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         Identity: A 'Christian' Religion for White Racists

["Identity: A 'Christian' Religion for White Racists" (an article from 
the Christian Research Journal, Fall 1992, page 20) by Viola Larson. The
Editor-in-Chief of the Christian Research Journal is Elliot Miller. ]


"Christian Identity" is the name of a religious movement uniting 
many of the white supremacist groups in the United States. Identity's 
teachers promote racism and sometimes violence.  Their roots are deeply 
embedded in movements such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Nazis. They 
consider themselves true Israel and view the Jews as half-devils 
and arch enemies. They believe all but the white race are inferior 
creations. Identity's religious views are bizarre and occultic, and 
their view of history is often informed by conspiracy theories. 
Identity's use of the name "Christian" to promote racism and 
violence is blasphemous. Jesus Christ as redeemer of all races is 
God's supreme answer to Identity's outrageous claims. 

The headline read "Separatist Surrenders in Idaho." The story was 
about Randy Weaver, a man indicted for selling two sawed-off 
shotguns to undercover federal agents. During the FBI's attempt 
to force Weaver to leave his Idaho home and return to court, three 
people were killed: a federal agent and Weaver's wife and son. When 
the standoff was over, 15 handguns, shotguns, and rifles were collected 
from his cabin.[1] Randy Weaver is a member of a religious movement 
called "Christian Identity." This "Christian" wing of the larger 
white supremacist movement is composed of adherents who variously 
give allegiance to the burning cross of the Ku Klux Klan and the 
sun sign -- the twisted swastika -- of the Neo-Nazis. 

The movement, also called "Israel Identity," has become the uniting
force among many white supremacist groups.  Included in most religious 
teaching produced by its leaders are racist statements that echo 
the statements of other white supremacists. The most moderate groups 
publish hate literature; the more radical groups turn to violence, 
including murder. Among those attracted to Identity in recent years 
are racist and violent young "skinheads" -- some of whom were a part 
of the crowd of three hundred people who chanted racial slurs 
at federal marshals attempting to capture Weaver. 

Although Identity groups are small in number and diverse, their 
penchant for social agitation attracts widespread media attention. 
The recent discovery that racist groups in the United States 
are supplying both literature and organizational help to racist 
groups in Germany is of concern to the whole Western world. One 
article by the Associated Press states that "violent acts perpetrated 
by far-right German extremists rose from 270 in 1990 to 1,483 last 
year, mostly attacks on foreigners."[2] The article goes on to 
say that "police investigating KKK activities in Germany raided 
some 30 buildings in May."[3] 

Not understanding the violent and racist nature of Identity,
Christians sometimes connect with this movement
because of Identity's espousal of issues such as right-to-life and
anti-Communism. Because of this vulnerability it is
important for Christians to know and understand Identity's false and
racist teachings. For the sake of non-Christians,
it is also important for Christians to differentiate between biblical
Christianity and Identity. Finally, it is the moral
duty of Christians to stand against the evil intent of this form of
white supremacist teaching. It is to further each of
these three purposes that this article has been written. 

                                  THE JEW AS THE GREAT ENEMY 

Identity adherents believe they are the only descendants of Adam and
the only chosen descendants of Abraham. This
is the reason for the name Identity -- they are convinced they know
their true identity. They believe they are
members of the supposed ten lost tribes of Israel. Identity adherents
of today would include the British, Germanic,
and Scandinavian peoples as those comprising the tribes of lost
Israel. On the other hand, the Jew has for them
become the great enemy. This insistence on singling out Jewish people
as the enemy of the white race is the Identity
movement's most clear link to Adolf Hitler and his Nazi ideas. The
more extreme groups believe in what is referred
to as the "serpent seed" teaching that Eve and Satan had sexual
intercourse and produced Cain, starting a line of
half-devil people. For many Identity groups this imagined half-devil
line of Cain is the Jewish race. 

