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                          CONTENTS
                              
                           PREFACE
                              
                  Germany's Word of Honour
                              
             (July 11, 1936-September 26, 1938)
                              
                              I
                              
               (July 11, 1936-March 12, 1938)
                              
  1   July 11, 1936
        Austro-German agreement by which Germany recognizes
the
        sovereignty and independence of Austria
..................    1

  2  M. PUAUX_Vienna, March 12, 1938
        The German Army enters Austria
   ............................    2
    
                             II
                              
                     (March 12-16, 1938)
                              
  3  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Berlin, March 12
        March 11, 1938. Czechoslovakia has nothing to fear
from
        Germany. Marshal Goering spontaneously gives his
word of
        honour to this effect to the Czechoslovak Minister
in
        Berlin. He specifies that he is speaking not merely
in his
        own name, but in that of Herr Hitler
......................    2

  4  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Berlin, March 12
        Baron von Neurath renews these assurances to the
Czecho-
        slovak Minister on behalf of Herr Hitler
..................    3

  5  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 12
        M. Krofta, Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia,
accepting
        the statements of the leaders of the Reich, declares
to the
        French Minister in Prague that he does not consider
that
        there is an immediate danger of German aggression.
Contrary
        to rumours, Czechoslovakia has not mobilized, and
does not
        contemplate doing so
......................................    3

  6. M. CORBIN_London. March 12
        M. Masaryk, Czechoslovak Minister in London, would
like a
        Great Power to take note of these declarations, and
contem-
        plates bringing them to the attention of the British
Govern-
              ment       in      an      official       Note
..................................    4

  7  M. CORBIN_London, March 13
        On his Government's instructions, M. Masaryk takes
the
        step he has suggested. At the same time, speaking
personal-
        ly, he expresses the hope that the British
Government will
        make it known in Berlin that the assurances given by
the
         Reich to Czechoslovakia have been brought to  their
notice .    5
                              
[VII]

  8  M. CORBIN_London, March 14
        The British Ambassador in Berlin receives
instructions to
        inform Marshal Goering of the communication of the
Czecho-
        slovak Government and of the desire of the British
Govern-
        ment to make public the declarations of the leaders
of the
        Reich. Marshal Goering expresses his agreement
............    6

  9  EXTRACT FROM MR. CHAMBERLAIN'S SPEECH_London, March 14
        In his speech to the House of Commons Mr.
Chamberlain
        mentions the pledges given by members of the German
Govern-
        ment
......................................................    7

 10  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Berlin, March 15
        The French Ambassador in Berlin confirms that
Marshal
        Goering has in fact authorized the British
Government to
        make public the assurances he has given to
Czechoslovakia .    7
                              
                             III
                              
                    (September 26, 1938)
                              
 11  EXTRACT FROM HERR HITLER'S SPEECH_Berlin, September 26
        Herr Hitler solemnly declares that his claim for the
Sudeten
        territory is his last territorial demand in Europe.
There-
        after he will take no further interest in the Czech
State .    8

                          PART ONE

          The Munich Agreement and its Application
                              
               (September 29-October 4, 1938)
                              
 12  HERR HITLER, MR. CHAMBERLAIN, SIGNOR MUSSOLINI,  M.
DALADIER_
        Munich, September 29
        The agreement concluded at Munich on September 29,
1938,
        between Germany, the United Kingdom, France and
Italy,
        regulates the conditions for the evacuation by
Czecho-
        slovakia and the occupation by Germany of the
Sudeten terri-
        tories, entrusts to an international commission the
task of
        fixing the frontiers of the Czech State and
stipulates, in
        its Annex I, that an international guarantee of
these fron-
        tiers shall be given by the four signatory Powers
.........    9

 13  M. DALADIER_Munich, September 30
        M. Daladier asks the French Minister in Prague to
make sure
        of President Benes's acceptance
...........................   12

 14  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, October 2
        The French Minister for Foreign Affairs sends to  M.
Krofta,
        Minister for Foreign Affairs of Czechoslovakia, a
personal
        message of sympathy
.......................................   12

 15  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, October 3
        M. Georges Bonnet gives an account of the results of
the
        Munich agreement for the guidance of French
diplomatic repre-
        sentatives abroad
.........................................   13

 16  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Berlin, October 4
        The French Ambassador in Berlin considers that,
although,
        for the first time, Herr Hitler has had to
compromise to a
        certain extent, nevertheless the Western Democracies
ought,
        above all, to draw from recent events the lesson
that it is
        only through their strength and unity of action that
they
        will be able to prevent the repetition of crises
similar to
        that solved by the Munich agreement
.......................   15
                              
[VIII]
                              
                          PART TWO
                              
     The Franco-German Declaration of December 6th, 1938
                              
               (October 19-December 22, 1938)
                              
 17  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Berlin, October 19
        M. Franois-Poncet gives an account of the audience
which
        Herr Hitler granted him on the occasion of the
termination
        of his mission as Ambassador in Berlin. The Fhrer's
pro-
        posals for improving Franco-German relations and for
a gen-
        eral appeasement
   ..........................................   19

 18  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_, October 20
        M. Franois-Poncet gives a detailed account of his
visit to
        Herr Hitler; he indicates that in his opinion the
plan (a
        written recognition by France and Germany of their
existing
        frontiers and pledges for mutual
consultation_eventual
        limitation of armaments_monetary and economic
problems) out-
        lined to him by Herr Hitler deserves consideration
   ........   20

 19  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, October 21
        The French Government takes a favourable view, in
principle,
        of Herr Hitler's proposals
   ................................   28

 20  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Berlin, October 22
        The German Government is at once informed of the
views of
        the French Government
   .....................................   28

 21  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Berlin, October 24
        Marshal Goering shows himself extremely favourable
to the
        plan under discussion. According to him, Herr von
Ribben-
        trop, as well as the Chancellor, would also be
favourably
        disposed
..................................................   29

 22  MINISTER'S NOTE_Paris, November 22
        The Minister informs the Polish Ambassador in Paris;
the
        latter receives very favourably the communication
made to
        him
.......................................................   29

 23  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, November 23
        M. Coulondre presents his credentials to Herr Hitler
on Nov-
        ember 22. The Fhrer discusses Franco-German
relations,
        which he hopes will be peaceful and good; he
expresses his
        wish to translate into practical measures the ideas
he has
        outlined to  M. Franois-Poncet
...........................   29

 24  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, November 24
        The D.N.B. Agency announces that negotiations are in
pro-
        gress and lets it be understood that Herr von
Ribbentrop
        will shortly go to Paris
..................................   31

 25  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, November 25
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs informs the French
Ambas-
        sador in Berlin that the German Ambassador in Paris
has in-
        formed him of his Government's agreement to the
final text    32

 26  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, November 27
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs informs the French
Ambas-
        sador Washington of the Franco-German negotiations
and of
        their result. He points out that the forthcoming
declara-
        tion will fully reserve our liberty of action
towards third
        parties to whom we are bound by ties of solidarity
and indi-
        cates that the British Government has expressed its
satis-
        faction with the document
.................................   32
                              
[IX]

 27  MINISTER'S NOTE_Paris, November 28
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs informs the
Ambassador of
        the U.S.S.R. of the proposed Franco-German
declaration ....   34

