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Subject: Fascism Almanac: Cobb County, Georgia (LONG)
Summary: A report on the activity of hate groups in Cobb Country, along
         with information about neo-Nazi groups, the Klan, and their
         inter-relationships; includes data regarding some of the 
         players.
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Last-Modified: 1994/04/25

Archived and published to UseNet with permission.

The Shadow of Hatred
Hate Group Activity in Cobb County, Georgia

Produced for the Cobb Citizens Coalition

A Neighbors Network Publication

This report has been prepared by the Neighbors Network, a legal
non-profit organization incorporated under the laws of the State of
Georgia.  The Neighbors Network opposes hate crime and hate group
activity through research, education, victims assistance, and
community action.

Written and compiled by: W.  B.  Reeves, Patrick Kelly, and Steve
Adams

Copyright 1994, Neighbors Network

Any reproduction without the expressed consent of the Neighbors
Network is prohibited.

For permission to reproduce contact oprdlmx@gsusgi2.gsu.edu

Appendix
Appendix II
Chronology

                       The Shadow of Hatred

             Hate Group Activity in Cobb County, Georgia

Preface

	Cobb County, Georgia has a history of organized hate group
activity which dates back to the Reconstruction Era Ku Klux Klan
following the Civil War.  The lynching of Leo Frank in Cobb County in
1915 was a major factor in the twentieth century rebirth of the Ku
Klux Klan, which had been dormant since the 1870s.  

	For many years, Cobb County has been the center of hate group
activity in the Metropolitan Atlanta area.  A major factor has been
the activity of J.  B.  Stoner, Ed Fields, and their associates.

	From 1980 to 1984, Marietta was headquarters for Ed Fields'
New Order Knights of the KKK, which maintained klaverns in Marietta
and Kennesaw.  In the early 1980s, the Invisible Empire Knights of the
Ku Klux Klan had at least two of its twenty-five Georgia klaverns in
Cobb County.  The Cobb klaverns were in Marietta and Kennesaw.  These
were the only towns in Georgia known to support klaverns of two
different klan factions.

	During the past five years, most of the nazi skinhead
organizations in the Atlanta area have been based in Cobb County,
including the National Socialist Youth of Georgia, Georgia National
Socialist Alliance, SS of America, Aryan Resistance League,
Hammerskins, Aryan National Front, Atlanta area Confederate
Hammerskins, and White Women's Association.  The Georgia organizer for
the Tennessee-based Christian Guard also resides in Cobb.

	Holocaust Revisionism (a pseudo scholarly movement that denies
the reality of the nazi extermination of European Jews) in the Atlanta
area is headquartered in Cobb County.  Marietta attorney Sam Dickson's
Atlanta Committee for Historical Review sponsors visits by European
Holocaust Revisionists and hate group members. 

	The Populist Party of Georgia maintained its headquarters in
Smyrna, Cobb County, until April of 1992.  Its then Executive
Director, C.  Ray Harrelson, is a frequent attendee of klan
gatherings, and has made anti-Semitic public statements.

	Cobb County has also witnessed violence and harassment by
those who call themselves "pro-life." In September 1984, the Cobb
County Planned Parenthood Office was set on fire.  

	Currently, the Neighbors Network is receiving numerous
complaints of incidents involving nazi skinheads, including a
lesbian-bashing in the Merchants Walk-Merchants Exchange area of Cobb
County.

                          Introduction

	Recent events in Cobb County have placed it and its government
at the center of the ongoing debate over the human rights of lesbians
and gay men.  The passage of a resolution by the Cobb County
Commission condemning homosexuality as inconsistent with Cobb's
"community standards" sparked public demonstrations both in support of
and in opposition to the resolution.  Media attention has been focused
on both Cobb and the Metropolitan area.  

	Cobb County has experienced such international notoriety only
once before in its history.  In 1915, a group of men calling
themselves the "Knights of Mary Phagan" kidnapped a Jewish factory
manager named Leo Frank from the state prison farm near Milledgeville,
Georgia.  Frank, who had been convicted of the murder of Mary Phagan
amid an atmosphere of anti-Semitic vigilantism and mob violence, was
driven to Marietta, Georgia and lynched.  Two organizations emerged
from the ensuing public turmoil--the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai
B'rith and the revived Ku Klux Klan.

	The history of intolerance and bigotry in Cobb County has been
largely ignored.  The recent actions of the Cobb Commission have been
viewed as political grandstanding unconnected to the sentiments of the
County at large.  This increasingly suburbanized community, located in
the shadow of a city perceived to be one of the most cosmopolitan and
progressive in the South, has now become a staging platform for the
anti-gay agenda.

	Despite its proximity to Atlanta, Cobb County has long been a
focal point for hate group organizing.  Groups ranging from the Klan
and nazi skinheads to the Populist Party and right-wing tax protestors
have found a home in the County.  The presence of these organizations
and the character of their activities have impacted the Cobb
community, contributing to the current climate of fear and
intolerance.


      The Thunderbolt and the National States Rights Party


	Since the early 1980s, Cobb County has held a preeminent place
in the history of hate groups in Georgia .  For years, the county seat
of Marietta was the base of operations for J.B.  Stoner and his racist
and anti-Semitic tabloid The Thunderbolt.  Stoner's repeated campaigns
for public office, filled with rhetoric attacking "nigger apes" and
"Christ killing Jews," have made him a celebrity of sorts.

	Lacking both personal charm and media skills, Stoner was
widely viewed as an anachronism.  Despite his ability to attract over
40,000 voters in the 1970 gubernatorial election, the public viewed
Stoner as a vestige of old time segregationist politics that had all
but faded away.  He was widely considered to be an unpleasant but
harmless crank.

	This assessment proved false when Stoner was indicted in
Alabama for his involvement in a series of bombings that targeted
black churches.  Stoner was eventually convicted and served a prison
sentence for his participation.  This was not the only link between
Stoner and criminal terrorism.  In the 1940s Stoner, then a Klan
Kleagle living in Tennessee, spoke at meetings of Atlanta's Nathan
Bedford Forrest Klavern, one of the most violent klan organizations in
the nation, calling for the extermination of all Jews.  From 1958
through the 1980s, Stoner had operated a barely disguised nazi group
called the National States Rights Party ("NSRP").  Individuals
associated with this organization were repeatedly implicated in
various acts of racial and anti-Semitic violence.  

	As Stoner became increasingly preoccupied by his legal
troubles, he withdrew from active involvement in the day to day
management of both The Thunderbolt and the National States Rights
Party.  More and more these responsibilities fell to Stoner's protege
and longtime associate, Marietta resident Edward R.  Fields.  It was
Fields more than any other individual who would be responsible for the
revival of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia.  Ultimately, it would be his
organizing efforts that would lead NAACP Regional Director Earl
Shinhoster to state in 1982 that "Cobb County is perhaps the center of
Klan and neo-nazi activity in Georgia." 


Ed Fields

>From the New Order Knights to the America First Party
	

	It is impossible to discuss hate group activity in Cobb County
or, for that matter, in Georgia, without paying particular attention
to the activities of Edward R.  Fields.  His career spans decades and
his influence is international in scope.  He is the least recognized
major leader of America's white supremacist movement.  

	In 1981, the economically deprived West Georgia community of
Cedartown was the scene of events that signified a dramatic and
violent resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.  The arrival of Mexican
immigrant labor had further increased competition for low skilled, low
paying jobs at the town's Zartic Frozen Food plant.  The resulting
tensions made the town ripe for exploitation by traditional Klan
methods.  However, what actually occurred was an unprecedented
departure in Klan tactics, demonstrating that a newer, shrewder leader
was in charge.  That leader was Ed Fields.

	Having observed the success that David Duke, Bill Wilkerson,
and others enjoyed with their Klan recruitment efforts, Fields
organized a Klan faction of his own dubbed The New Order Knights of
the Ku Klux Klan.  The Hitlerian overtones of the phrase "New Order"
were appropriate.  The tactics that Fields employed in Cedartown are
best understood in the context of Nazism rather than in the history of
the Ku Klux Klan.

	Whereas historically the Klan had been hostile to organized
labor, often operating as strikebreakers, Fields took a different
approach.  Under Fields' direction, workers at the Zartic plant were
organized into a group called The American Labor Union.  This union
then proceeded to stage pickets of the plant calling for the firing of
"illegal Mexican workers." Shockingly, the picket lines included both
robed Klansmen and African-American employees.

	Tensions in Cedartown reached a violent climax with the
shooting death of a Mexican worker who had been engaged to a local
teenager.  At the trial that followed, the courtroom was packed with
spectators wearing klan badges and insignia.  The defendant in the
case was acquitted despite the testimony of an eyewitness.  Subsequent
to the trial, this witness was killed in a house fire.  Arson was
suspected.  

	Seeking to capitalize on the notoriety of events in Cedartown,
Fields embarked on an intensified campaign of Klan recruitment.  The
New Order Knights staged rallies, leaflettings and crossburnings
throughout north Georgia.  In May of 1982, one such rally in Spaulding
County, Georgia was closed down for violating a local ordinance by
local law enforcement, aided by the Anti-Terrorist Unit of the Georgia
Bureau of Investigation.  Fields sued to have the ordinance
overturned.  Fields testified in court that there were between 500 and
600 members in the New Order Knights.