Pastor Arnold Murray, an Identity preacher from Gravette, Arkansas,
calls them "Kenites" (an Old Testament
people he identifies as "Cainites") and believes they were associated
with Judah until they took over leadership of
that tribe. These "Jews" were the people who killed Christ. Pastor
Murray teaches that calling the Jews the chosen
people of God is the gravest of sins. He says, "Bless your heart if
you have ever been deceived by the Kenite, and I
am speaking now on the spiritual level, if you have ever really
believed that group was the chosen of God you were
deceived by Satan. Repent of that even more so than your personal sins
in the personal sense."[4] 

Some other Identity teachers believe the Jews are children of Satan
only in a figurative sense. But this really does not
change their attitude toward Jewish people -- their statements about
the Jews still reflect a deep hatred. One writes
about the Jew: "We know that as a race, they have the sly
characteristics of the serpent...We know they have
intimidated and imposed their will on our own government and every
government in the nations of Christendom,
through their dominance of finance, government, church, education, and
the media."[5] In this scenario, a political
position begins to emerge: the Jews are placed in a position of
conspirators with Satan to take dominion over the
world. In an awful reversal of their biblical role, the true Jewish
people are now cast as the archenemy of God and
humanity. Claiming the sacred history and the sacred Book for
themselves, Identity teachers remove all that is a part
of the Jew's humanity. 

                            RACISM: THE BASIS OF IDENTITY TEACHING 

Racial bigotry extends far beyond the Jews in Identity teaching. Since
the white race alone has descended from
Adam, the other races are viewed as a prior creation. They insist that
Genesis 1:24, which describes the creation of
animals and is prior to the creation of Adam, includes a description
of all nonwhite races. In that list of created beings
-- "cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth" -- they single
out the word beast as a description of other
races. This of course means they believe the other races are inferior.
All Identity teachers refer to the word beast to
explain how other races escaped the flood; they were included among
the creatures that Noah and his sons rounded
up for the ark. 

Because Identity teachers hold that the other races are of a different
creation, they consider interracial marriage a
sin. Identity teachers insist that interracial marriage was the cause
of God's judgment on the people of Noah's time.
Consistent with this twisted view of Scripture, they believe that to
marry someone of another race is treason to one's
own race. Pastor Pete Peters of La Porte, Colorado informs us that he
teaches his children to never marry a person
of another race. He adds: "I teach them also that if they ever did
such a thing -- never to come around my house with
their mate or their half-breed children because they've been traitors
to their own sires."[6] Some teachers -- such as
Richard Butler and his Aryan Nations, and Dan Gayman and his Church of
Israel -- see the black race as aliens and
cohorts with Satan, and all other races as creatures who, like
animals, have no spirits. In the fantasy world of extreme
Identity, when Lucifer rebels he uses spacecraft and fights battles
against God with the help of beings from other
planets. The alien beings are forced to earth according to one tape:
"For the fleet...came to earth like crumpled birds
and...some survived and...some were wiped out....the dark and
curly-headed ones never before seen upon the earth,
the coming of the Negroid race."[7] 

Although Arnold Murray affirms that all the other races are good, he
offers the public, without apology, the book
Tracing Our Ancestors by Frederick Haberman. Haberman writes: "It must
be noticed that there is a great
difference between the three principal races of mankind...and there
exists little relationship between the three. The
white race were unquestionably the last comers, being in every way
superior to the other two and constituting their
leaders and teachers."[8] Pastor Murray also teaches that even among
Christians the different races should have no
fellowship.[9] All Identity groups certainly see the white race ruling
over the other races. 

                                   IDENTITY'S RACIST HISTORY 

                                    Racism as Science and History. 

Many of Identity's racist ideas can be traced to the late 18th and
early 19th centuries. Esoteric sounding theories,
propagated by intellectuals and college professors of the day, were
used to prove the inferiority of some races. These
theories have been disproved by modern scholarship but are kept alive
by the racist of today. One of the terms
common to such theories was physiognomy, an ancient method for
determining human character by the study of facial
features. This included comparing those features to animal ones.[10]
Also, many historians of the time were highly
nationalistic and, therefore, prone to write with a high regard for
the white race. 

                                          Religious Racism 

Another form of racism developed along religious and nationalistic
lines. The growing concern of the peoples in the
West (including the United States) with their own national interest
led to some strange ideas about national identity.
In the United States a theory called "Manifest Destiny" evolved. That
view included the understanding that it was
the nation's God-given destiny to expand from the east coast to the
west coast, and perhaps even to the southern end
of Mexico. In England another movement began that would later blend
well with the Manifest Destiny ideas held by
some in the United States. This religious movement was nationalistic,
assigning religious worth more to race than to

The movement, Anglo-Israelism, began in 1870. It was founded by the
Rev. John Wilson, a nonconformist minister
who expounded the idea that the Anglo-Saxons were the supposed ten
lost tribes of Israel. Believing the nations of
western Europe and the United States to be God's chosen people, they
expected them to receive all the promises God
gave to Israel in the Old Testament. 