 28  M. GEORGES BONNET AND HERR VON RIBBENTROP_Paris,
December 6
        The Franco-German declaration is signed in Paris by
the Min-
        isters for Foreign Affairs on December 6, 1938. It
proclaims
        the necessity of peaceful relations between the two
coun-
        tries; it takes note that there are no further
territorial
        questions between them, and that both parties
recognize the
        Franco-German frontier as permanent; it constitutes
at the
        same time an undertaking between the parties to
consult each
        other
.....................................................   35

 29  Paris, December 6
        A communiqu published at the conclusion of the
Franco-
        German conversations reproduces the text of the
speeches
        delivered by the French and German Ministers for
Foreign Af-
        fairs, which particularly emphasize the contribution
to gen-
        eral appeasement made by the Franco-German
declaration ....   36

 30  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, December 11
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs informs the French
Ambas-
        sador in London that he has left Herr von Ribbentrop
in no
        doubt as to the character of Franco-British
solidarity, and
        that he has pointed out to him the necessity for an
improve-
        ment in Anglo-German relations parallel with the
development
        of Franco-German relations
................................   38

 31  M. CORBIN_London, December 12
        Mr. Chamberlain expresses in the House of Commons
the sat-
        isfaction of the British Government at the
completion of the
        Franco-German agreement
...................................   38

 32  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, December 14
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs notifies the
diplomatic
        representatives of France abroad that in the course
of his
        conversations with Herr von Ribbentrop different
subjects
        were approached, among others the question of the
inter-
        national guarantee to be accorded to Czechoslovakia
.......   39

 33  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, December 15
        M. Coulondre notes that the desire for good
relations with
        France is general in Germany, but that as a
corollary there
        is a very clear desire for expansion in the east. It
seems
        that Herr Hitler wants to make himself master of
Central
        Europe by making Czechoslovakia and Hungary vassal
States,
        and by creating a Greater Ukraine under German
hegemony ...   41

 34  M. RISTELHUEBER_Sofia, December 16
        According to the Prime Minister of Bulgaria, it is
perhaps
        not so much South-Eastern Europe as Poland that is
aimed at,
        in the first place, by Germany. In his opinion a
German-
        Soviet rapprochement would not be out of the
question, and
        would herald the fourth partition of Poland
...............   45

 35  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, December 22
        In the course of a conversation with our Ambassador
in Ber-
        lin Baron von Weizscker shows himself reticent on
the sub-
        ject of the granting to Czechoslovakia of the
international
        guarantee provided for in the Munich Agreement
............   46
                              
[X]
                              
                         PART THREE

                  The End of Czechoslovakia
                              
                 (January 5-March 19, 1939)
                              
 36  M. DE MONTBAS_Berlin, January 5
        At the outset of 1939 the atmosphere of the Third
Reich can-
        not be better described than by the term tension.
The Ger-
        man grip on Czechoslovakia is tightening
..................   48

 37  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, January 12
        In the course of the interview which Colonel Beck
had in
        Bavaria with Herr Hitler and Herr von Ribbentrop and
on the
        Fhrer's initiative, it was reaffirmed specifically
that it
        was necessary to maintain the relations of good
neighbour-
        liness inaugurated by the German-Polish declaration
of 1934   50

 38  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw. January 27
        The French Ambassador calls on Herr von Ribbentrop
during
        the latter's visit to Warsaw, and informs him of the
wel-
        come given by the Chamber of Deputies to the passage
in  M.
        Georges Bonnet's speech concerning Franco-German
relations.   51

 39  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, January 27
        Herr von Ribbentrop fears the influence of the
U.S.S.R.
        upon the foreign policy of France
.........................   52

 40  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, January 27
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs transmits to the
French
        Ambassador in Berlin the passage in his speech in
the Cham-
        ber of Deputies concerning Franco-German relations
........   53

 41  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, January 30
        In his telegram to his Polish colleague after his
visit to
        him in Poland Herr von Ribbentrop expresses the
conviction
        that "the friendly relations between the two States
have
        been in a large measure strengthened by their
conversations
        in Warsaw"
................................................   53

 42  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, January 30
        Colonel Beck indicates to the French Ambassador in
Warsaw
        that he is completely in agreement with Herr von
Ribbentrop
        on the necessity and the possibility of settling
present and
        future difficulties between the two countries in
"the spirit
        of good neighbourliness" which is the basis of the
pact of
        1934
......................................................   54

 43  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, February 4
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw indicates that in
the course
        of the Germano-Polish conversations Poland has
refused the
        establishment of a "corridor through the Corridor"
and the
        granting of extra-territorial status to a motor road
or a
        railway
...................................................   54

 44  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, February 4
        The Minister instructs the French Ambassador in
Berlin to
        make a dmarche parallel with that to be carried out
by his
        British colleague in order to ascertain the
intentions of
        the German Government on the subject of the
guarantee to be
        granted to Czechoslovakia
.................................   55

 45  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, February 7
        An interview between the French Minister in Prague
and  M.
        Chvalkovsky, Czechoslovak Minister for Foreign
Affairs, on
        the latter's return
                              
[XI]

        from Berlin brings little reassurance on this
question, Herr
        Hitler having apparently subordinated the granting
of the
        German guarantee to several conditions
....................   55

 46  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, February 7
        In the course of a conversation with the French
Ambassador
        in Berlin Herr von Ribbentrop specifies that
Germany's fo-
        reign policy has two objectives: (1) to combat
Bolshevism by
        every means, (2) to recover her colonies. On the
first point
        he adds "As regards the Soviets we shall remain as
firm as a
        rock. We shall never come to an agreement with
        Bolshevik Russia"
.........................................   57

 47  VERBAL NOTE FROM THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR IN
BERLIN_Berlin,
            February 8
        Recalling the terms of Annex 1 of the Munich
Agreement the
        French Ambassador in Berlin hands to the Foreign
Office of
        the Reich a Note verbale in which he requests the
views of
        the German Government on the question of the
international
        guarantee
.................................................   59

 48  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, February 18
        M. de Lacroix enumerates the ten conditions to which
Ger-
        many would subordinate the granting of her guarantee
......   60

 49  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, February 22
        M. Bonnet requests  M. Coulondre to acquaint him
with the
                result         of        his        dmarche
....................................   61

 50  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, February 24
        M. Coulondre reports that no answer has yet been
received
        from the German Foreign Office
............................   61

 51  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 2
        The German reply suggests that the conditions
provided for
        in Annex I of the Munich Agreement have not been
fulfilled,
        the question of the Polish and Hungarian minorities
in
        Czechoslovakia not having been settled. It takes for
granted,
        moreover, that Central Europe is no longer any
concern of
        the Western Powers
........................................   61

 52  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 10
        The negotiations which have been going on for some
time be-
        tween the Czechs and the Slovaks result in a crisis;
the
        Prague Government dismisses the Slovak Ministers
represen-
        ting extremist influences and the Prime Minister,
Mgr. Tiso.
        At the same time it takes important police
precautions in
        Slovakia
..................................................   65

 53  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 10
        First indications suggest that the Prague Government
has the
        situation in hand. They have not observed any
reaction from
        the German side. Nevertheless, there are rumours of
concen-
        trations of German troops on the southern frontiers
of Mor-
        ana and Slovakia
..........................................   66

 54  M. DE MONTBAS_Berlin, March 11
        Mgr. Tiso appeals for help to the German Government.
The
        latter is reported to be contemplating an "armed
mediation."
        The German Press suggests that Germany has
undertaken to
        support the cause of the nationalities in revolt
against the
        Government of Prague
......................................   66