	Fields' publicly stated goals were quite ambitious.  He
intended to "make Georgia the number one klan state in the nation" and
to unite all klan factions in Georgia under his leadership.

	The architect of this aggressive campaign had an unlikely
beginning for a Georgia klan leader.  Fields grew up as the only child
in an affluent, midtown Atlanta family and was an altar boy at the
respected Marist Academy while in his teens.  He was politically
precocious, counting as a high point of his life his meeting with
Governor Eugene Talmadge prior to Talmadge's death in 1946.  A year
earlier, however, Fields had made an acquaintance that would have a
far more profound effect on his development---Klan recruiter J.  B.
Stoner.

	During this same period, the first openly nazi group was
organized in Georgia.  Clad in khaki shirts with Sam Browne belts and
sporting the thunderbolt emblem borrowed from Hitler's nazis, this
group targeted white youths for recruitment.  They called themselves
The Columbians.  The group collapsed after its leadership, headed by
Emory Burke, was convicted of plotting a series of dynamite bombings
of homes belonging to black families.  In this atmosphere and under
the influence of Stoner and the Columbians, Ed Fields came of age as a
racist.  Fields later became a member of a committee that lobbied for
Burke's release from Reidsville state prison. 

	During their brief history, The Columbians published a
newsletter called The Thunderbolt.  J.  B.  Stoner was in regular
contact with the organization.  When Stoner founded his publication in
1958, he appropriated both the name of the Columbians' newsletter and
their organizational emblem for the masthead.  Ed Fields was to serve
as editor of this publication from that time until the present.  In
the late 1980s the tabloid's name was changed from The Thunderbolt to
The Truth At Last.  In the mid to late 1970s, both Fields and Stoner
traveled regularly to Britain and addressed meetings of Britain's
National Front.  The National Front was at that time the single
largest legal electoral party espousing blatantly racist and
anti-immigrant views in Great Britain.  The Front's contacts with the
NSRP were longstanding, dating back to the early 1960s. 

	A July 1977 issue of The Thunderbolt quoted a speech given by
Fields on one of his trips to England.  "To thundering cheers from the
throng I told the patriots that the Jew is the common enemy of all the
white nations of Europe.  .  .  .  I also warned that colored
immigration and foreign workers threatened to pollute and destroy all
the white countries of Europe."

	These visits to Britain were only part of the story.  Often
they were a stop-off for Fields and Stoner, who would then continue on
to the European continent to attend an annual memorial meeting for the
World War Two dead of Hitler's SS in the town of Diksmuide, Belgium.
This gathering has operated as a forum for the international nazi
movement, where schemes ranging from gun running to proposals for
breaking J.  B.  Stoner out of prison received a hearing.

	In 1983, Fields' fortunes took a turn for the worse.  Despite
legal maneuvering, J.  B.  Stoner had been convicted of the 1958
bombing of a Birmingham church, and was serving a ten-year sentence.
After a series of appeals and a brief period as fugitive, Stoner
surrendered to authorities and began to serve his sentence.  In his
absence, a faction within the National States Rights Party, which held
legal title to The Thunderbolt as well as to Stoner's residence,
sought to seize the Party's assets by firing Fields from his position
as the Party's Executive Secretary.  Fields was locked out of The
Thunderbolt's offices and joined with Stoner in a lawsuit to regain
control of the Party's assets.

	In May of 1984, Fields was arrested and charged with
burglarizing The Thunderbolt's offices and illegally removing
$5,000.00 worth of equipment and confidential NSRP files from the
premises.  Counterclaims filed against Fields by his opponents in the
NSRP accused him of assault, saying that he had "threatened to blow
the brains out of" Reverend R.  B.  Montgomery while he [Fields] "held
a pistol in his hand." 

	While the various suits and counter-suits were eventually
settled, the prolonged legal battle severely limited Fields' ability
to organize.  Although Fields continued to be a featured speaker at
Klan events such as the national gatherings of the klan at Stone
Mountain, Georgia, by 1985 the New Order Knights were defunct as a
separate Klan faction.  Fields continued to maintain close ties with
local Klan leaders such as Dave Holland of the Southern White Knights
of the Ku Klux Klan (SWK).

	Fields was present in January 1987, when a mob organized
primarily by the SWK, attacked a group of peaceful civil rights
marchers in Forsyth County, Georgia.  This brutal assault resulted in
a successful lawsuit brought by the Southern Poverty Law Center
against the SWK and the Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
In 1988, Fields participated in an abortive attempt by klan and nazi
factions to march on the Democratic National Convention, then meeting
in Atlanta.

	In 1989, Fields was a speaker at a public Klan rally in
Gainesville, Georgia, which also featured Richard Butler, leader of
the Idaho-based Aryan Nations.  Fields attended national klan meetings
in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1991, 1992, and 1993.  In June 1993, he
addressed a rally of the Royal Confederate Knights in Rome, Georgia.

	Despite his continuing ties to the klan, Fields has maintained
a much lower public profile since the breakup of the NSRP.  Even when
addressing Klan gatherings, he shuns the traditional robes in favor of
a coat and tie.  He now avoids press interviews as avidly as he once
sought attention.  But this lowered profile in no way indicates a
lessening of his influence within the racist right.  Indeed, he has
been described by Charles Wittenstein of the Atlanta office of the
Anti Defamation League as the "Joseph Goebbels of the American white
supremacist movement."

	Fields' propaganda, from The Truth At Last to numerous
pamphlets and articles, has become a major resource for the racist
right.  His literature permeates the movement and is distributed by
groups across the spectrum, from the Populist Party to nazi skinhead
gangs.  His influence extends beyond the borders of the United States
to groups such as Canada's Heritage Front.  The Front's leader, former
Klansman Wolfgang Droege, has described Fields as "a good friend." His
propaganda has been used as an organizing tool by activists for
England's racist British National Party.  

	Since the late 1980s, Fields has positioned himself on the far
right of the Conservative movement.  He has assumed a respectable pose
for this purpose.

	He has worked closely with the Populist Party in Georgia,
Florida, South Carolina, New Jersey and elsewhere.  He has associated
himself with the Holocaust denial market, attending conferences of the
Institute for Historical Review and heavily promoting events sponsored
by the Atlanta Committee for Historical Review which is headed by
Marietta attorney, Sam Dickson.  In the pages of The Truth At Last,
Fields uses euphemistic phrases such as "patriot," "Christian
patriot," and "rightist" to describe klan and nazi groups.  He
continues to exploit the issue of Hispanic immigration through his
Emergency Committee To Suspend Immigration.  During 1992, Fields gave
front page space in The Truth At Last to the Presidential candidacy of
Pat Buchanan.  He continues to feature prominent coverage of
Buchanan's activities. 

	In the early 1990s, Fields began promoting what he called
"unity meetings" in various locations in the eastern states.  It was
soon apparent that these meetings were part of an effort to reorganize
a sizable portion of the white supremacist movement under Fields'
leadership.  At the very least, these gatherings served to increase
Fields' prestige and influence.  In 1991, Fields embarked on a
speaking tour with British nazi John Tyndal, an old acquaintance,
formerly of the National Front and currently leader of the British
National Party.  Beginning with a crowd of 150 in Atlanta, Fields and
Tyndal went on to address meetings in Winston-Salem, North Carolina,
Washington, D.C., and Clifton, New Jersey.  The Populist Party of
Maryland and The Spotlight, a nationally distributed tabloid that has
been described by the Anti-Defamation League as "the most successful"
anti-Semitic publication in the country, co-sponsored the Washington
event.  The Spotlight's publisher, Willis Carto, hosted the gathering.

	Fields' national and international activities did not prevent
his continued involvement in local affairs.  In 1992, Fields and such
major figures in the Georgia Populist Party as former Party Executive
Director C.  Ray Harrelson, seized upon the developing controversy
over the design of the Georgia state flag.  Resigning from his post as
Populist Party chief, Harrelson formed the Committee to Save Our State
Flag.  Fields enthusiastically promoted the Committee's activities,
even dropping his normal behind-the-scenes approach long enough to
write an open letter to Governor Zell Miller denouncing the Governor
as a "scalawag." By the end of 1992, the Populist Party of Georgia was
boasting that it had recruited 7,000 new members by exploiting the
controversy.

	In June 1993, Fields' jockeying for position on a national
level resulted in a long-touted "National Unity Convention" in
Clemmons, North Carolina.  Capitalizing on infighting in the national
Populist Party, Fields and former Populist Party leader A.  J.
Barker, launched the America First Party.  C.  Ray Harrelson serves as
the party's treasurer.  A featured speaker at the Party's convention
was former Columbian leader Emory Burke.  

	In the months since the party's formation, its primary
activity has been staging local organizing meetings.  It is not yet
clear what impact the new organization will have on the racist
movement overall, but any doubts about the character of this
organization were removed at a recent meeting of the party's National
Council.  The guest speaker at this function was Richard Butler,
leader of the Hayden Lake, Idaho-based Aryan Nations.

