
   or lists, or had been in contact with the FBI or ADL.

   The first outward evidence of Carto's new, more active role in
   Liberty Lobby was an enthusiastic review of _Imperium_ in the May
   1969 _Liberty Letter_.  Omitting to mention the racist theme of the
   book, Managing Editor Doug Clee (later to flunk his polygraph test)
   praised it as 'a major work of philosophy.' By July 1970, Page One
   of _Liberty Letter_ raved openly about the 'aggressive minority
   which tightly controls the `free press`,' an 'alien-minded and
   America-last group,' 'the militant and ruthless Zionist pressure
   machine.' And by September, an Emergency _Liberty Letter_ shrilled
   of 'thousands of undercover Zionist `fixers,` lobbyists and
   Leftists - including Golda Meir, socialist premier of Israel - who
   prowl the corridors of Congress and converge on the White House.'

   Quite clearly, Liberty Lobby has accepted the _Washington
   Observer's_ explaination of Zionism: 'Most people think the purpose
   of the so-called Zionist movement is to establish a homeland for
   refuge Jews in Palestine - not at all.  The real purpose of
   Zionism is to establish totalitarian global control via a world

   The preoccupation appears very nearly total.  Carto wrote to Byers
   in 1969, concerning a projected tabloid:

       I think this tab will have a hell of an impact, mostly on the
      Kosher Kons[ervatives]...  Elisabeth [Mrs.  Carto] feels that
      there is danger of some effectiveness being lost because of
      aappearing too antijew.  I think she's right...  She suggests
      that the character be changed from a typical speciment [sic] of
      a pawnbroker to General Dyan [sic]!  This will get away from
      making the tab appear too antijew, or ridiculing the poor dears,
      and also points it up more directly.  I think this is a great
      idea, and will make the whole thing better.  In other words,
      Dyan with the eye patch pointing his finger at viewer and saying
      'I NEED YOU...  TO FIGHT FOR ISRAEL.' ...Also, as a general
      criticism, I think there should be more stuff in it about the
      Wall Street jew...  Remember that we are trying to reach the
      Leftist goyim...Also, do you have that picture of 4 or 5 Jews
      that appeared in _Time_ about three years ago which showed the
      publishers of various 'underground papers.' Each of them was a
      particular type of Jew.  ...There is always the tendency to lose
      effectiveness in this type of thing by overdoing it from the
      taste of the 'average Goy.' So let's be very careful about
      ridiculing them....  Best, Willis.

   8. Farewell

   And so Liberty Lobby, its mastermind and all the satellite
   enterprises lumber on.  Will he succeed - ever - in profiteering
   from America's confusion, instituting his 'single minded and
   intolerant power which can clean and redeem'?

   By the figures, the future looks uncertain for the Carto complex.
   Liberty Lobby's revenues are down sharply: Only $310,000 (so far as
   one can ascertain) was raised in the fist six months of 1970,
   doubling that figure gives only $620,000 for the year, well down
   from the 1969 total of $850,000.  A publisher's sworn statement
   lists the average paid circulation of _Liberty Letter_ (October
   1969 to October 1970) at 240,000, but circulation for September
   1970 was only 178,000.  A report filed with the Clerk of the House
   last June claimed total distribution of 150,000 copies of _Liberty
   Letter_ - well below Col.  Dall's ambitious claim of 'half a
   million readers.' Last fall, United Congressional Appeal, Liberty
   Lobby's campaign fund-raising arm, distributed only $63,000 to
   candidates (the goal was $250,000), compared with $93,000 two years

   The attacks on conservatives grow ever sillier.  The latest is a
   suit against the American Conservative Union, for allegedly
   stealing Liberty Lobby's mailing list.  The real motivation behind
   this inexplicable lawsuit emerged in the _Washington Observer_
   (September 15, 1970).  The ADL is still trying to 'neutralize' the
   conservative movement, the Liberty folk inform us, using that agent
   Murray Chotiner (Nixon aide), but -

      Since the first exposure of this plan..  it has been modified -
      the 'American Lobby' [Phillips' organization] appeared, but
      stillborn and without backing.  Instead, the emphasis was
      changed to buttressing an older group established in late 1964
      by master promoter, Marvin Liebman - the American Conservative
      Union.  ACU has broadened the scope of its alleged activities to
      compete with the well-established Liberty Lobby, as well as the
      nonpartisan political campaign organization, the United
      Congressional Appeal.