 55  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 13
        Since March 11 military preparations and movements
of
        troops have been

[XII]

        noted. Everything points to Germany being about to
launch
        an armed campaign against Czechoslovakia in the near
future   67

 56  M. COULONDRE-Berlin, March 13
        This view is confirmed by a German personality
according to
        whom the fate of Czechoslovakia is settled. What
Germany
        wants is the annexation pure and simple of Bohemia
and
        Moravia
...................................................   68

 57  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 13
        Confronted with this display of force on the part of
the
        Reich and the attitude of the German Press, the
French
        Ambassador in Berlin proposes to make a dmarche at
the
        Wilhelmstrasse based on the Munich agreement and on
the
        Franco-German declaration of December 6
...................   68

 58  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 14
        The Reich has presented an ultimatum to Prague
............   70

 59  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 14
        The open intervention of Germany appears to have
deprived
        the Prague Government of all energy. The
proclamation of
        the independence of Slovakia is expected
..................   71

 60  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 14
        The Vienna radio station continues to denounce the
bad treat-
        ment of which the Germans of Czechoslovakia are
supposed to
        have been victims, and alludes to a Marxist plot in
Prague;
        the tactics followed by Germany in this connection
recall
        those employed in September 1938, and on the eve of
the
        Anschluss
.................................................   71

 61  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 14
        It appears to be confirmed that Germany is insisting
on the
        dismissal of several Czech Ministers, and perhaps of
the
        entire Cabinet
............................................   71

 62  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 14
        The French Ambassador in Berlin indicates that in
the course
        of a visit to that capital Mgr. Tiso and Herr
Durcansky are
        reported to have received from the German leaders a
promise
        that German friendship would be extended to an
independent
        Slovakia
..................................................   72

 63  M. COULONDRE-Berlin, March 14
        From an interview between the British Ambassador and
Herr
        von Weizscker, it appears that Germany considers
the Tiso
        Government to be the only legitimate government and
the
        action of the Prague Government against it to be
contrary to
        the constitution. Nevertheless, in Sir Nevile
Henderson's
        opinion, Germany is still hesitating, on the line of
conduct
        to be adopted
.............................................   73

 64  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, March 14
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs, recalling the
spirit and
        scope of the Munich Agreement, and referring to the
Franco-
        German declaration of December 6, instructs the
French Amb-
        assador in Berlin to express the serious anxiety of
the
        French Government to Herr von Ribbentrop and to ask
him what
        interpretation should be placed on the action of the
Reich
        in Slovakia
...............................................   74

 65  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 14
        As President Hacha is meeting Herr Hitler, the
French Ambas-
        sador in Berlin gives an outline of the political
situation.
        Slovakia has just proclaimed her independence; the
German
        Press is announcing the "disrup-

[XIII]

        tion" of Czechoslovakia. The whole affair has been
conducted
        by the Reich in conformity with a preconceived plan
and
        following the method already used at the time of the
        Anschluss and in September, 1938
..........................   75

 66  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 14
        During the last few months Germany has completely
revised
        her policy in the East. Immediately after the Munich
Agree-
        ment it seemed that Germany wished to keep a vassal
Czecho-
        slovak state as a starting-point for her expansion
towards
        the South-East; subsequently she has reversed her
decision
        and ceased to object to the plan of establishing a
Polish-
        Hungarian frontier on the Carpathians
.....................   79

 67  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 15
        The French Ambassador in Berlin announces the
occupation of
        Bohemia and Moravia by the German Army and specifies
that
        these provinces will be purely and simply annexed by
Germany.
        Between Czech and German Ministers there are no
negotiations
        in the true meaning of the word. Herr Hitler has
confined
        himself to announcing his decision to the Czechs
..........   82

 68  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 15
        The French Ambassador in Berlin indicates that he is
to be
        received by Herr von Weizscker. He proposes
expressly to
        reserve the attitude of the French Government
towards the
        situation created by the German Government
................   83

 69  HERR VON WELCZECK_Paris, March 15
        The German Ambassador in Paris communicates to the
French
        Government the text of an arrangement concluded
during the
        night of March 1415 between Herr Hitler and
President Hacha
        according to the terms of which the President of
Czecho-
        slovakia is reported to have placed the destinies of
his
        people in the Fhrer's hands. Herr von Welczeck
notifies
        moreover that following this arrangement German
troops
        crossed the Czech frontier on March 15 at six
o'clock in the
        morning to re-establish order
.............................   83

 70  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 15
        To the request for explanations made by the French
Ambassador
        in Berlin, Herr von Weizscker replies that
Czechoslovakia
        was in a state of disruption, that Germany has had
to inter-
        vene to protect the threatened German minority, and
that,
        besides, an agreement has been concluded between the
Berlin
        and Prague Governments. When questioned upon the
intentions
        of Germany and an eventual withdrawal of the German
troops,
        Herr von Weizscker merely refers  M. Coulondre to
the text
        of the agreement concluded between Herr Hitler and
        M. Hacha
.................................................   85

 71  M. DE LACROIX_Prague, March 15
        Herr Hitler and Herr von Ribbentrop are reported to
have
        told  M. Hacha that the most terrible repression
will take
        place if the least resistance is made to the entry
of the
        German troops
.............................................   86

 72  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, March 16
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs asks the French
Ambassador
        in London to draw the attention of the British
Government to
        the necessity of a formal protest by the Governments
of
        Paris and London and of a concerted dmarche by
their Ambas-
        sadors in Berlin
..........................................   86

 73  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 16
        The French Ambassador in Berlin finds typical
elements of
        the Hitlerian mentality in the circumstances which
have
        brought about the disappear-

[XIV]
        ance of Czechoslovakia: cynicism and perfidy in
conception,
        secrecy in preparation ruthlessness in execution.
The lesson
        to be drawn from it is that Hitler's thirst for
domination
        is boundless and that it would be in vain to try to
oppose
        it successfully by any other argument than force
..........   88

 74  M. ARDIET_Nuremberg, March 16
        Gauleiter Streicher proclaims publicly that the
Prague
        affair is only a beginning and that the Democracies
are
        doomed
....................................................   94

 75  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, March 16
        In Poland the annexation of Czechoslovakia is
regarded as
        the prelude to action by the Reich in the East
............   94

 76  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, March 17
        The French Ambassador in Berlin receives
instructions to
        hand to the German Minister for Foreign Affairs a
Note in
        which the French Government specifies that it cannot
recog-
        nize the legality of the new situation created in
Czecho-
        slovakia by the action of the Reich
.......................   95

 77  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 17
        M. Coulondre relates the dramatic circumstances in
which  M.
        Hacha has been induced to sign the agreement imposed
on him
        by Herr Hitler
............................................   96

 78  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 18
        The French Ambassador in Berlin hands a note of
protest from
        the French Government to Herr von Weizscker, who
accepts it
        only after making difficulties
............................   98

 79  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 18
        The German Government's bad faith is confirmed from
numerous
        sources
...................................................   99

 80  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, March 19
        Much more than even a new advance of German
influence east-
        wards, the unspeakable methods resorted to by the
Reich mark
        the departure from the policy of appeasement
initiated at
        Munich. An entirely new situation has arisen. In
suppressing
        Czechoslovakia, the German Government has openly
disclosed
        annexationist ambitions hitherto concealed. Where
will they
        stop on that road, along which the material power
they have
        acquired and the intoxication of success are driving
them?
        In any case it is essential that we should carry our
effort
        of reorganization to the highest point and proceed
to the
        industrial mobilization of the country
....................  100