Mr. Edward Hine brought the Anglo-Israelism movement to the United
States in 1870, the same year the movement
began in England. His efforts were mostly unfruitful, but his book,
Identification of the British Nation with Lost
Israel, is still used by adherents of Identity in the United States.
Hine's book was first among a spate of Anglo-Israel
literature published in the U. S. -- including a periodical published
by Yale Professor Charles A. L. Totten called, Our
Race, Its Origins and Its Destiny.[11] Today, with few exceptions (the
Worldwide Church of God being one), most
adherents of Anglo-Israelism are in the Identity movement. 

                                      The Turn toward Violence 

Extreme racism entered Anglo-Israelism because some of its most
prominent adherents were also connected to the
Ku Klux Klan, and the Klan in turn had become interested in the Nazis.
The KKK was born, without overt racist
intentions, in 1867. Thomas F. Gossett, author of Race: The History of
an Idea in America, notes that "the Klan
originated as a lark among young men in southern Tennessee who -- so
the story goes -- chose this method of visiting
their sweethearts attired in their version of the costume of Knights
of old and discovered accidentally that they were
terrifying the Negroes."[12] The Klan grew in its attempt to control
black people during the Reconstruction period.
The methods included "assassination, whipping, tarring and
feathering."[13] The Klan during the 1920s added the
Jew and Catholic to their list of enemies in an attempt to attract
more members. By 1923 membership had reached
between three and six million people. Decline came with the depression
of the 1930s and also with the Ku Klux Klan's
overtures to the American arm of the Nazi party before the Second
World War.[14] 

The merging of Klan and Nazi extremism into the Anglo-Israelism
movement -- which then produced the Identity
movement -- can largely be traced to one man: Wesley Swift. However,
it was not Swift but Howard B. Rand (whose
writings are published by Destiny Publishers) who first coined the
term Identity. According to James Coates, Rand's
intention was "to describe Hine's concept of Anglo-Israelism, in which
Jesus was not a Jew of the tribe of Judah but
an Aryan of the ten lost tribes of Israel and an ancestor of the
present British, Germanic and Scandinavian

Wesley Swift was a prolific speaker and his tapes and written messages
are frequently used by Identity speakers. His
connections to the Nazism of Hitler's Germany are unquestionable.
Swift was at one time both a friend and advance
man for Gerald L. K. Smith, a racist whose radical career began when
he joined the "Silver Shirts," an American
Nazi group formed by Willam Pelley. James Ridgeway, author of Blood in
the Face (a "who's-who of hate"), notes
that "with Pelley as their 'Chief,' the Silver Shirts openly supported
Hitler, cooperated with the pro-Nazi
German-American Bund, and embarked on a program of vicious

Swift was also a member of the Ku Klux Klan when he founded the
Identity Church of Jesus Christ Christian in 1946.
Richard Butler, who was led into the Identity movement by Wesley
Swift, inherited Swift's church and founded an
Identity compound called the Aryan Nations, located near Hayden Lake,
Idaho. Butler is an advocate of Nazism, and
his yearly Aryan Nations meetings attract Klan members, Nazi groups,
and skinheads. Some Identity teachers,
although racist, reject Nazism in name, attributing its cause to the
Jews. This trend has started a new controversy
within the ranks of Identity. The Identity groups who reject Nazism
also do so because they are perceptive enough to
recognize Nazism's ingrained hatred of true Christianity. 

                                  IDENTITY'S SPIRITUAL HISTORY 

The list of spiritual influences touching Identity resembles a
religious vanity fair. The Neo-Nazi movement embraces
the zodiac of astrology as easily as it does the teaching of the
quietest mystic Madame Guyon. Its teachers write
against the New Age movement while embracing occultist Edgar Cayce.
They also welcome the deliverance
ministries (those ministries that specialize in the controversial
practice of casting demons out of Christians) while
embracing the world of the occult. 