	Fields has not neglected to cultivate the younger, openly nazi
elements of the skinhead movement.  He has a close association with
Cliff Warby, a British-born nazi skinhead who operates Thunor
Services, a mail order business trafficking in nazi paraphernalia.
Warby has distributed catalogs for his business in pre-printed
envelopes bearing both the mailing address of The Truth At Last and
the bulk mailing permit assigned to Fields.

	Fields has played something of a "Godfather" role to Georgia's
nazi skinhead movement, using its members for mail and street
distributions of his publications.  He has publicly lauded these
groups for their efforts.  He has managed to maintain his influence
with young "white revolutionaries" despite his ostensible commitment
to electoral politics. 


                      Seducing the Young


          Robert Quincy Smith and the American Front


	Robert Quincy Smith, a nazi skinhead from Villa Rica, Georgia,
was a significant figure in the earliest efforts to promote Nazism
among young people in Cobb County.  An organizer for the east coast
branch of the California-based American Front, Smith operated under
the authority of the American Front's east coast Chairman, David Lynch
of Port St.  Lucie, Florida.  Unstable and violent, Smith's so-called
organizing amounted to little more than a one-man reign of terror
among the teens he recruited.

	Smith is a habitual exploiter of young girls.  In one case,
Smith, who was in his early twenties, spirited a fourteen year old
away from her mother's home only to abandon her in Florida.  In
another instance, Smith led a group of his followers in an abortive
attempt to "punish" a fourteen year old boy who had broken with the
"movement." Smith used another fourteen year old girl in a failed
effort to lure the targeted youth into a trap.  The girl later stated
that she believed that Smith intended to murder his quarry.  In 1989,
Smith was convicted in Douglas County on a charge of interfering with
the custody of a minor girl and received probation.

	Smith was arrested on at least three separate occasions in
1989.  In August he was charged with terroristic threats in Smyrna,
Georgia.  In October he was arrested in Smyrna, along with David
Lynch, in an incident growing out of an automobile accident.  In
December Smith was jailed in Fulton County for telephoning threats to
the offices of the Anti-Defamation League and the Center for
Democratic Renewal.

	In February 1990, following his release from jail, Smith
assaulted a fifteen year old east Cobb youth whom he suspected of
disloyalty.  The victim was beaten so severely that his face required
reconstructive surgery.  Convicted of aggravated assault for this
attack, Smith was sentenced to a prison term.  While incarcerated in
Hall County, Smith wrote a letter to Racial Loyalty, the publication
of the Hitler-worshiping cult Church of the Creator, in which he
identified himself as a "reverend" of the Church.


                     Pied Pipers of Hate


	In 1990, local skinheads initiated a politically sophisticated
organization for recruiting Georgia teenagers to the nazi skinhead
movement.  This effort was based in Cobb County.  Anthony (Tony)
Holmes Butler, a nazi organizer from Pensacola, Florida, and his local
organization, the Georgia National Socialist Alliance ("GNSA"),
established a youth auxiliary called the National Socialist Youth of
Georgia ("NSYOG").  The youth outreach was under the titular
leadership of Samuel Miles Dowling and John Edwards, both Marietta
residents.  The house that they occupied on Blanche Drive was soon a
center for nazi youth activity throughout the Metropolitan Atlanta
area and remained so until Dowling moved out in 1992.  The house
provided space for meetings, social gatherings, and served as a
stopover for nazi skinheads passing through Georgia.

	Butler, Dowling, and Edwards pursued both legal political
activity and more questionable efforts to recruit minor children in
local schools.  At this time, Butler was producing a newsletter for
local nazi skinheads called The Standard Bearer which promoted racism
and anti-Semitism.  On weekends, the group conducted leaflettings
around the Metropolitan Atlanta area.  The NSYOG solicited donations,
distributed their own literature, and, significantly, gave out copies
of The Truth At Last at intersections in towns such as Loganville,
Acworth, and Dacula.

	While engaging in such street agitation, the NSYOG also
operated in less orthodox areas.  Youth hangouts, such as the food
courts at local malls and various punk and alternative music clubs,
were targeted for the distribution of literature and business cards.
They produced thousands of fliers promoting nazi beliefs for
surreptitious distribution on school premises in Cobb, Gwinnett,
Fulton and Cherokee Counties.

	All of these activities were combined with a conscious
campaign to silence opposition among young people through
psychological and physical intimidation.  The results of this
coordinated propaganda effort were soon felt in area schools.

	In April 1990, a fourteen year old Jewish boy was beaten at
J.J.  Daniels Middle School, following weeks of anti-Semitic
harassment by a group of students who openly displayed nazi and klan
symbols including the Hitler salute.  The child's mother had informed
school authorities of the harassment prior to the beating and had been
assured that her son was in no danger.

	In January 1991, eight students at McEachern High School were
suspended following a racial brawl that left one student injured.  The
brawl occurred after white students distributed nazi literature at the
school and after a swastika and the slogans "white power" and "kill
Jesus Christ" were spray-painted on a school building.

	Later that same year, a group of fourteen and fifteen year old
girls circulated nazi skinhead propaganda at a school in north Fulton
County.  Neighbors Network volunteers determined that the NSYOG
produced the literature.

	At Pope High School in Cobb County, a senior associated with
the NSYOG delivered an oral report in class arguing that the nazi
extermination of the Jews was a hoax.

	The NSYOG did not limit its propaganda efforts to printed
material.  The group also supplied minors with tapes of so-called
"Hate Rock" by nazi skinhead bands such as Screwdriver and Midtown
Boot Boys.  These tapes contained songs with titles such as "Nigger At
the End of a Rope" and lyrics in praise of convicted war criminal
Rudolph Hess.  The NSYOG also distributed T-shirts and stickers
bearing nazi slogans attacking Jews, African Americans, Hispanics, and
homosexuals.  The NSYOG also showed video tapes of nazi propaganda
films and racist gatherings procured through The Truth At Last and the
California based White Aryan Resistance to potential recruits.

	According to sources within the nazi skinhead movement, early
in this period Ed Fields began to actively court the GNSA and the
NSYOG.  Fields reportedly issued invitations to these groups to attend
a series of private meetings he was organizing at a Shoney's
restaurant in Marietta.  Some of these meetings were addressed by
guest speakers including a former lieutenant of George Lincoln
Rockwell's American Nazi Party.  In addition to employing nazi
skinheads in The Truth At Last's mail order operation, Fields
apparently invited nazi skinheads to dinner at his home and utilized
them as body guards.  

	Butler's and Dowling's organizing efforts attracted the
attention of other elements of the local white supremacist movement.
In 1990, Butler met with Dave Holland, then Grand Dragon of the
Southern White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and subsequently conducted
a mass leaflet distribution effort advertising the annual Labor Day
klan gathering at Stone Mountain, Georgia.  Butler's organizing
talents and political savvy were so impressive that at one point he
was approached to be Populist Party organizer for the 7th
Congressional District.

	In April 1991, nazi skinhead organizing reached the point that
local organizations felt strong enough to stage a major event.  This
new confidence resulted in the first Adolph Hitler Birthday
Celebration of any size to be held in Georgia.  The Hitler bash was
held at the Acworth residence of Lewis Tabor, a Populist Party member
and associate of NSYOG.  The gathering attracted approximately seventy
young people, including a contingent from Florida.

	The Hitler fest was to be a high water mark for the GNSA and
the NSYOG.  In 1991, Butler left Georgia following a brawl with a
Populist Party member.  In Butler's absence, Dowling, Edwards, and the
NSYOG as a whole affiliated with the Huntersville, North
Carolina-based SS of America, a spin-off of the hyper-militant
Confederate Knights of America Klan.  The flirtation with SS of
America proved to be short lived.  By November 1991, Dowling, who had
moved closer to the Birmingham, Alabama-based Aryan National Front,
traveled to Fultondale, Alabama, where he delivered a speech at an
"Aryan Fest" sponsored by the ANF.

              >From Cobb County to "Aryan Uprising"

	By summer 1992, it was apparent that Georgia's nazi skinheads
had developed close ties to the ANF.  In Albany, Georgia, a group
originally organized by Miles Dowling had affiliated with the ANF.  On
July 6, the Albany group attended a klan rally in Ashburn, Georgia,
along with ANF leader and convicted felon Billy Riccio.

	In June, Dowling and Edwards participated in a march and rally
in Birmingham, Alabama, sponsored by the ANF.  The demonstration was
called in support of three ANF members charged in the murder of Benny
Rembert, a homeless African American man.  Among those charged was
Mark Lane, a 17 year old nazi skinhead from Lilburn, Georgia.

	On July 27, Billy Riccio addressed a rally of young people in
Conyers, Georgia.  The rally was sponsored by John Armstrong, whose
group, The Aryan White Knights, had recently affiliated with Riccio's
organization.  John Edwards of Marietta also spoke at the event.