 81  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, March 19
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs approves the action
of the
        French Ambassador in Berlin in rejecting Herr von
        Weizscker's contention that  M. Bonnet had declared
to Herr
        von Ribbentrop that Czechoslovakia could no longer
form the
        subject of any exchange of views. This contention is
contra-
        dicted by the very fact that the German Government
has been
        the object of several approaches on the part of the
French
        Government, on the question of the guarantee of the
Czecho-
        slovak frontiers, and that replies have been
received from
        the German Government
.....................................  107

 82  M. PAYART_Moscow, March 19
        The Government of the U.S.S.R. protests to the
German Govern-
        ment against the annexation of Czechoslovakia; it
sees in
        it a new danger to peace
..................................  108

[XV]

                          Part Four

                  The German-Polish Crisis

                   (March 27-May 9, 1939)
                              
 83  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, March 27
        The German Government is carrying on with the Polish
Govern-
        ment conversations aiming at the return of Danzig to
the
        Reich.  These conversations seem unlikely to succeed
......  109

 84  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, March 27
        This news is confirmed by the Commissioner for
Poland .....  109

 85  M. DE MONTBAS_Berlin, March 28
        In Berlin it is declared that it is intended to
pursue the
        settlement of the Danzig question exclusively by
friendly
        means in the spirit of the 1934 agreement
.................  109

 86  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, March 30
        Polish circles in Berlin regard the situation as
very serious.
        Between Berlin and Warsaw there do not appear to
have been any
        negotiations in the full sense of the word; to the
enquiries
        made by Herr von Ribbentrop, bearing, in particular,
on the
        return of Danzig to the Reich and on the
establishment of a
        motor road and a railway of an extra-territorial
character
        in the Corridor, the Polish Government is understood
to have
        replied in the negative. The possibility of a Putsch
at Dan-
        zig cannot be ruled out
...................................  110

 87  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, March 30
        Herr von Ribbentrop has expressed to the Polish
Ambassador
        in Berlin a desire that Poland should bring her
policy in
        relation to the U.S.S.R. in line with that of
Germany......  112

 88  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, March 31
        The French Government gives its approval to a
statement which
        the British Government proposes to make and under
the terms
        of which both would assist the Polish Government if
Poland,
        before the conclusion of the consultations now in
progress,
        should be the object on the part of the Reich of an
attack
        threatening her independence
..............................  112

 89  STATEMENT BY MR. CHAMBERLAIN_London, March 31
        A statement to this effect is made by Mr.
Chamberlain in the
        House of Commons
..........................................  113

 90  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 1
        The German menace arouses the patriotism of the
Polish
        nation
....................................................  114

 91  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, April 5
        Hitler's followers in Danzig had prepared a Putsch
for March
        29. It will be difficult to restrain their
activities hence-
        forth. The recent crisis in German-Polish relations,
more-
        over, has only increased the state of confusion
which has pre-
        vailed in the Free City for several months past
...........  114

 92  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, April 5
        In Berlin it is considered certain that the Fhrer
will in
        any case demand the return of Danzig to the Reich
.........  117

[XVI]

 93  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, April 6
        At the same time that he has resolved to settle the
Danzig
        problem "one way or another," Herr Hitler is
probably about
        to launch an offensive against the morale of France
and
        Britain and will seek to stir up dissension between
the two
        Powers
....................................................  118

 94  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 7
        The German Press accuses Poland of making herself
the satel-
        lite of Great Britain in a policy of aggression
against Ger-
        many
......................................................  120

 95  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, April 8
        To Herr von Weizscker, who is reported to have
asked him
        for explanations about the Polish military measures,
M.
        Lipski, Polish Ambassador in Berlin, is reported to
have
        replied that they were justified by the recent
movements of
        German troops
.............................................  120

 96  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, April 10
        No decisive conclusion is reported to have been
reached in
        Berlin, where the success of a maneuver of
intimidation is
        still counted upon
........................................  121

 97  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, April 11
        The wavering of German policy in the Danzig affair
reveals
        the fact that the Reich hesitates to commit itself
to a con-
        flict in which it would have to reckon, in the East
as well
        as in the West, with formidable adversaries
...............  121

 98  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 12
        Colonel Beck has presented the Anglo-Polish
agreement to
        the German Government as a re-insurance contract in
no way
        aimed at the encirclement of Germany
......................  123

 99  EXTRACT FROM A STATEMENT BY  M. DALADIER_Paris, April
13
        M. Daladier, in a statement, recalls and confirms
the gua-
        rantee given by France to Poland
..........................  124

100  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, April 13
        In Berlin it is claimed by some that an amicable
settlement
        may be expected, by others that a break with Warsaw
and with
        London is imminent
........................................  124

101  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 15
        Herr von Moltke, German Ambassador in Poland, who
should have
        returned to Warsaw on April 13, has not yet come
back to his
        post
......................................................  125

102  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 17
        The German tactics consist in trying to shatter the
nerves
        of the Poles by the multiplicity and persistency of
false
        reports concerning the slightest incident
.................  125

103  M. DE VAUX SAINT-CYR_Berlin, April 24
        While  M. Lipski resumed the direction of his
Embassy in Ber-
        lin more than a week ago, Herr von Moltke has not
yet rece-
        ived orders to return to Warsaw
...........................  126

104  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, April 25
        It is said in Danzig that the Reich will now give up
the
        idea of the territorial annexation of the Free City,
but
        will demand a customs union
...............................  126

105  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, April 28
        Herr Hitler informs the Reichstag of the proposals
which he
        has made to Poland concerning the settlement of the
Danzig
        question, and denounces the German-Polish pact of
1934 ....  127

[XVII]

106  M. LON NOEL, Warsaw, April 29
        Chancellor Hitler's speech denouncing the German-
Polish
        agreement of 1934 has caused no surprise in Poland,
where
        the Minister for Foreign Affairs is studying the
German
        memorandum handed to him by the German ambassador
.........  128

107  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 29
        The incidents to which Herr von Weizscker drew the
atten-
        tion of Sir Nevile Henderson appear to be of minor
impor-
        tance and seem moreover to have been engineered by
the
        Germans. The Polish population is calm and the
Polish Govern-
        ment prudent
..............................................  129

108  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, April 29
        Herr Hitler's harangue appears as a speech for the
defence
        rather than for the prosecution. It must none the
less be
        borne in mind that the Fhrer refuses to participate
in any
        pacific organization of Europe, and in consequence
we
        should continue our armament policy and aim at the
closest
        collaboration with our allies
.............................  129

109  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 29
        The German memorandum to Poland is merely a
translation in
        diplomatic style of Herr Hitler's speech; it urges
the Govern-
        ment of Warsaw to enter into conversations but
contains a
        menace. The margin of possible concessions is narrow
......  131

110  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 29
        The German-Polish pact was founded on an ambiguity;
it as-
        sured for the Poles the stability of their frontiers
and the
        maintenance of the status quo at Danzig for ten
years; but
        it did not for the Germans exclude the possibility
of revi-
        sion. The Poles now know where they stand with Herr
Hitler . 131

111  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 29
        Contrary to the statements of Herr Hitler, it
appears that
        the German Government never proposed to Poland the
prolonga-
        tion of the 1934 pact nor the guarantee of
Slovakia's inde-
        pendence
..................................................  132

