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Subject: Einsatzgruppen: Operational Situation Report: USSR 106
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The Chief of the Security Police and the Security Service

Berlin,
October 7, 1941

48 copies
(36th copy)

OPERATIONAL SITUATION REPORT USSR No. 106

............
Einsatzgruppe B
Location: Smolensk
............

Mood and general conduct of the population

............

It can be observed that, just as before, the population in the area
of our activities abstains from any self-defense action against the
Jews. True, the population reports uniformly about the Jewish terror
against them during the Soviet rule. They also complain to the
German offices about new attacks from the side of the Jews (like
unauthorized return from the ghetto to their previous homes, or
hostile remarks against the Germans made by Jews). However, in spite
of our energetic attempts, they are not ready for any action against
the Jews. The decisive reason here seems to be the fear of Jewish
revenge in case of a return of the Reds. Even very active elements
who help us find Jewish Communists and members of the intelligentsia
and show themselves very efficient in their cooperation prefer to
remain invisible and anonymous in the decisive moments.

Reports on a stable, good mood in the population can be found only
in those areas where economic life is somewhat normal, as, for
instance, in the town of Klintsy that has not been destroyed at all;
also in Vitebsk.

............
Einsatzgruppe C
Location: Kiev

I. Kiev
...........

As a result of [war] destruction, especially of houses, and the
forced order to evacuate endangered streets, about 23,000 persons
became homeless and were forced to spend the first days of the
occupation in the open. They accepted this inconvenience quietly and
did not cause panic.

Meanwhile, locked and empty apartments, insofar as they had not been
burned and damaged, were put at the disposal of the population. A
corresponding number of apartments have also become available
through liquidation, thus far around 36,000 Jews on September 29 and
30, 1941. The housing of the homeless is assured and has also been
taken care of in the meantime.

The population of Kiev before the start of the war numbered around
850,000. For the time being, no exact indication concerning its
national composition can be given. The number of Jews is said to
have been about 300,000. The total number of ethnic Germans living
in Kiev is presently being counted by a Kommando. The final results
will be available in ten days. The temporary appointed city
administration has begun immediately to register all the inhabitants
of Kiev. As a first measure, all males 15-60 must report.

Except for a small part, the non-Jewish population, as far as can
now be established, seems to welcome the German Army, or at least to
display loyal behavior. During the first days of the occupation,
serious unrest could be detected within the population because of
rumors that the German Army was leaving the city. These rumors were
successfully squelched with proper official announcements. The
population cooperates very readily by furnishing information on
explosives or secret membership in the NKVD, the Party and the Red
Army. Unlike the first days, one could note that this information
was 90% correct. The reason for this is that the city inhabitants
are less frightened than is the rural population, since they do not
fear the possibility of a return of the Bolsheviks. There are no
food stocks and these must be provided. A staff in charge of
economic affairs was created by the appointed city administration.
It's main task was, for the time being, the supplying of the most
vital food. This economic staff supplied the required transportation
and, thus, the most urgent needs could be met by bringing in supplies
from the nearby collective farms.

II: Executions and other measures

The population was extremely infuriated against the Jews because of
their preferential economical status under Soviet rule. It could
also be proved that the Jews had participated in arson. The
population expected adequate reprisals from the Germans. For this
purpose, in agreement with the city military command, all the Jews
of Kiev were ordered to appear at a certain place on Monday,
September 29, by 6 o'clock. This order was publicized by posters all
over the town by members of the newly organized Ukrainian militia.
At the same time, oral information was passed that all the Jews of
Kiev would be moved to another place. In cooperation with the HQ of
EGC and two Kommandos of the police regiment South, Sonderkommando
4a executed 33,771 Jews on September 29 and 30. (1) Gold and
valuables, linen, and clothing were secured. Part of it was given to
the NSV (National-Sozialistische Versorgung = Nazi Welfare) for the
ethnic Germans, and part to the appointed city administration for
distribution among the needy population. The action was carried out
smoothly and no incidents occurred. The population agreed with the
plan to move the Jews to another place. That they were actually
liquidated has hardly been made known. However, according to the
experience gained so far, this would not meet with any opposition.
The army has also approved the measures taken. The Jews that have
not yet been caught or who will return will be treated accordingly.
At the same time, a number of NKVD men and commissars were arrested
and finished off.

The Bandera members lost power with the arrests made by the
Kommandos. Their activity was restricted to the distribution of
leaflets and posters. Three arrests were made; more are pending.

The HQ of the EGC as well as Sonderkommando 4a and Einsatzkommando
5, both stationed in Kiev, have made connections with the proper
offices. Constant cooperation with these offices was achieved, and
imminent problems are discussed daily. Because of the vast amounts
of information, each time [with each action] detailed operation
reports must be submitted about the activity of the
Einsatzkommandos.

III. Zhitomir, action against the Jews

The Militia headquarters, according to a suggestion of
Sonderkommando 4a, arranged a temporary, local concentration of Jews
in Zhitmmir. This resulted in a quieter atmosphere, for example, in
the markets, etc. At the same time, obstinate rumors diminished and
it seemed that together with the concentration of the Jews, the
Communists, too, lost much ground. However, it became obvious after
a few days that concentration of the Jews without building a ghetto
did not suffice, and that the old difficulties emerged again after a
short while. Complaints about the impertinence of the Jews in their
various places of work stemmed from various quarters. It was noted
that strong propaganda activity among the Ukrainians, claiming that
the Red Army would return very soon into the areas that had been
taken away from them, had their origin in the Jewish quarter. The
local militia was shot at, at night, and even in the daytime from an
ambush. It was also established that Jews exchanged their belongings
for money in order to move into Western Ukraine where a civil
administration already exists.

All these phenomena could be observed. However, it was possible to
get hold of the involved Jews only in the rarest cases, as they had
sufficient opportunities to evade arrest. Therefore, a conference
was called together with military H.Q. on September 10, 1941. The
resulting decision was the final and radical liquidation of the Jews
of Zhitomir, since all warnings [threats] and special measures
[punishments] had not led to any perceptible change.

On September 19, 1941, from 4 o'clock [a.m.], the Jewish quarter was
emptied after having been surrounded and closed the previous evening
by 60 members of the Ukrainian militia. The transport [deportation]
was accomplished in 12 trucks, part of which had been supplied by
military headquarters and part by the city administration of
Zhitomir. After the transport had been carried out and the necessary
preparations made with the help of 150 prisoners, 3,145 Jews were
registered and shot.

After 25-30 tons of linen, clothing, shoes, dishes, etc. that had
been confiscated in the course of the action were handed over to the
officials of the NSV in Zhitomir for distribution. Valuables and
money were conveyed to the Sonderkommando 4a. (Arad, pp 171-174)

                        Work Cited

Arad, Yitzak, Shmuel Krakowski and Shmuel Spector, editors. The
Einsatzgruppen Reports. New York: Holocaust Library. 1989.

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