	Less than two weeks after the Conyers rally, Riccio was in
custody for violations of Federal statutes.  Government raids on the
ANF in Alabama and Georgia uncovered stockpiles of ammunition, gun
parts, and military grade explosives.  Despite the arrest of Billy
Riccio, affiliates of the ANF continued to function.  Jason Reeves and
Paul Parsons headed one affiliate, based in Marietta.

	On the 24th of August, Miles Dowling and four other nazi
skinheads were arrested on weapons charges in Naples, Idaho.  The five
had been attempting to reach the besieged farm of federal fugitive and
white supremacist Randy Weaver.  Dowling was absent from Georgia for
the next few months.

	Following the crackdown on the ANF, a new umbrella
organization for nazi skinheads emerged in Georgia.  John Edwards and
John Armstrong joined by John Bailey of Rome, Georgia and Bradley
Satterfield of Armuchee, Georgia, formed the Aryan Resistance League
("ARL").  Like the NSYOG, the ARL devoted a large amount of its energy
to the production and distribution of racist, anti-Semitic and
anti-homosexual propaganda designed for a youthful audience.  In
addition, the ARL had a direct connection to the Christian Identity
movement through John Edwards' affiliation with the East Ridge,
Tennessee-based Christian Guard.  Edwards had attended a meeting of
the Christian Guard in Lyerly, Georgia, in May of 1992.  J.B.  Stoner
and a number of other longtime klansmen also attended the meeting.

	Edwards also participated in a "summit" between John
Pendergrass, Grand Dragon of the Rome, Georgia-based Royal Confederate
Knights KKK and local ARL members.  Discussion between the two
organizations revolved around a series of racist and anti-Semitic acts
of vandalism in Rome.  Pendergrass complained that the klan would be
blamed for actions taken by the nazi skinheads.  Shortly after this
meeting, Bailey and Satterfield relocated to Cobb County.

	In January 1993, Edwards along with approximately ten other
nazi skinheads from Georgia, attended a national white supremacist
rally in Pulaski, Tennessee, which drew 200 participants.  The
overwhelming majority of the participants were nazi skinheads, some
from as far away as New York and Canada.  Among those present were
John Armstrong, Cliff and Lori Warby and Brian McDaniel, a Gwinnett
County nazi, long associated with Dowling and Edwards.

	Early 1993 saw violence among Georgia's nazi skinheads.  In
February, a group led by Robert Q. Smith confronted a youth who
attempted to leave the "movement."  The confrontation occurred
at the youth's home.  When the youth attempted to flee, he was
wounded by a gunshot allegedly fired by Smith, who was on parole
from prison.  Smith was apprehended in California by the FBI in
June 1993.

	On March 7, Miles Dowling, John Bailey, Bradley Satterfield
and Robert (Johnny) Argo were arrested in Atlanta and charged in the
beating of a young man in the Little Five Points neighborhood.  The
four are currently out on bail pending trial.  

	April 17 marked a watershed in the development of the nazi
youth movement in Georgia.  On this date, approximately 150 to 200
young people gathered on a farm in Conyers for an "Adolph Hitler Fest"
to commemorate the anniversary of the nazi dictator's birth.  Billed
as the "Aryan Uprising," the gathering was sponsored by the ARL, ANF,
The Aryan Sisters League, and The Christian Guard.  The event was a
mixture of rock concert, beer bash, and nazi rally.  Nationally known
nazi bands such as Nordic Thunder, The Voice, Aggravated Assault and
Pale Face provided music at the event.

	Rally participants traveled from as far as Michigan, Illinois,
and New York.  These included representatives of groups such as
Confederate Hammer Skins, Eastern Hammer Skins, Northern Hammer Skins
and SS Action.  These groups comprise a sizeable portion of the
ultra-violent element of the nazi skinhead movement in the Eastern
states.  The rally was the largest event of its kind ever staged in
Georgia.  It was also one of the largest held in the entire country in
1993.  As such, its impact on the nazi youth movement will be felt on
a national level.

	The local impact was significant as well.  Following the
"Aryan Uprising," John Armstrong broke with the ARL, affiliating his
group with SS Action.  Currently, he is publishing and distributing a
nazi newsletter called Aryan Revolution under the pen name of William
J.  Saxon.  Miles Dowling has distanced himself from both ARL and ANF
by organizing a chapter of the Confederate Hammer Skins in Marietta.

	The "Aryan Uprising" was itself not free of potential
violence.  At one point, State Troopers were forced to draw their
shotguns in order to apprehend a suspect who had fled from a roadblock
into the rally site.

	Georgia's nazis, while organized into different groups or
factions, continue to cooperate with one another.  This was
particularly apparent at the recent anti-gay demonstrations in
Marietta (see Appendix).

	Cobb County has become the central base for nazi skinhead
organizing in the state.  Largely unnoticed by the general public, in
the past four years Georgia's nazi Youth movement has grown from the
level of a street gang to national influence within the movement.
While organizational names and allegiances come and go, the central
figures of the movement remain largely the same and continue,
unabated, their pursuit of the young


                 Bigotry with a Scholarly Face


            The Atlanta Committee for Historical Review


	One of the most disturbing recent innovations of the racist
right has been the creation of the so-called Historical Revisionist
movement.  The purpose of this movement is to question the reality of
the World War Two nazi genocide against Jews.  This effort has been
pursued through a variety of pseudo-scholarly publications and
ostensibly respectable front groups.  The most widely known of these
is the Institute for Historical Review and its journal.  This
organization was the brainchild of Willis Carto, publisher of The
Spotlight and head of the Liberty Lobby.

	The Atlanta Committee for Historical Review, headed by
Marietta Attorney Sam Dickson, has repeatedly sponsored appearances by
the British Holocaust revisionist writer David Irving.  These
gatherings have attracted the leading figures of Georgia's white
supremacist and nazi fringe.

	This appeal to the most extreme elements of the racist right
is not accidental.  As Dickson has admitted publicly, the Committee
exists largely as a mailing list of interested individuals maintained
by the attorney for his personal use.  He is well aware of these
individuals and their beliefs.  Indeed a number of them have been his
clients.

	Sam Dickson's roots right wing politics run deep.  They extend
back to his student days at the University of Georgia where he was a
leading figure in the Young Americans for Freedom and the Demosthenian
Society.  In 1978 he campaigned for Lieutenant Governor in the
Democratic State primary, receiving 11.6 per cent of the votes cast.
Dickson ran on an anti-affirmative action platform proclaiming, "Race
is a legitimate issue, ...  we whites cannot sit back and let them
[minorities] win by default."

	In October of 1985 Dickson sponsored a gathering billed as
"The Georgia Weekend" at a Holiday Inn in Doraville, Georgia.  In a
letter to potential attendees distributed by Ed Fields, Dickson
described the event as a meeting of '...  renown representatives of
...  patriotic movements ..." The "patriotic" movements represented
included bigoted groups such as the Australian and Canadian League of
Rights and the Southern National Party.  

	1986 was a busy year for Dickson.  In February he addressed
The Seventh International Revisionist Conference sponsored by the
Institute for Historical Review.  Other attendees included Ed Fields,
former klan leader David Duke, Tom Metzger of the California-based
White Aryan Resistance and Willis Carto.

	In March Dickson represented Daniel Carver of the Invisible
Empire Ku Klux Klan in a lawsuit in Madison County, Georgia.  This was
the first in a series of cases where Dickson defended klan members.
In April Dickson defended Carver on an assault charge in Hall County,
Georgia.

	In the same month, Dickson sponsored a speech by David Irving
at the Waverly Hotel in Cobb County under the name of the Atlanta
Committee for Historical Review.  Also at the Waverly in April, there
was a speech by William Pierce, leader of the nazi National Alliance
based in West Virginia.  Under the pen name of Andrew MacDonald,
Pierce authored The Turner Diaries, a book widely credited with
inspiring the terrorist group, The Order.  The engagement was
sponsored by Ed Fields under the aegis of the NSRP.

	Pierce's speech was also notable for providing Dickson with
his next klan client.  Following the meeting, Dave Holland, then Grand
Dragon of the Southern White Knights KKK, was charged with beating an
anti-klan activist in the Waverly Hotel parking lot.  In court Dickson
argued that his client had acted in anticipatory self-defense.
Holland was acquitted.  

	In May, Dickson represented klan member Randal Wiley Smith on
a charge of assault in Cedartown, Georgia.  Smith was convicted.  

	On the 19th of June, Dickson was a guest on the Tom Houk Show
on WGST-AM.  In response to a caller's question regarding the ideas of
Adolf Hitler Dickson stated, "There are certain aspects of his
philosophy that I think most Americans would share." Dickson went on
to describe himself as a "reactionary."

	In 1989, Dickson represented one of the defendants in a
lawsuit brought by the Southern Poverty Law Center.  This suit grew
out of the mob assault on civil rights marchers in Forsyth County,
Georgia in 1987.  The jury found for the plaintiffs.  Dickson also
hosted a fund-raiser that garnered $1,500 for David Duke's campaign
for the U.S.  Senate in Louisiana.  Dickson would later describe
himself as both a friend and advisor to the former Imperial Wizard.  