      The cast of characters playing roles in Chotiner's Coalition
      would not want to be seen on the street together.  They include
      Charles McManus of the Americans for Constitutional Action, Rep.
      John Ashbrook and his executive administrator Robert Bauman of
      the American Conservative Union and Conservative Victory Fund,
      William F.  Buckley of _National Review_ and Tom Winter, editor
      of _Human Events_.  Not to mention Henry Kissenger, who needs no
      introduction to readers of WO.

      Although there is a seeming ideological disparity to the above
      persons, all are subject to Zionist control; some because they
      have personal (if secret) investments in Israel, some because of
      political reasons and others because of dependence upon
      contributions from Jewish fat cats.

   Carto's friends are dropping away one by one.  Richard Cotten, once
   a great crowd-pleaser at Liberty Lobby meetings, has broken with
   him.  Dr.  Oliver describes Carto as 'a species that I do not have
   the stomach to contemplate without nausea' - in a confidential
   letter to Col.  Dall, made public, says Dr.  Oliver, at Dall's
   request.  Lou Byers, cast adrift by Carto after NYA proved
   unsuccessful, and now being sud for, yes, stealing the mailing list
   that is the keystone of Carto's ediface, now says: 'He's a complete
   opportunist.  He _says_ he's a National Socialist, but he isn't -
   he's a French peasant turned Jewish capitalist.'

   And still Carto plugs away, pounding his typewriter sixteen hours a
   day, living like a recluse in the basement of the Liberty Building
   while his wife stays with her sister in Maryland.  _Liberty Letter_
   keeps urging conservatives to unite, implying, as it has all along,
   that money spent elsewhere is money wasted.  Col.  Dall still signs
   the desperate fund appeals; the newest peril is a 'MASSIVE ATTACK
   AGAINST LIBERTY LOBBY.' The pitch letter reads: 'Will Government
   Succeed in Wiping Out Voice of `Silent Majority` in Washington?
   only LIBERTY LOBBY stands for the traditional American policy of
   NEUTRALITY in the Mideast!  Is this why the `Establishment` is now
   determined to destroy our movement?...  Your dollars NOW will allow
   us to COUNTERATTACK effectively!' What it means is that the
   Internal Revenue Service has asked Liberty Lobby to pay an income
   tax deficiency of $56,762.21.

   While the althiest Carto labors in his basement, a Mrs.  Carol Dunn
   cranks out chatty letters to 'Dear V.I.P.  (Very Important
   Patriot),' warning of new ADL-Zionist plots, reminding pledgers to
   get those payments in, and concluding with such paragraphs as:
   'About one out of five letters assure me `I am praying for LIBERTY
   LOBBY.` Well, I want you to know that I also pray daily for you...
   that God will increase your faith, strength, efficiency [!], and
   multiply your efforts to preserve America.  God bless you richly!
   II Cor.  13:14.' Stanley Andrews - _Pastor_ Andrews, now - heads a
   new project, Save Our Schools (from drugs, sex education,
   `interracial dating`); kept at Liberty Lobby who knows how (he
   tried to quit in 1965 because, he said in a job application, he
   didn't feel `recent events relating to the policies and fiscal
   status of the organization as controlled by Mr.  Willis Carto
   auguered well for the future of AFNS.`).

   No, nothing has changed.  A recent issue of _Statecraft_ featured
   an elaborite smear of Byers, and a boost for a new NYA being
   operated out of Michigan by little Patrick Tifer, who told a
   reporter recently that his operation has Willis Carto's 'moral
   support.' In the fine old spirit of sauve qui peut, Liberty Lobby
   has billed Byers $40,000 for the list he allegedly stole, plus
   $2,867 for 'computer time.' Last month, Byers caught Baker and a
   _Statecraft_ employee trying to break into his house.  'An ADL
   trap,' says Baker.

   Which is just about where we came in." (Simonds, C.H.  "The 
   Strange Story of Willis Carto," National Review, September 10, 
   1971. 978-989)

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