                                          Occult Influence 

Some of the groups that reject Nazism seem to feature less occult
teaching within their published material. However,
except for racist literature, occult teachings have probably had the
greatest influence on most Identity groups and
individuals. This may have partly developed from prewar occultic
German groups that were also anti-Semitic.
German cults such as the Alder and Falken and the Geusen worshiped the
sun. And one influence on Hitler was a
group whose emphasis on German nationality was connected to their
interest in the Druids -- an ancient pagan people
many Identity groups also embrace.[17] 

Wesley Swift used occult legends as "truths" in his sermons. His
bizarre teachings included stories about Atlantis and
Lemuria, fictional civilizations included in most occult philosophy.
Identity teachers of today such as Pastor Arnold
Murray maintain that the great Pyramid was built by the Israelites and
is a second revelation of God. The idea that
the measurements of the pyramid are encoded with a revealed message is
occultic, since the message is both
supernaturally given and esoteric, known only by those initiated into
that knowledge. Identity also embraces
astrology and occultic tales of Jesus visiting Britain. 

                                  Other Streams of Religious Influence

Because many Identity adherents are people with a history of looking
for "new truths," they often come to Identity
from other religious movements, bringing some of their unique
doctrines with them. Thus the teachings of several
smaller religious groups have been added to the racist teachings of
Identity. These include the Sacred Name
movement (using only Yahweh for God and Yehoshua or some equivalent
for Jesus); Jesus Only teaching (the belief
that there are not three persons in the Godhead, only three offices);
and the fringe teachings of the "manifest sons of
God" (the expectation that an elite group of the church will deliver
creation, overcome death, and help God bring in
the kingdom). A few people came out of the restoration and charismatic
movements and added their unique doctrines
to Identity. The restoration movement teaches that God is restoring
lost doctrines to the church. Utilizing this
framework, the Identity teachers include Identity as one of the lost
doctrines. (It is important to point out that
although Identity teachers variously link Identity to the above
movements and teachings, properly speaking these
movements have nothing to do with Identity.) 

                               THE BONDING LINK OF CONSPIRACY 

The Identity stand against the Jews as a people without value who are
enemies of the white race aligns the movement
with other groups that feed constantly on conspiracy theories,
including ones that are Nazi without teaching
Anglo-Israelism. This taste for anti-Semitism is most responsible for
the intermingling of Identity, Neo-Nazi, and
other racist groups. Different groups will often use the same speakers
at their various churches and survivalist camps.
And individual members of different groups will order the same books
from racist publishers. 

For instance, many Identity groups offer books by E. Raymond Capt and
also use him as a speaker, since his specialty
is supposedly archaeology and history. Capt's writing includes such
books as Stonehenge and Druidism and The
Traditions of Glastonbury: The Silent Years of Jesus between 12 and
30. Another speaker used by most groups is Lt.
Col. Jack Mohr, whose specialty is anti-Communism. Mohr offers such
tapes as "Background to Betrayal: How
America Has Been Betrayed by Zionists Both Jewish and Christian." Many
racist groups, including Identity groups,
sell or refer to the book, Protocols of the Elders of Zion. This
fraudulent book is supposedly a document of conspiracy
by Jewish leaders to take over the world. 

Most conspiracy theories have developed from a particular fear -- and
the need to master that fear, by identifying a
cause and then supposedly gaining control of the situation. For
instance, the cause of the Black Plague in the Middle
Ages was attributed to the Jew. The solution espoused was to kill or
remove the Jews. Then the plague would
supposedly end. The disastrous condition of Germany after the First
World War was attributed to the Jew by some
fearful Germans. Eventually their evil solution brought about the
Holocaust. And while the John Birch Society
changed most of the leading players in their conspiracy theory to what
they call the "insiders" rather than Jews,
many others still see the Jew as the monster controlling world events.
For these anti-Semites the Jew is often
referred to as the "International Banker." 

All of these groups together, both Identity and non-Identity white
supremacist, hold a dangerous sociopolitical view.
Their mutual solution to this supposed "Jewish control" is a race war.
This war is considered by many Identity
teachers to be the last great battle, Armageddon. 