	In 1990 Dickson, acting through the Atlanta Committee for
Historical Review, attempted to host a speech by John Tyndal, in
Marietta, Georgia.  This appearance was cancelled when Tyndal was
denied entry into the United States by Federal Immigration
authorities.  Undeterred, Dickson managed to sponsor Tyndal's speech
the following spring of 1991.  This was the first engagement of
Tyndal's multi-state speaking tour with Ed Fields.  

	Dickson took an active part in presidential politics in 1992.
When Pat Buchanan entered the Republican primary contest, Dickson
switched his support from David Duke to the well known conservative
commentator.  At a Buchanan campaign celebration following the
candidate's surprise capture of 30 per cent of the votes in the New
Hampshire primary, Dickson told a reporter, "It is the duty of every
Duke supporter to see that Buchanan wins the Georgia primary." In
October, Dickson again sponsored an appearance by David Irving in
Smyrna, Georgia.

	His record not withstanding, Dickson maintains that he is not
a nazi, white supremacist, or anti-Semitic.  During an appearance on
WGST's "Ralph from Ben Hill Show" following the Smyrna meeting,
Dickson did admit to being a "white separatist." At the same time, he
stated that he had written a number of articles for a publication
called Instauration.  This Florida-based magazine was described in the
December 30, 1991 issue of the National Review as a ".  .  .  wild
racist-nativist publication .  .  ." Conservative columnist Joseph
Sobran has stated that Instauration is " .  .  .  openly and almost
unremittingly hostile to blacks, Jews, and Mexican and Oriental
immigrants."

	Dickson continues his activity in the Holocaust denial
industry.  He attended the Eleventh Annual International Revisionist
Conference in 1992.  In 1993 he sponsored an appearance by David
Irving at the DeKalb County Courthouse in Decatur, Georgia.


                  Wild Man's Civil War Shop


	Located in Kennesaw, Georgia, Wild Man's Civil War Shop is a
long established business operated by Dent Myers, a self-described
racist.  While advertising civil war relics and memorabilia, this shop
is also the largest public outlet for racist and anti-semitic
literature and paraphernalia in Metropolitan Atlanta.  The shop has
served as a central distribution point for hate group propaganda,
including material produced by the Aryan Resistance League, the Aryan
National Front, and the Confederate Hammer Skins.  The shop is
regularly frequented by groups of curious teenagers and nazi
skinheads.  

	On entering the shop, customers are confronted by a wide
variety of bigoted merchandise.  Antique klan robes and insignia are
sold along with nazi regalia.  Publications such as The Truth at Last,
The Spotlight, Racial Loyalty, and The Southern Populist are regularly
available.  Posters of Adolf Hitler and racist caricatures are on
display and books such as White Power by George Lincoln Rockwell, The
White Man's Bible, and The Turner Diaries occupy shelves alongside
biographies of civil war figures and military treatises.  A showcase
in the shop's back room contains occult merchandise for use in magical
rituals.  


                            Conclusion


	The pattern of hate group activity in Cobb County reveals a
set of interlocking relationships between groups and individuals,
ranging from the gangsterism of the nazi skinheads to the suit-and-tie
anti-Semitism of David Irving.

	The picture that emerges is populated by violence-prone
individuals and cynical manipulators eager to encourage and exploit
intolerance.  Nothing could better illustrate this than the rapid
exploitation of the Cobb Commission's anti-homosexual resolution by
hate mongers (see Appendix).

	There are larger questions.  To what extent has hate group
activity in Cobb County helped create a climate of intolerance?  Why
has there been no official response by the county's political
leadership to the organized recruitment of young people in the public
schools?  Finally, why has such alarming activity excited little
public notice?  

	In the specific area of anti-homosexual sentiment, there is no
question that some of these groups have had an impact.  Both The Truth
At Last and nazi propaganda have made anti-gay and lesbian diatribes
second only to their racist and anti-Semitic attacks.  Slogans such as
"Praise God for AIDS" and assertions that AIDS is a "racial disease"
have been staples of hate group propaganda for years. 

	Official silence regarding hate group activity is not unique
to Cobb County.  The attitude of "the less said, the better" is a
fairly common one in communities plagued by hate groups.  Certainly,
the presence of such groups in a community does nothing to promote
that community's growth or quality of life.  It is only natural that
local officials would seek to dampen what they perceive as bad
publicity.  

	Unfortunately, this attitude is likely to produce adverse
consequences on both a community-wide and individual level.  The case
of the Jewish child who was assaulted at J.J.  Daniels Middle School
provides an instructive example.  Following the attack, Neighbors
Network arranged for a meeting between the mother, joined by
representatives of the Cobb chapter of the NAACP and the Cobb Human
Relations Commission, and then Superintendant of Schools Kermit
Keenum.  

	Despite an extended discussion, wherein it was revealed that
the administration at J.J.  Daniels had violated established policy by
not reporting the incident, no official action was ever taken beyond
offering to transfer the victimized student to another school.  No
apology was offered to either mother or child.  The end result was the
withdrawal of the child from the Cobb public school system.  

	In Cobb County, where hate mongering has been part of the
scene for more than two decades, silence in the face of such
activities is likely to be perceived as acceptance, if not tacit
endorsement.  This is particularly likely among those young people who
are subject to the blandishments of these groups.  Consequently, the
notion of a Government agency singling out a particular group of
citizens for official condemnation does not seem unreasonable to many.

	The public's ignorance of the full dimensions of hate group
activity in Cobb County, their impact on the state, and the national
and international connections of such groups, is a natural consequence
of official silence.  This silence is not uniform.  The Cobb County
Police, for example, have a good record in dealing with criminal
activity by hate group members.  But police agencies, by definition,
cannot provide the moral or civic leadership required to blunt the
corrosive influence of hate groups.  

	It is in this context that the actions of the Cobb County
Commission must be assessed.  Whether intentional or not, the
Commission's anti-homosexual resolution plays directly into the
propaganda of hate groups.  It has the effect of validating the
ugliest aspects of bias against lesbians and gay men.  If the overt
involvement of these groups in the recent anti-homosexual
demonstrations is not sufficient evidence, the dramatic increase in
reports of anti-gay and lesbian harassment in Cobb County should be.  

Sources

	The Fiery Cross,  Wade, Wyn Craig

	The Klan Unmasked, Kennedy, Stetson

	Terror in the Night, Nelson, Jack

	The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, .

	David Edgar of Searchlight Magazine, from speech to NAKN
        conference

	Hatred In Georgia, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1991, Neighbors Network
        Publications

	Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith

	Klanwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center

	Marietta Daily Journal

	Fulton County Daily Report

Observed at First Hearing, Cobb County Commission

Resolution on "Gay Lifestyles"

	Cleburne Jordan.  A hate activist for decades, Jordan is
closely associated with J.B.  Stoner's Crusade Against Corruption.  He
was formerly associated with Stoner's and Ed Field's former group, the
National States Rights Party.  During the demonstrations in Cobb,
Jordan displayed signs that carried Stoner's name and post office box.
Stoner has been a nazi since the 1940s.  He was convicted in the 1980s
of an arson bombing of a black church in Birmingham, Alabama.  Jordan
and Stoner are both Cobb County residents.


Observed at Cobb Citizens Coalition Rally

August 14, 1993


	Cleburne Jordan.

	Dave Holland.  Dave Holland is Director of the Southern White
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which he formed in December 1985 when he
split from the late James Venable's National Knights of the Ku Klux
Klan.  In 1986, Holland was charged, along with Ed Fields and Frank
Shirley, with beating an anti-racist activist in Marietta.  Holland
was acquitted and charges against the others were dismissed.  Holland
and his klan group were found civilly liable for their attack on civil
rights marchers in Forsyth County in 1987.  In 1992, Holland was
convicted of perjury.  This conviction stemmed from statements Holland
had made about his inability to pay the damages.  Also in 1992,
Holland was indicted in Newton County, Georgia for use of fighting
words.  These charges stemmed from comments Holland made at a klan
rally in Covington.  In 1992, Greg Walker, Grand Dragon of Holland's
Southern White Knights, was charged with selling marijuana,
amphetamines, and illegal weapons.  State and Federal Agents say
Walker was attempting to fund the Southern White Knights through such
illegal sales.  Holland is a resident of Gwinnett County.

	Ed Fields.  Ed Fields has been a white supremacist since the
1940's, and has been closely associated with J.B.  Stoner during much
of that time.  For decades, Fields was associated with Stoner's
National States Rights Party and edited the group's newspaper, The
Thunderbolt.  Fields continues to produce this publication, now titled
The Truth at Last.  Fields also calls himself Chairman of the
Emergency Committee to Suspend Immigration.  Fields is secretary of
the recently formed America First Party.  

	He was charged in 1986 in the beating of an anti-racist
activist in Marietta.  The charges were dismissed after Dave Holland
was acquitted in the same incident.  During the 1950's and 1960's,
members and associates of the National States Rights Party committed
many violent crimes, including the bombing of The Temple in Atlanta,
and numerous bombings in Birmingham, Alabama.  Fields is a resident of
Marietta.