112  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 29
        In putting the question of Danzig in the foreground,
Herr
        Hitler expects that France and Great Britain will
consider
        it too small a matter to justify Polish resistance.
But the
        problem is in fact infinitely more important; it is
a ques-
        tion of knowing what will be Poland's attitude in
the event
        of a general conflict
.....................................  132

113  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, April 30
        The reactions of the French Press to Herr Hitler's
speech
        have frustrated the calculations of the German
Government
        which hoped to create division among us. And in fact
the
        Germans are not wrong when they claim that Danzig is
in
        itself only a secondary question; the enslavement or
inde-
        pendence of Europe is at stake in the issue now
joined ....  133

114  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, April 30
        On three separate occasions the German Government is
report-
        ed to have proposed co-operation with Warsaw against
the
        U.S.S.R.
..................................................  135

115  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, May 2
        The Polish Ambassador in Berlin has been struck by
the
        milder tone of Herr Hitler's speech, which he
attributes to
        Franco-British firmness

[XVIII]

        On the other hand he considers that the reply of his
Govern-
        ment ought to be very cautious in order to frustrate
the ob-
        vious maneuver of making use of it to excite German
opin-
        ion
.......................................................  135

116  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, May 2
        Germany has not changed. Despite the agreement of
1934 the
        Third Reich has remained as hostile to Poland as the
Germany
        of Bismarck and of the Hohenzollerns
......................  136

117  M. LON NOEL-Warsaw, May 3
        Summary of the development of the question of
national
        minorities in Germany and Poland; difficulties
arising from
        their contiguity have been to some extent the
dominant factor
        in German-Polish relations
................................  139

118  M. CORBIN_London, May 3
        Aggravated symptoms of ill humour in the National-
Socialist
        Government. Herr von Ribbentrop, receiving Sir
Nevile Hender-
        son, gives way to a display of anger against Poland
.......  142

119  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, May 4
        Herr von Ribbentrop now appears convinced that Great
Britain
        and France will come to the help of Central or
Eastern
        Europe; at the same time he does not believe they
will move
        for Danzig
................................................  142

120  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, May 5
        Replying to Herr Hitler,  M. Beck makes a statement
in the
        Diet in which he declares the firmness of Poland's
policy .. 143

121  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, May 6
        The Polish memorandum has been transmitted to
Berlin. This
        document recalls that the Reich has not replied to
the
        counter-proposals of March 26, 1939, and appears to
imply
        that it rests with the German Government to take the
initi-
        ative in resuming conversations
............................ 144

122  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, May 6
        The Polish memorandum alludes particularly to the
speech
        delivered by Herr Hitler on February 20, 1938, in
which he
        expressed his satisfaction with the then existing
state of
        German-Polish relations
...................................  144

123  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, May 7
        Herr Hitler remains determined to recover Danzig,
but will
        probably  mark time in order not to have to fight
France and
        Great Britain. He may draw nearer to Russia
...............  145

124  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, May 9
        The German-Polish conflict seems temporarily at a
standstill.
        The method of direct pressure having failed, the
National-
        Socialist leaders will perhaps have recourse to
indirect
        pressure. Whatever means they have to employ, they
are deter-
        mined to establish German hegemony in Europe. It is
therefore
        not a matter of knowing whether one should, or
should not,
        fight for Danzig; what does matter is for France and
Britain
        to be resolved to prevent a new Nazi coup and to
apply a
        brake to National-Socialist expansion while there is
still
        time
......................................................  150

125  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, May 9
        The general impression is that Europe will continue
to enjoy
        a respite of comparative calm, during which the Axis
Powers
        will strive through the medium of propaganda and
diplomacy
        to defeat the determination of London and Paris to
oppose
        any further attempts at aggression
........................  155

[XIX]

                          Part Five

                     The Danzig Question

                  (May 15-August 19, 1939)

                              I

             The Militarization of the Free City
                      (May 15-June 30)

126  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, May 15
        German propaganda claims that the risk of war is due
to
        Polish obstinacy over the question of Danzig. It
does not
        add that from the commercial, naval and military
point of
        view, Danzig commands access to Poland and that
Germany,
        once mistress of the Free City, would have Poland at
her
        mercy
.....................................................  159

127  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, May 22
        Herr von Ribbentrop appears to contemplate a
partition of
        Poland dependent upon a German-Russian agreement; he
would
        not appear to be the only one of this opinion in
Germany.
        Herr Hitler, however, would seem to be reluctant for
ideo-
        logical reasons to come to an understanding with the
        U.S.S.R., aimed ultimately at the destruction of the
British
        Empire against which Herr von Ribbentrop harbours a
personal
        grudge. Thus Germany will exploit every setback in
the negotia-
        tions now in progress between Britain, France and
Russia ..  162

128  M. LON NOEL-Warsaw, May 25
        The German Government has not yet lost all hope of
attaining
        its ends by eventually exhausting the vigilance of
France
        and Great Britain
.........................................  164

129  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, May 25
        Incidents are occurring on the Polish-Danzig
frontier. The
        most serious to date took place at Kalthof, a Polish
Customs
        station, which has been pillaged by S.A. men, one of
whom
        has been killed
...........................................  165

130  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, May 30
        These incidents, cleverly exploited, will enable
Germany to
        raise an out cry against Polish persecution, to
proclaim that
        conditions are becoming unbearable for Germans, to
announce
        that it is her duty to protect them; in brief, to
begin a
        maneuver similar to that which succeeded in the case
of
        Czechoslovakia, and which ought to be unmasked
............  168

130  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, May 31
        Poland adopts a conciliatory attitude over the
Kalthof inci-
        dent and takes care not to envenom the discussion
already
        in progress in the Danzig Senate
..........................  169

132  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, June 1
        The prevailing view at the Wilhelmstrasse appears to
be that
        if Poland does not yield, Herr Hitler's future
action will
        be determined by the outcome of the Anglo-Russian
negotia-
        tions. Hence the Ambassadors of France and Great
Britain in
        Berlin emphasize to their respective Governments the
urgency
        of concluding the Anglo-Franco-Russian agreement
..........  170

133  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, June 7
        The Notes delivered by the Danzig Senate to the
Polish High
        Commissioner following the Kalthof incident reveal
the tac-
        tics of the Government of the Free City, which
consist in
        pursuing a policy of systematic sabotage of the
rights of
        Poland
....................................................  172

[XX]

134  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, June 11
        An increased infiltration of German military
elements is
        further noted in the Free City; the Polish
authorities do
        not seem to be disturbed by this
..........................  174

135  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, June 13
        The impression in Berlin is that Herr von Ribbentrop
consid-
        ers the Danzig affair no more than a detail in the
whole
        Polish problem which is now in question in its
entirety. The
        Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Reich is
understood to
        have given up the idea of an understanding with the
U.S.S.R.,
        which is now very tactfully handled by the Nazi
leaders in
        their speeches, he is only awaiting the outcome of
the Anglo-
        Franco-Russian conversations
.............................  175

136  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, June 14
        In Danzig, a violent Press campaign against Poland
........  176

137  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, June 16
        The German Press campaign continues
.......................  177

138  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, June 20
        Dr. Goebbels at Danzig makes two speeches in which,
after
        emphasizing the German character of Danzig, and
criticizing
        Poland and Great Britain severely, he declares the
determin-
        ation of his Government to recover the Free City
..........  178