According to these teachers, at the head of this conspiracy that leads
to the final battle is ZOG: Zionist Occupation
Government. Zionist Occupation Government simply means to Identity
adherents that the Jewish conspiracy has
taken over the government of the United States. Since they also
believe that Jewish leaders are using other races to
destroy the white racemism. They appeal to other conservatives
concerning such issues as AIDS, abortion, and prison reform. This is
where some Christians have been pulled into the
circle of Identity. 

Many Christians find they are facing a bewildering morass of social
problemar from Identity's blatant racism
nonetheless allow Identity's attitudes and world view -- including
conspiracy theories -- to touch the core of their
faith. Turning to ideas, news sources, and leaders who lack an
understanding of the true gospel, these Ce able to divorce the Jewish
foundation of Christianity by simply disconnecting
Christianity from both the Old Testament and Paul. Most of the "German
Christians" -- those loyal to Hitler -- based
their religious views on a kind of nationalistic nonsectarian ethic. 

Franklin Littell, Professor of Religion at Temple University, points
out that this German understanding of
Christianity was not unlike John Birch Society founder Robert Welch's
"ecstatic affirmation of non-sectarian
religion," found in Welch's The Blue Book. Littell writes: "The
'German Christians' were at least logical enough to
press the religion of the ethnic base, infused with spirituality, to
its logical conclusion: antisemitism."[19] The point is:
without a biblical basis, without Jesus Christ as Lord, any religion,
even one named Christian -- especially one named
Christian, can produce gross evil. 

Although the religious teachers of "Christian Identity" do not reject
the Old Testament or Paul, they distort and
twist Scripture until little is left of God's revelation of good news.
The Identity teachers' conclusion that the British,
Scandinavian, and Germanic peoples are the lost tribes of Israel is a
case in point. None of the tribes of Israel have
been lost. While many of the northern tribes of Israel -- carried into
exile by Assyria -- intermarried with the peoples
they lived among, there is no biblical reference that would encourage
this teaching of lost tribes. 

Christ's statement that He "was sent only to the lost sheep of the
house of Israel" (Matt. 15:24) is not a reference to
tribes that had physically disappeared, but to a people who were lost
in sin. Earlier in the text Jesus had sent His
twelve disciples "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt.
10:6), and the disciples did not need to search for the
people they were sent to help. After the captivity of the Northern
Kingdom of Israel and the Babylonian captivity of
the Southern Kingdom of Judah, all twelve tribes -- whether living
outside of the homeland or within the homeland --
were referred to as both Jews and Israel. Both the Book of Ezra and
the Book of Nehemiah, books about the return
of God's people to Jerusalem after their captivity, use the two terms,
Jews and Israel, to refer to the same people
(e.g., Ezra 2:26; 4:12; Neh. 1:6; 4:1-2). 

Paul refers to himself as both a Jew and an Israelite. Writing of
God's enduring of the "vessels of wrath" for the
sake of those He would show mercy to, he notes: "And He did so in
order that He might make known the richesus
explained to the Samaritan woman that "we worship that which we know,
for salvation is from the Jews" (John 4:22),
not only calling Himself a Jew but pointing her toward the Jewish
people, whom God had chosen to bless the world
through the promised Mes to their common humanity as creations of the
God when he stated: "And He made from one, every nation of mankind to
live on all the face of the earth, having
determined their appointed times, and the boundaries of their
habitation, that they should seek God, if perhaps they
might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one
of us" (Acts 17:26-27). Genesis 10:1-32 names
most of the nations that developed from the three sons of Noah. Derek
Kidner, author of Genesis in the Tyndale Old
Testament Commentaries, writes: "Not every nation known to the Old
Testament is enrolled here, but enough are
present to make the point that mankind is one, for all its diversity,
under the one creator. Possibly the seventy names
(Lxx 72) influenced our Lord's choice of this apparently symbolic
number of emissaries in Luke 10:1."[21]

Jesus Christ is God's answer to racism. Paul admonishes the Galatians
that they are to make no distinctions among
those belonging to Christ; they are to be as one: "For all of you who
were baptized into Christ have clothed
yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is
neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor
female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus" (Gal. 3:27-28). In the
Book of Revelation, where Christ is pictured as
both "the Lion that is from the tribe of Judah" and "a Lamb standing,
as if slain," the 24 Elders sing to His glory:
"For Thou wast slain, and didst purchase for God with Thy blood men
from every tribe and tongue and people and
nation. And thou hast made them to be a kingdom and priests to our
God; and they will reign upon the earth" (Rev.