	Frank Shirley.  Frank Shirley has been involved with white
supremacist groups since at least 1978, when he was a member of David
Duke's Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.  From 1980 to 1984, Shirley, using
the name Frank Johnson, was an officer in Ed Fields' New Order Knights
of the Ku Klux Klan.  During the mid-1980's, Shirley associated with
Glen Miller's North Carolina-based White Patriot Party.  In 1987,
Shirley helped to form and run the Forsyth County Defense League.
Since that time, Shirley has remained a frequent participant in klan
rallies.  In 1986, Shirley was charged with beating an anti-racist
activist in Marietta.  The charges were dismissed after Dave Holland
was acquitted in the same incident.  In 1987, Shirley, accompanied by
David Duke and Alabama klan leader Don Black, were arrested while
protesting a civil rights march in Forsyth County.  The protest later
turned violent. 

	Later that year, the owner of an apartment rented by Shirley
and other white supremacist leaders took out a warrant against Shirley
and others for allegedly "trashing" the apartment when they vacated.
In 1988, Shirley was found liable for his role in the attack on
Brotherhood marchers in Forsyth County in 1987.

	C.  Ray Harrelson.  Harrelson served as Executive Director of
the racist and anti-Semitic Populist Party of Georgia until April of
1992 when he founded the Committee to Save Our State Flag, which
opposes removing the Confederate Battle Flag from the Georgia State
Flag.  He resigned from the position in July 1992 after being exposed
by the Neighbors Network as a white supremacist.  Currently Harrelson
is treasurer of the recently formed America First Party.  During
Harrelson's term as executive director of the Populist Party, Marietta
nazi Ed Fields was frequently a featured speaker at Populist Party
events, as was James Warner, a nazi from Louisiana.  Harrelson
participated in the 1991 Stone Mountain Klan rally and was present in
1993 at klan rallies in Pulaski, Tennessee, Draketown, Georgia, and a
Hitler's Birthday Celebration on a farm in Newton County, Georgia.
Harrelson has made harassing and obscene phone calls to a Neighbors
Network volunteer.  Harrelson is a Smyrna resident.  Harrelson is
currently treasurer of the recently formed America First Party.

	Jason Reeves.  Jason Reeves is a nazi skinhead.  Reeves is
director of the Marietta Chapter of the Aryan National Front.  The
Aryan National Front was based in Birmingham, Alabama, and led by
Billy Riccio.  During 1992, members of the group were arrested on
charges ranging from murdering homeless black men to stealing and
stockpiling military weapons and explosives.

	William West.  Hate Activist.  Though not a skinhead, he
marched with the Nazi skinhead contingent at a January 1993 Ku Klux
Klan rally in Pulaski, Tennessee.  West is reportedly associated with
the National Alliance, which is headed by William Pierce.  Pierce is
the author (under a pseudonym) of The Turner Diaries, a novel about a
revolution by white racists that has become the bible of the most
extreme racist elements in America.


Observed at Queer Family Picnic

Marietta Square

August 22, 1993


	Frank Shirley, C. Ray Harrelson, and a number of nazi skinheads.

	Ricky Newton Terrell.  Terrell, for years a member of the
Southern White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, is now leader of the
Conyers-based Confederate Forces.  This group, which first came to the
attention of monitors at the 1991 Stone Mountain Klan rally, calls
itself a "white rights survival group." Terrell participated in a klan
rally in Pulaski, Tennessee, in January of 1993.  

	Jeff Partain.  Partain is a racist skinhead who was ejected at
least twice from the Queer Family Picnic after Neighbors Network
monitors reported to police that he was attempting to start fights.

	John Johnson.  Johnson is a nazi skinhead and is reportedly
from Floyd County.  Johnson accompanied Jeff Partain at the Queer
Family Picnic.  Both at one point joined with Ricky Terrell and the
Confederate Knights in picketing near the picnic.

	Lester Maddox.  Maddox, a long-time outspoken segregationist
and perennial candidate for public office since the fifties, served as
the Governor of Georgia from 1966 to 1970.  In 1964, Maddox won
national attention when he defied the just-passed Civil Rights Act by
threatening violence to keep his Atlanta restaurant segregated.  He
finally closed it when ordered to desegregate by a Federal District
Court.

	Louis Vasquez.  Louis Vasquez, not a white supremacist, was
present counter-demonstrating at the Queer Family Picnic.  Vasquez is
an anti-choice activist who for years has harassed women entering
women's clinics in Atlanta.  On at least two occasions, Vasquez has
displayed a clip from an automatic pistol to escorts at clinics.


Observed at Cobb County Commission 

Hearing and Vote On Arts Funding

August 24, 1993


	Cleburne Jordan.

	C. Ray Harrelson.

	Jason Reeves.

	Johnny Argo.  Argo has been active as a nazi skinhead in this
area since at least 1989.  

	Paul Parsons.  Parsons is a Nazi skinhead and Assistant
Director of the Aryan National Front.

	Jonathan Edwards.  Edwards has been a nazi skinhead activist
for at least five years.  He has been convicted of interfering with
custody of a minor and was charged in Marietta with obstruction of a
police officer.  In 1990 Edwards identified himself as Assistant
Director of the National Socialist Youth of Georgia.  Edwards is also
an organizer for the Christian Guard, a hate group based in East
Ridge, Tennessee.  Edwards has played a major role in organizing the
Aryan Resistance League in North Georgia and has attended summits of
local nazi/skins and klan groups.  In April of 1993, the group
sponsored a "Hitler Fest" in Newton County.

	Miles Dowling.  Miles Dowling has been a nazi skinhead leader
for at least five years.  Among the positions he has held have been
Director of the national Socialist Youth of Georgia.  Currently he is
reportedly connected with the Atlanta area Confederate Hammerskins.
Dowling's Marietta home served for a number of years as headquarters
of the nazi skinhead movement in the Atlanta area.  In 1992, Dowling
and other nazi skinheads were arrested in Idaho while apparently
attempting to reach a cabin where white supremacist Randy Weaver was
holed up following the shooting death of a U.S.  Marshall.  Dowling
was acquitted of these weapons charges.  Also in March 1993, Dowling
was among a group of nazi skinheads charged with severely beating a
man in Little Five Points.

	The Aryan Resistance League is a nazi skinhead organization
that claims chapters in Floyd, Cobb, and Dougherty Counties.  In
February 1993, ARL members, including its Security Director John
Bailey, allegedly went to the home of a Marietta man leaving the
group, and one of the nazis allegedly shot the man in the head.


	June 6, 1989					Cobb County


	David Craig, Grand Dragon of the True Knights, was convicted
of using abusive language to a police officer.  The incident occurred
during a klan leafletting in Acworth in December 1988.  Craig was
fined and ordered to learn the Boy Scout oath.  Craig would later lie
about this incident in a rally in Norcross, where he stated that no
True Knight had ever been convicted of a crime.


	June 13, 1989					Marietta, Cobb County


	An evening basketball game at the Park Street School turned
into a brawl between Black and White youths, leaving two of the white
youths injured.  One, Scott Gilbert, slipped into a coma with critical
head injuries.


	June 14, 1989					Marietta, Cobb County


	Jack Spivey, 42, of Ohio, a relative of the two young men
injured in the previous night's brawl, returned to the scene with a
gun looking for revenge.  Police, watching for further trouble,
approached Mr.  Spivey, who pulled his gun on officer John
Friedlander, and was shot by Corporal Michael McClure, after repeated
commands to drop the weapon.

	He was listed in fair condition, and charged with aggravated
assault on a police officer and felony possession of a weapon.


	July 22, 1989					Austell, Cobb County


	Report of a leafletting by an unidentified klan group.


	August 11, 1989				Smyrna, Cobb County


	Robert Qunicy Smith was arrested for making a terroristic
threat, after he threatened to shoot his sister's husband.  He also
stated that he had called two friends to bring him a gun.  As he was
being arrested, two of his friends arrived, and Smith told them to go
get bail money.  Smith later stated that he sent the two to borrow
money from David Craig, Grand Dragon of the True Knights, who did not
give it to them.


	October 22, 1989				Smyrna, Cobb County


	A dark day for the American Front.  A car driven by David
Lynch of Port St.  Lucie, Florida, lead of the American Front for the
eastern United States, rear-ended a car driven by Robert Quincy Smith,
local American Front organizer.

	Lynch was charged with driving on a suspended license and
having no proof of insurance.  Smith and Lynch were armed at the time
of the incident.


	November 9, 1989				Cobb County


	Former True Knights Grand Dragon David Craig and former
Imperial Secretary Neva Veitch were arrested for the 1987 murder of
Veitch's husband, Bill Joe.

	Veitch had told police that she and her husband had been
kidnapped near Six Flags Over Georgia by two Black men who robbed them
and murdered her husband.  She had claimed that she was then driven to
Carroll County, where she was sexually assaulted before escaping.

	At the True Knights rally in Norcross (see entry dated July
29, 1989 above), Veitch even passed out copies of a police artist's
sketch of the non-existent "assailants."