139  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, June 20
        In an interview with the French Ambassador in
Berlin, Herr
        von Weizscker seems to expect an easing of the
present
        tension. At the same time he pretends to maintain
that the
        chances of entering into conversations likely to
lead to a
        dtente would not be increased by the conclusion of
a
        Franco-Anglo-Russian pact
.................................  181
140  M. LON NOEL-Warsaw, June 20
        The staff of the German Embassy in Warsaw talk and
spread
        rumours to the effect that Herr Hitler will settle
the
        Danzig affair as he himself sees fit; they mention
the
        Corridor also, and even Upper Silesia
.....................  182

141  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, June 21 The French Ambassador in
Warsaw
        gives details of the position taken up by Poland;
this
        country would not be opposed to modifications in the
statute
        of Danzig; but will not consent to its annexation by
the
        Reich. The Poles would be willing to give the
Germans all
        transit facilities through the Corridor, but will
not admit
        the extra-territoriality of these transit roads
...........  183

142  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, June 22 Poland continues
absolutely calm
        and proceeds with the necessary preparations for her
        defence. Her leaders are trying to gain time, and
postpone a
        conflict which the majority do not however believe
it will
        be possible ultimately to avoid
............................ 183

143  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, June 22
        In diplomatic circles in Berlin a crisis over Danzig
is con-
        sidered inevitable before the end of the year;
moreover the
        German claims now extend to the Corridor and Silesia
......  184

144  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, June 23
        In Danzig the population is surprised by the
repercussions
        abroad, provoked by Dr. Goebbels' speech in the Free
City on
        June 17. Many regret

[XXI]
        it should be believed that they gave their assent to
a rev-
        ision of the statute of Danzig, during a
demonstration in
        which it was in fact, their duty to take part
.............  186

145  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, June 27
        The German leaders may contemplate having the Free
City pro-
        claimed part of the Reich by the Danzig Senate; this
would
        provoke Polish counter-measures making it possible
to repre-
        sent the Poles as the aggressors. It would be
advisable to
        forestall this maneuver by making it clear that any
violent
        action originating in Danzig itself, and which
Poland consid-
        ered essential to resist, would automatically bring
France
        and Great Britain to her assistance
.......................  186

146  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, June 27
        The militarisation of Danzig continues and will soon
consti-
        tute a threat to the Corridor. When the Poles will
no longer
        be able to remain inactive under this threat,
Germany will
        declare their attitude provocative, and denounce
them as
        aggressors. This maneuver is seriously disturbing
the
        Poles
.....................................................  189

147  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, June 29
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs asks the French
Ambassador
        in London to approach Lord Halifax with a request
that in
        the speech he is to deliver on the evening of June
29, he
        should give the leaders of the Reich clear warning
of the
        common determination of the two Governments to
fulfill their
        guarantee of assistance to Poland, whatever means
Germany
        may adopt to conceal the real character of its
action under a
        cloak of ambiguity
........................................  190

148  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, June 30
        Herr von Weizscker informs the French Ambassador in
Berlin
        that Colonel Beck is believed, according to certain
indica-
        tions, to be seeking the basis for a solution, but
at the
        same time he attempts to establish a distinction
between the
        attitude of Great Britain and the intentions of
France in
        the event of a conflict
...................................  191

                             II
                              
                 German Agitation Continued
                              
                      (July 1-July 30)

149  NOTE BY THE MINISTER_Paris, July 1
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs receives a visit
from Count
        von Welczeck German Ambassador in Paris. He has
recently
        seen Herr von Ribbentrop who considers that at any
moment
        an incident could lead to war between Germany and
Poland.
        He expresses regret that it should not have been
understood
        that Germany must have a zone of influence in the
East.  M.
        Georges Bonnet in reply recalls, in particular, that
in the
        course of his conversation with Herr von Ribbentrop,
he made
        express reservations with regard to the relations of
France
        with Poland and with the U.S.S.R. He assures him
that if
        Germany sincerely desires peace, the danger of war
does not
        exist. Mentioning the definite obligations
undertaken by
        France with regard to Poland, he is anxious to leave
the
        German Government in no doubt whatever as to the
attitude
        of the French Government in the event of a conflict
.......  193

150  NOTE BY THE MINISTER_Paris, July 1
        In the course of an interview, the Minister for
Foreign Af-
        fairs hands

[XXII]
        Count von Welczeck a note explaining the French
attitude and
        emphasizing the country's unshakable resolution to
fulfill
        its obligations
...........................................  197

151  M. GAUQUI_Warsaw, July 3
        Youths belonging to the "Hitler Jugend" crossed the
Polish
        frontier and were arrested; after representations
from the
        German Embassy in Warsaw, the Polish Minister for
Foreign
        Affairs has ordered their release
.........................  198

152  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, July 3
        The Polish Government has decided to observe great
caution
        and not for the time being to oppose the military
measures
        in progress at Danzig
.....................................  198

153  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, July 4
        Herr von Weizscker seeks to reassure the French
Ambassador
        in Berlin. However, as the military preparations at
Danzig
        continue,  M. Coulondre believes that the State
Secretary at
        the Wilhelmstrasse is in the first place making
every effort
        to lull the watchfulness of the Western Powers
............  199

154  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, July 4
        The Polish Ambassador in Berlin remains convinced
that the
        German Government is testing the Allies' power of
resistance,
        but that it will not embark on a general war over
Danzig ..  200

155  M. GARREAU_Hamburg, July 4
        Economic circles in Hamburg believe that if the
Anglo-Franco-
        Russian negotiations are not rapidly concluded, a
German-
        Russian pact will be, which would increase the risk
of
        aggression by the Reich against Poland, and, in
consequence,
        of a general conflagration
................................  201

156  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, July 6
        The Military Attach to the French Embassy in Warsaw
is under
        the impression that Poland will go to the extreme
limit of
        patience with regard to the militarisation of Danzig
......  202

157  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, July 6
        M. Beck informs the French Ambassador in Warsaw that
Poland
        will not intervene so long as her vital interests
are not
        affected. He adds that unless the progress of events
is too
        rapid to allow the necessary time, the Polish
Government
        will submit any proposed action to preliminary
consultation
        with the British and French Governments
...................  202

158  M. LON NOEL' Warsaw, July 6
     M. Beck hopes the Press of the Western Powers will not
give
        overmuch space to the news about Danzig, so as not
to play
        into the hands of the German Propaganda Ministry
..........  203

159  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, July 9
        A pamphlet circulated by the Danzig Senate proves
that the
        German claim to the Free City is by no means the
limit of
        the German claims
.........................................  203

160  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, July 10
        The militarisation of the Free City is being
methodically
        carried out; differences between Polish nationals
and Danzig
        authorities occur incessantly, the great majority of
the
        population desires the maintenance of the status quo
and
        appears to be terrorised. The situation recalls that
which
        existed in Austria before the Anschluss
...................  204

161  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, July 11
        According to a responsible person in the confidence
of the
        Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Reich, Herr
Hitler is
        displeased with Herr von

[XXIII]

        Ribbentrop for having involved him in the Danzig
affair.
        The German Press campaign is in fact displaying more
discre-
        tion. The firmness of the Franco-British attitude is
under-
        stood to have caused surprise and embarrassment in
Berlin.
        The attempt at intimidation having failed, the
leading cir-
        cles of the Reich would seem to be ready to try
persuasion
        by declaring that Danzig would be Germany's last
claim. This
        is a maneuver against which French and British
public opin-
        ion should be put on its guard
............................  208