The church, those redeemed not by race but by the blood of Christ the
Lamb, understand Christ as both lion and lamb,
both sacrifice and King. Wilhelm Niemoller, one of the members of the
Confessing Church in Germany during the
time of Hitler, wrote of what it meant to confess Christ as the only
Lord under that regime: "One of my friends
concluded a sermon of his in 1934 or 1935 by saying: 'O Lord, Thou
alone art our hope, apart from Thee, I know
none!' He was arrested, put on trial, and later released. The enemies
that listened to him had noticed that the Third
Reich was put in a difficult position wherever the 'One Word of God'
made its appearance."[22] The Neo-Nazi
groups and those who feed on their hate literature are simply a part
of the rising paganism in America. They are also
an extreme example of groups who like to use Christian terminology
while laying foundations on extrabiblical
revelation. The need for present security, elitism, power, and a
revelation not anchored in Christ and the Word of
God is the mark of anti-Christian religion. 

The believer's only haven is Christ. This means there is no present
worldly security -- the believer is not an elite
person. Instead, members of Christ's church are often the ones hated
and despised by the nations. The only power
given is that which Christ gives, so that His followers may be able to
faithfully love, serve, and suffer in this present
world. Finally, the believer finds racial pride to be sin, because the
only exaltation a Christian knows is God's
unmerited grace, freely offered to all in Jesus Christ. 

        Previously the director of Apologetics Resource Center,
Sacramento, California, Viola Larson is a
        graduate student in history at California State University,



1. John E. Yang, "Separatist Surrenders in Idaho," Sacramento Bee, 1
September 1992, part A. 

2. "U.S. Hate Groups Spread Their Venom to Germany," Sacramento Bee,
14 August 1992, part A. 

3. Ibid.  

4. Arnold Murray, Grace: Baptism (cassette #406) (Gravette, AR:
Shepherd's Chapel, n.d.). 

5. Jack Mohr, "Seed of Satan: Literal or Figurative?" (Louis, MI:
n.p., n.d.) 26. 

6. Pete Peters, Inter-Racial Marriage, part l (cassette 170) (La
Porte, CO: Scriptures for America, n.d.).  

7. Wesley Swift, Dwellers in the Deep (cassette 350) (Waynesville, NC:
New Beginnings, 1964).

8. Federick Haberman, Tracing Our Ancestors (n.p., n.d.), 10.
Reference is made within the book to Hitler in
Germany, dating the book sometime before World War II.  

9. Murray, Grace: Baptism. 

10. Thomas F. Gossett, Race: The History of an Idea in America (New
York: Schocken Books, 1965), 71. 

11. James Coates (New York: Hill and Wang, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux,
1987), 181; Gossett, 192.  [Back] 12.
Gossett, 259-60.  

13. Ibid., 260.  

14. Coates, 33-36.  

15. Ibid., 93.  

16. James Ridgeway, Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan
Nations, Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White
Culture(New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1990), 45.  

17. George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual
Origins of the Third Reich (New York: Schocken
Books, 1981), 75, 116, 277.  

18. Pete Peters, A Biblical Look at the Farm Problems (cassette 161)
(La Porte, CO: Scriptures for America, n.d.).  

19. Frank H. Littell, "Church Struggle and the Holocaust," in The
German Church Struggle and the Holocaust, ed.
Frank H. Littell and Hubert G. Locke (Detroit: Wayne State University
Press, 1974), 25-26.  

20. One excellent reference for the subject of Anglo-Israelism is
Walter R. Martin's The Kingdom of the Cults, ch. 12
(Bethany, revised and expanded edition, 1985). Also see, J.K. Van
Baalen, The Chaos of Cults: A Study in
Present-Day Isms, ch. 9 (Eerdmans, 1967), and Anton Darms, The
Delusion of British-Israelism (Loizeaux Brothers,
Bible Truth Depot, n.d.), written before the establishment of the
State of Israel. This latter book is written from a
dispensational view.

21. Derek Kidner, Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary, Old
Testament Commentaries, ed. D.J. Wisemam
(Downer Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1989), 104-5. 

22. Wilhelm Niemller, "The Niemller Archives," in Littell and Locke,


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