	December 2, 1989				Acworth, Cobb County


	Seven members of the Southern White Knights (SWK) handed out
literature on Main Street.  The literature includes The Truth At Last,
a nazi publication.  According to news reports, the SWK also held an
activity near to this date in Winder.


	December 31, 1989				Marietta, Cobb County


	Robert Q.  Smith, American Front organizer, stated that he
intended to hold a "Robert Matthews vigil" on private property because
he was unable to get a permit for a public rally.  Robert Matthews, an
Order member wanted for robbing banks and armored cars and for
shooting an FBI agent, died in a gun battle with Federal Agents in
Oregon several years ago.


	February 1990					Marietta, Cobb County

	Early in the year, Ed Fields announced that his "Emergency
Committee to Suspend Immigration" would begin having regular meetings
in the metropolitan Atlanta area.  Fields is a life-long nazi and
editor of The Truth At Last (formerly known as The Thunderbolt).
Later in this year, Fields angered local racist skinheads by asking
them not to wear skinhead garb to the meetings.

	Source: Klanwatch.


	February 1990					Cobb County


	Robert Q.  Smith, area director of the American Front (a
national nazi skinhead organization) allegedly assaulted a
fifteen-year-old former American Front member.  The boy was beaten and
needed reconstructive surgery.

	Smith, who had been jailed in December 1989 for telephoning
threats to the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), was also reportedly
facing charges brought by the parents of juvenile girls.  He was
convicted of similar charges in Douglas County in 1989.

	The youth beaten by Smith was mentioned in an American Front
phone message line, which suggested that people call up the youth and
tell him what they thought of traitors.

	Source: Victim report.


	March 1990					Marietta, Cobb County


	A bomb threat was called into City Auditorium 25 minutes
before gubernatorial candidate Andrew Young was scheduled to speak
there.

	Source: Rome News-Tribune.


	March 26, 1990				Marietta, Cobb County


	David Craig, former Imperial Wizard of the True Knights, was
convicted of killing fellow Klansman Billy Joe Veitch.  After he was
convicted, Craig shouts "White Power" and gave the nazi salute.  Many
area white supremacists attended the trial to show support for Craig.

	Source: Marietta Daily Journal.


	May 30, 1990					Marietta, Cobb County


	Prevented from entering the county, British nazi John Tyndal
failed to appear at a meeting of Dr.  Ed Fields' Emergency Committee
to Suspend Immigration.  Tyndal, the leader of the British National
Party, was barred from the country due to his numerous criminal
convictions.  Flyers announcing the rally were found by the Neighbors
Network in Cobb County.

	Source: Klanwatch, Neighbors Network monitors.


	August 9, 1990				Marietta, Cobb County


	Neva Veitch, a former officer of the True Knights of the Ku
Klux Klan, pleaded guilty to murder.  Former Grand Dragon David Craig
had already been convicted in the murder of Veitch's husband.

	Source: Marietta Daily Journal.

	November 1990				Cobb County


	During this month, a flyer reproduced from the National
Democratic Front's newsletter was being distributed in Cobb County.
It purported to be seeking "volunteers" to go to Saudi Arabia and "die
for Israel." The National Democratic Front is a nazi organization
based in Knoxville. 

	December 29, 1990				Cobb County

	Three nazi skinheads handed out copies of Racial Loyalty at
the Cobb County shopping mall.  Racial Loyalty is a publication of the
Church of the Creator (COTC), whose headquarters was then in North
Carolina, since relocated to Florida.  The COTC is a nazi religious
cult which rejects Christianity "because Jesus was a Jew," and
professes a religion based on "salubrious living" and advancement of
the white race.  Their motto is "Our Race Is Our Religion."

	January 18, 1991				Marietta, Cobb County

	Eight students were suspended following a fight precipitated
by nazi organizing at McEachern High School.  A student received a
broken or dislocated jaw when she tried to stop the fight.

	January 1991					Cobb County

	Early in the year, nazi skinheads physically attacked a young
woman in her home because she was dating a black man.  The beating
resulted in a miscarriage.

	Source: Witness report

         February 8, 1991				Acworth, Cobb County

         Thirteen members of the Georgia National Socialist Alliance
(GNSA) and the National Socialist Youth of Georgia (NSYOG) leafletted
on Main Street in Acworth.

	Source: Neighbors Network monitors

	April 14, 1991					Marietta, Cobb County

	A number of persons were arrested at a nazi skinhead
gathering.  John Edwards, assistant director of the National Socialist
Youth of Georgia, was charged with obstruction of an officer.

	Source: Neighbors Network monitors

	April 16, 1991					Marietta, Cobb County

	Two men who shared an apartment on Lakewood Drive were found
"riddled with bullets" in their home, which had been broken into.  One
of the men's stepsons, who had allegedly threatened to kill the men
for being gay, was later arrested.

	Source: Lesbian and Gay Rights Chapter of the ACLU of Georgia,
Etcetera, Marietta Daily Journal.


	April 30, 1991					Acworth, Cobb County

	Approximately seventy people, many of them nazi skinheads,
took part in a Hitler's birthday celebration on a piece of lakefront
property in Acworth.  Among the participants were members of the GNSA
and NSYOG.

	Source: Neighbors Network monitors.

	May 18, 1991					Marietta, Cobb County

	Approximately 150 people came to the Northwest Marriott
Marquis Hotel to hear a speech by British White supremacist leader
John Tyndal.  Tyndal, a leader of the British National Party, had been
previously barred from the United States because of an extensive
criminal record.  The audience, including nazi skinheads, repeatedly
interrupted Tyndal's speech with enthusiastic applause.  Tyndal toured
the United States with Marietta nazi Ed Fields.

	Source: Neighbors Network monitors.

	Spring 1991					Marietta, Cobb County

	A young woman who had previously associated with nazis
reportedly received threats.  The woman also reported an incident in
which a young white supremacist came to her home and assaulted another
young woman whom he found there.

	Source: Neighbors Network monitors.

	June 1991					Cobb County

	At Town Center Mall, two members of the Committee for Scene
Safety, an anti-racist youth group, were confronted and threatened by
two nazi punks who also stated that they were organizing a group to
"come down and get the Neighbors Network." One of the nazis identified
himself with the National Socialist Youth of Georgia, while the other
identified himself with the White Aryan Resistance.

	Source: Committee for Scene Safety.

	October 19, 1991				Atlanta, Fulton County

	Miles Dowling, Cobb County resident and a leader of the
National Socialist Youth of Georgia, accompanied ten other nazi
skinheads to the Atlanta premier of "Blood in the Face," a documentary
about the nazi youth movement in America.  The screening took place at
the High Museum of Art in Atlanta.

	October 25, 1991				Marietta, Cobb County

	The Populist Party of Georgia held a "state meeting" at a
Marietta hotel.  Long-time nazi activist Ed Fields attended the
meeting and collected money for David Duke's Louisiana gubernatorial
campaign.

	Source: Neighbors Network monitors.

	October 1991					Kennesaw, Cobb County

	Racist and nazi graffiti were spray-painted on a bridge.  This
graffiti was quickly painted over.

	Source: Witness report.

	October 1991					Cobb County

	During this month, Dr.  Ed Fields of Marietta, publisher of
The Truth At Last, called for a National Unity Convention of the "over
200 small independent local Patriotic groups in America." He also
called on individual and unafifiliated Klan groups to join Thom Robb's
Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

	December 7, 1991				Marietta, Cobb County

	Two weeks after the dedication of Temple Kol Emeth, a person
or persons unknown spray-painted "Attention, Jews Are Not Desired
Here" in German on a stone wall near the building's entrance.  During
the prior year and a half, at least four other incidents of vandalism
were reported at the proposed site.

	Source: Atlanta Jewish Times; Marietta Daily Journal.

	January 1992					Cobb County

	During this month, the National Alliance, a West Virginia
based nazi group, distributed materials in Cobb County, including a
bumper sticker which reads "Stop Murdering Palestinian Children."

	January 1992					Cobb County

	A white student who dated an African American youth was
threatened with a fork by a nazi skinhead at Pope High School.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	March 4, 1992					Marietta, Cobb County

	Some Atlanta area residents received Pat Buchanan campaign
literature in envelopes bearing the return address of The Truth At
Last, a tabloid newspaper published by Marietta nazi Ed Fields.  Both
the Buchanan campaign and Fields, a Buchanan supporter, denied
responsibility.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	April 18, 1992					Marietta, Cobb County

	A birthday party honoring Adolf Hitler was held at SS of
America leader Miles Dowling's home.  Approximately twenty-five people
took part in the celebration, which included a birthday cake.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	April 23, 1992					Cobb County

	A group of young people were threatened by SS of America
members at a Dunkin Donuts on Johnson Ferry Road.  At one point, the
SS members left and returned with reinforcements.  Among those present
were Tony Butler and Miles Dowling.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	May 1992					Clifton, New Jersey

	Marietta nazi Ed Fields and British nazi John Tyndal spoke at
a meeting attended by approximately one hundred supporters, including
nazi skinheads.