162  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, July 13
        In a conversation with the French Ambassador in
Berlin, Herr
        von Weizscker expresses his displeasure with regard
to the
        communication from the French Minister for Foreign
Affairs
        to Herr von Ribbentrop; he complains further of the
attitude
        adopted publicly by Mr. Chamberlain in the Danzig
affair.
        His language tends to prove that the German
Government is
        impressed by the firmness displayed by the Western
Powers.
        The positions taken up by Paris and London are now
clearly
        understood in Berlin, and  M. Coulondre considers
that, in
        so far as it depends on the French Government it
would be
        an advantage to keep silent about Danzig
..................  211

163  HERR VON RIBBENTROP_Fuschl, July 13
        Herr von Ribbentrop replies by a personal letter to
the note
        handed by  M. Georges Bonnet to Count von Welczeck
on July 1.
        After disputing the point that the reservations made
by the
        French Foreign Minister on December 6 concerning the
rela-
        tions between France and third powers, could apply
to French
        relations with Poland, he makes the following
observations:
        (1) Germany denies France the right to interfere in
her
        spheres of vital interest; (2) Any violation of
Danzig terri-
        tory by Poland, or any Polish provocation
incompatible with
        the prestige of the Reich, will be answered
forthwith by the
        advance of German forces, and the annihilation of
the entire
        Polish army; (3) The threat contained in the French
note and
        its reference to French assistance to Poland can in
no way
        impress the Fhrer. If things are such that the
French Govern-
        ment desires war, it will find Germany ready for it
at any
        moment
....................................................  213

164  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, July 13
        The French Ambassador in Berlin reports abnormal
military
        activity in German territory. The measures which
have been
        taken will allow of rapid concentration. Everything
is hap-
        pening as though the German army were to be ready
for any
        emergency after the beginning of August
...................  215

165  DE SEGUIN_Warsaw, July 19
        Polish Government circles are reacting strongly to a
report
        that Herr Hitler contemplates settling the Danzig
question
        by having himself proclaimed President of the Senate
of the
        Free City
.................................................  219

166  DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, July 20
        According to Herr Forster, Gauleiter of Danzig, Herr
Hitler,
        though not renouncing his claims, does not intend to
have
        recourse to war to realize them
...........................  220

167  DE SEGUIN_Warsaw, July 20
        The conversations between General Ironside and
Marshal Rydz-
        Smigly and  M. Beck reveal that in the event of
German inter-
        vention in Danzig (Anschluss, military occupation,
etc.),
        the Polish attitude will be systematically cautious
in the
        extreme
...................................................  220

168  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, July 21
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs replies by a
personal let-
        ter to the one

[XXIV]
        he received from Herr von Ribbentrop. The German
Government
        could never have presumed that France would renounce
her
        interests in Eastern Europe. In their conversation
on Decem-
        ber 6 the Minister had reminded Herr von Ribbentrop
of
        France's treaties with the U.S.S.R. and Poland. The
Reich
        Minister for Foreign Affairs had even replied that
the Franco-
        Polish treaty could not in any way interfere with
German-
        Polish relations, which were excellent. The fact
that one of
        the requests made to Herr von Ribbentrop on December
6 dealt
        with the common guarantee to be given to
Czechoslovakia was
        alone proof that France did have interests in
Eastern Europe.
        On January 30 Herr Hitler was still congratulating
himself
        on the state of German-Polish relations; if these
have deter-
        iorated since, France is in no way responsible. The
French
        Government would like to see Poland and Germany
reach an
        understanding, but it has contracted definite
obligations
        towards Poland which it will fulfill. The Minister
for Foreign
        Affairs cannot allow it to be said that France would
be
        responsible for a war on account of having honoured
her
        signature
.................................................  221

169  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, July 21
        Herr Hitler would finally appear to be convinced
that France
        and Britain are resolved to stand by their word to
Poland,
        and that he would risk provoking a general war if he
pressed
        his Danzig claims too far
.................................  224

170  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, July 22
        A desire to gain time is discernible in Nazi
circles.
        Nevertheless, the plan to recover Danzig remains
intact,
        and the German army is continuing its preparations
with a
        view to attaining a fairly advanced degree of
mobilisation
        by the middle of August
..................................   225

171  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, July 25
        If certain more reassuring signs are to be seen in
the pol-
        itical field, indications of a military order are
still
        disturbing. France and Great Britain must therefore
avoid
        giving Herr Hitler any impression of weakening in
their
        resolution
................................................  227

172  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, July 25
        According to Herr Forster, Herr Hitler will wait
until as
        long as may be necessary in order to bring about a
peaceful
        settlement of the Danzig question
.........................  234

173  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, July 27
        The dtente thought to be observed in Berlin is
doubtless
        more apparent than real. The problems of the
Corridor and
        Upper Silesia are brought up in current
conversations .....  235

174  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, July 30
        The Press in its turn discusses the problem of the
Corridor
        and even discusses the problem of the structure of
Poland .  237

 The Polish Resistance and the German Press Campaign (August
                            1-19)

175  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 1
        The Danzig Senate, having left unanswered the
protests of the
        Polish Government concerning the Customs inspectors,
Poland
        takes reprisals of an economic character
.................  237

[XXV]

176  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, August 1
        Echoing the Danzig newspapers the German Press
attacks the
        Polish Customs inspectors. The leaders of the Reich
seem to
        be continually wavering, and at the same time open
to temp-
        tation, and general opinion in Berlin agrees in
considering
        that the second fortnight of August will  very
critical ...  239

177  M. DE SEGUIN_Warsaw, August 2 The Polish Government's
measures
        of retaliating with regard to Danzig show that
Warsaw, being
        confronted with Nazi activities in the Free City has
decided
        not to remain passive indefinitely
........................  242

178  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 3
        The attitude adopted by Poland in response to the
difficul-
        ties experienced by the Customs inspectors in
carrying out
        their duties is arousing great feeling in Danzig
..........  243

179  M. DE SEGUIN_Warsaw, August 3
        In order to stop the contraband traffic in arms the
Polish
        Government three years ago created a special body of
frontier
        guards in addition to the original Customs
inspectors; it
        would not refuse to merge these two corps on
condition that
        the Customs control should in the future be
effective .....  243

180  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, August 3
        In Berlin, the period of hesitation is over.
Everything
        concurs to persuade the German people that they are
menaced
        and at the same time that they are invincible. War
psychosis
        reappears; military preparations are accelerated.
More than
        ever the tone of the Press calls for vigilance
............  244

181  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 6
        A new incident concerning the Polish Customs
inspectors oc-
        curred on August 4 in Danzig territory. With it a
new element
        makes its appearance: in fact though the Polish
Government
        took no action following the remilitarisation of the
Free
        City, confronted with the menace of an attack on its
rights
        in Customs matters, its attitude is finally fixed.
Germany
        now knows how far it can go in its "nibbling"
enterprise ..  245

182  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 7 Definition of the legal
condi-
        tions under which Poland could be entrusted with the
defence
        of Danzig
.................................................  247

183  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 7 The Danzig Senate informs
the Po-
        lish Commissioner that it is ready to discuss the
questions at
        issue in the Customs dispute. In this attitude  M.
Beck sees
        a retreat of the Nazi elements in Danzig and an
encouragement
        to persist in the policy of firmness
......................  249

184  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 7
        The German claims go far beyond Danzig and bear
equally upon
        the Corridor and on other territories. This is
openly avowed
        in the German propaganda pamphlet entitled:
"Danzig_What is
        at stake?"
................................................  250