	(Source: Klanwatch)

	May 10, 1992					Marietta, Cobb County

	Several African American youths allegedly challenged several
white youths for "being in a black neighborhood." One of the African
American youths knocked down and kicked one of the white youths and
threw rocks at another white youth.

	(Source: Marietta Daily Journal)

	June 14, 1992					Marietta, Cobb County

	Several nazi skinheads, including Robert Q.  Smith, allegedly
"pushed around" and threatened a young Hispanic woman.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	July 1992					Smyrna, Cobb County

	C.  Ray Harrelson, Chair of the Committee to Save Our Flag,
former Chair of the Georgia National Populist Party, and klan rally
participant, resigned his position as Chair of the Committee "for
health reasons." R.  Lee Collins replaced Harrelson as Chair of the
Committee to Save Our Flag.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	September 30, 1992				Marietta, Cobb County

	For the fourth time in two weeks, Glover Park in the Marietta
Square was heavily vandalized.  As in previous incidents, racist
slogans and swastikas were painted on a statue and on walkways and
benches.

	On October 12, 1992, Rebecca Barnett of Marietta and Vanessa
Barlow of Woodstock were charged with criminal damage to property in
connection with the vandalism.  Both women were also present on
October 7, 1992 when two nazi skinheads, Bryan Shaw and Jason
Rainwater, were arrested for threatening and assaulting several
African-American youths.  One of the women told police that she
committed the vandalism to "fit in" with Shaw.  Shaw was seen speaking
on a telephone near the square at approximately the time when the
vandalism took place.

	(Source: Marietta Daily Journal)

	October 7, 1992				Marietta, Cobb County

	Two nazi skinheads, Bryan Shaw of Marietta and Jason A.
Rainwater of Power Springs, were arrested for allegedly threatening
several African American youths.  Shaw was charged with inciting to
riot, simple assault, and disorderly conduct.  Rainwater was charged
with aggravated assault, carrying a concealed weapon, and inciting to
riot.

	Nearby, according to police, a white woman ordered her dog to
attack several African American teenagers riding their bicycles.  When
one of the teenagers raised his bike to defend himself from the dog,
Shaw and Rainwater allegedly made racial threats and displayed a
knife.

	(Source: Atlanta Journal-Constitution.)

	October 20, 1992				Smyrna, Cobb County

	David Irving, a British "historian" who maintains that the
nazi Holocaust never occurred, spoke at the Smyrna Community Center.
The event was sponsored by Sam Dickson, a Marietta lawyer and the head
of the Atlanta Committee for Historical Review.  The forty spectators
consisted largely of nazi skinheads, Populist Party members, and klan
members.  Among those present were nazi Ed Fields, nazi Frank Shirley,
C.  Ray Harrelson of the Populist Party, Cliff Warby of Thunor
Services, nazi Josh Buckley, and Dave Holland of the Southern White
Knights.

	November 1992				Marietta, Cobb County

	A flyer signed by Marietta nazi Ed Fields was placed in a
number of mailboxes in Cobb County.  The flyer contained anti-Semitic
comments and attacked Sixth Congressional District candidate Tony
Center for being "a secret Jewish candidate."

	(Source: Witness report)

	November 18, 1992				Marietta, Cobb County

	The Cobb County Community Relations Council sponsored a panel
forum to discuss proposed changes in the design of the Georgia state
flag.  A number of hate group supporters were present at the event,
including Populist Party activist C.  Ray Harrelson, who photographed
people entering the forum and photographed vehicles in the parking
lot.  Populist Party activist Greg Davis spoke in favor of retaining
the current state flag.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	December 1992				Mableton, Cobb County

	A number of racial fights occurred at Lindley High School.  A
contributing factor was the presence of African American and white
gangs.

	(Source: Neighbors Network)

	December 15, 1992				Marietta, Cobb County

	Acting on a tip from an undercover source, Marietta police
headed off a rumored "rumble" between nazi skinheads and an African
American gang.  The fight was scheduled to occur near Schlotzsky's
Restaurant on Roswell Road in Marietta.  Uniformed and undercover
police were sent into the area where they dispersed a group of
"several supposed skinheads."

	(Source: Atlanta Journal-Constitution)

	January 9, 1993				Pulaski, Tennessee

	On January 9, a rally and march organized by Richard Ford's
Florida-based Fraternal White Knights drew close to 200 participants,
the majority nazi/skinheads in their teens and twenties.  The event
drew participants from across the country, including Cobb County
residents Brian McDaniel, Cliff Warby, John Edwards and John
Armstrong.  Also present was Smyrna resident C.  Ray Harrelson, former
Executive Director of the Georgia Populist Party and former Chair of
the Committee to Save Our State Flag.  The Pulaski rally is an annual
klan/nazi event, but this year there was a split between the nazi
groups who marched on January 9, and the klan groups who marched on
January 23 (see next entry).

	January 23, 1993				Pulaski, Tennessee

	The second Pulaski march, sponsored by Thom Robb, leader of
the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, drew 170 participants from both the
United States and Canada..  Cobb County resident Cliff Warby, who owns
a mail-order business dealing in nazi paraphernalia, was among the
marchers.  The Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which has
two klaverns in Cobb County, sent a contingent.  Over the past two
years, Robb has repeatedly angered nazi/skinheads by refusing to allow
nazi emblems or chants at the public march.

	February 3, 1993				Marietta, Cobb County

        Ex-convict and veteran nazi activist Robert Q.  Smith
allegedly shot nazi/skinhead Bryan Shaw in the head at Shaw's Marietta
home.  Shaw survived and Smith is currently a fugitive.  Reportedly
accompanying Smith was Aryan Resistance League security chief John
Bailey.  Shaw and Smith are known to be members of Fyrdung.  Smith was
previously associated with the American Front.  

	March 7, 1993					Atlanta, Fulton County

	Four nazi leaders were arrested for battery of a young male in
the Little Five Points shopping and entertainment district of Atlanta.
Among the four arrested were Cobb County residents Miles Dowling,
Robert D.  "Johnny" Argo, Jr.  These four and two unidentified
accomplices allegedly followed the victim out of a restaurant, knocked
him down and kicked him in the head.  The four arrested, all Members
of the Aryan Resistance League, were charged with battery and bound
over for trial in state court.  

        May 1993					Marietta, Cobb County

	In early May, a federal fugitive warrant was issued for nazi
activist Robert Q.  Smith.  Smith was wanted in connection with the
shooting of Bryan Shaw in Marietta earlier this year.  Later that same
month, he was arrested in California.  He was wanted in the Atlanta
area on a variety of charges, including violation of parole and the
shooting of a nazi activist in Marietta on February 3, 1993.

	August 1993                                                    
Cobb County, Georgia

	A leader of the Cobb Citizens Coalition, formed to organize
voters against that County's anti-gay ordinance, has received a death
threat.  

	A former white supremacist in Cobb reports a number of
attacks, including threats to his person and vandalism of his home.  

	October 1993                                                  
Austell, Cobb County                               

	David Watkins of Austell, Georgia is producing leaflets for
the Southern National Party.  The Party, which calls for "a return to
Constitutional Government" and "Southern independence," defines
Southerners as descendants of European settlers and explorers.  The
group claims to be non-violent, but apparently is calling for a
revival of dueling.

	October 1993                                                 
Marietta, Cobb County 

	The Confederate Hammerskins is operating a voice mail service
with a tape recorded message in Cobb County.  Other attempts by Nazi
skinheads to maintain phone message lines in Cobb County have been
short-lived.  Additionally, large quantities of literature produced by
the Aryan National Front (ANF), the Aryan Resistence League (ARL) and
Confederate Hammerskins have been left in mailboxes in Cobb.  One
piece of literature mentions a White Women's Association, using the
same Post Office Box as John Edwards, who is with the ARL and the
Christian Guard.  Helen Arrington is reportedly head of the women's
group.

	November 1993                                              East
Cobb County, Georgia

	A number of violent anti-gay incidents have been reported in
Cobb County recently.  A number of incidents involving nazi skinheads
have occurred in the Merchants Walk - Merchants Exchange area,
including a lesbian bashing.

	January 1994                                                  
Kennesaw, Cobb County                                           

	 A comic book, "The Saga of White Will," produced by William
Pierce's National Alliance has been sold at area gun shows and is
available at Dent Myer's store in Kennesaw.  The story, set in a
suburban high school, describes how white students are supposedly
oppressed by non-whites manipulated by Jews.

ERRATA

The Shadow of Hatred
Hate Group Activity in Cobb County, Georgia
3/15/94

J.  J.  Daniel Middle School is mispelled in the report as J.  J.
Daniels.

Lindley is a Middle School, not a High School.

The Cobb Community Relations Council is incorrectly referred to as the
Cobb Human Relations Commission.

The Atlanta Marriott Northwest (located in Cobb County) was referred
to as the Northwest Marriott Marquis.

The last sentence of paragraph 6, page 13, should read "Following the
attack, Neighbors Network arranged for a meeting between the mother,
joined by representatives of the Cobb chapter of the NAACP, and then
Superintendent of Schools Kermit Keenum."


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