185  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, August 8
        The dispute over the Polish Customs inspectors
reveals that
        Poland, by her firmness, has scored a point. Berlin
has been
        so put out of countenance that the German Press has
stopped
        saying anything about it. Marshal Rydz-Smigly's
powerful
        speech at Cracow, opposing force with force, has,
however,
        raised a storm of threats
.................................  252

[XXVI]

186  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, August 8
        Two days later the German Press has seized upon the
events
        of Danzig to raise the cry of Polish provocation
..........  254

187  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 8
        Poland had hitherto submitted to everything in
Danzig and
        the Nazis have made the most of it. This time, faced
with
        determination to resist, -they have become
conciliatory. But
        the margin of concessions which Poland is still
prepared to
        make is now so narrow that from now on any
incautious act
        might well have the most serious consequences
.............  255

188  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 10
        According to Herr Forster, Herr Hitler is incensed
by cer-
        tain articles in the Polish Press
.........................  255

189  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, August 10
        The campaign against Poland has been resumed in
Berlin with
        increased violence. Herr Forster, following his
interview
        with Herr Hitler, is to make a speech at Danzig,
which ac-
        cording to German circles will be vehement
................  256

190  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, August 12
        German opinion is increasingly nervous. The date
always in-
        dicated by the French Embassy in Berlin as that at
which the
        German army would be ready has now arrived. It seems
that
        capitulation by the Democracies without war is
expected. The
        adjournment of the Nuremberg Congress if announced,
would
        indicate the possibility of immediate action
..............  259

191  M. DE SAINT-HARDOUIN_Berlin, August 12
        German propaganda makes use of the alleged exactions
inflic-
        ted upon the Germans by the Poles in an attempt to
create
        "atmosphere," which recalls the campaigns it
conducted at
        the time of the Sudeten affair. The French Charg
d'Affaires
        in Berlin outlines the arguments which the wire less
could
        broadcast in reply to this campaign
.......................  260

192  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 12
        An article by Dr. Goebbels gives further proof of
Germany's
        lust for conquest
.........................................  261

193  M. LON NOEL-Warsaw, August 15
        Text of the letters exchanged on August 4 and 7
between the
        Polish Commissioner and the Danzig Senate concerning
the
        Polish Customs inspectors
.................................  262

194  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 15
        Herr von Weizscker expresses a pessimistic view of
the
        development of the situation,  M. Coulondre declares
unequiv-
        ocally that if one of the Allies, France, Britain,
or Poland,
        were to be attacked, the two others would
automatically be
        found at its side. From this interview, he concludes
that
        unwavering firmness is essential, that our military
forces
        must be maintained on a level with Germany's, and
that the
        conclusion of the agreement with the U.S.S.R. should
be
        hastened
..................................................  264

195  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 15 German military
preparations are
        being speeded up; a vast mobilisation scheme faces
the civil-
        ian population; the concentration of troops is not
yet com-
        pleted, but this could be done in a few days. The
campaign
        against Danzig has been resumed and Poland is now
put on
        trial as was Czechoslovakia in 1938
.......................  269

[XXVII]

196  M. LON NOEL-Warsaw, August 16
        None the less  M. Beck adopts a conciliatory
attitude in
        the Danzig dispute
........................................  274

197  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 17 The German Press opens a
new
        chapter in its anti-Polish campaign; it alleges that
a pog-
        rom has been started against the Germans in Poland.
The ob-
        ject of this maneuver is to excite passions at home,
and
        give rise to a belief abroad in intolerable Polish
provoca-
        tion
......................................................  274

198  M. ROGER CAMBON_London, August 18
        The French Charg d'Affaires in London reports that
the
        British Ambassador in Berlin has had an interview
with the
        State Secretary at the Wilhelmstrasse in the course
of which
        the latter showed himself particularly aggressive
and even
        brutal towards Poland
.....................................  276

199  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 18
        The situation becoming increasingly tense, it is
above all
        important to keep abreast of Germany in military
prepara-
        tions; it is necessary at the same time to bring the
Russian
        affair to a satisfactory conclusion at the earliest
possible
        moment
....................................................  277

200  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 18
        The French Ambassador in Berlin is more and more
struck by
        the similarity between the German campaign against
Poland
        and that conducted in September 1938 against
Czechoslovakia;
        the military preparations, however, are far more
advanced . 278

201  M. ROGER CAMBON_London, August 19
        The conversations which Herr von Weizscker has had
with  M.
        Coulondre and Sir Nevile Henderson give the
impression of a
        "friendly warning," concerning the imminence of a
German-
        Polish conflict
...........................................  280

202  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 19
        Polish communiqu draws attention to the
persecutions suf-
        fered by the Poles in Germany, that are reported to
reach
        considerable proportions
..................................  280

                          Part Six
                              
                  The International Crisis

                (August 20-September 3, 1939)

                The German Will to Aggression

                       (August 20-22)

203  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 20
        The officials of the Reich Ministry for Foreign
Affairs con-
        sider that Herr Hitler is determined to settle the
Danzig
        question before September 1
...............................  281

204  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 20
        The same officials declare that war is inevitable;
they do
        not believe, on the other hand, in British military
interven-
        tion in favour of Poland
..................................  281

205  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 21
        The concentration of the German army has begun. The
French Am-

[XXVIII]

        bassador in Berlin considers it necessary and urgent
that
        France on her side should take appropriate measures,
he con-
        iders this in our best interest from both the
military and
        the political point of view
...............................  282

206  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 21
        The Pat Agency denies reports invented by the Reich
propa-
        ganda service on the subject of the "terror" of
which the
        German minority in Poland is alleged to be the
victim .....  283

207  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 21
        German troop movement towards the East allows of no
further
        doubt that the concentration of forces is in
progress .....  283

208  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 21
        Following a report transmitted under reserve, action
against
        Poland is to take place during the night of August
22-23, it
        is to be accompanied by a gesture towards the Czech
provinces,
        which will be generous in appearance in that the
restoration
        of a limited measure of independence will be offered
them.
        Herr Hitler will remain on the defensive in the West
......  284

209  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 21
        The Military Attach at the French Embassy in Berlin
consid-
        ers that the German concentration of forces will be
com-
        pleted by August 23 or 24
.................................  285

210  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 21
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs asks the French
Ambassador
        in Warsaw to make certain that the Polish Government
is
        taking steps to frustrate the German maneuver by
which
        they allege that the German minority in Poland is
subjected
        to persecution
............................................  285

211  M. GARREAU_Hamburg, August 22
        The German Government, it is believed, hopes to
overcome all
        Polish resistance by a lightning military attack
before the
        end of August
.............................................  266

212  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 22
        Orders have been given to the Polish Press to
refrain, at
        least for several days, from any attack against the
Reich .  286

213  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 22
        Amongst the German General Staff action against
Poland in
        the very near future is considered certain
................  287

                             II

      Mr. Chamberlain's Message and Herr Hitler's Reply

                       (August 23-26)

214  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 23
        Sir Nevile Henderson leaves by air for
Berchtesgaden, bear-
        ing a message from Mr. Chamberlain for Herr Hitler
........  288

215  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 23
        In Danzig a number of Polish railwaymen are
arrested, and
        Polish schools requisitioned for military purposes
........  288

216  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 23
        Herr Woermann acquaints the French Ambassador in
Berlin with
        the message presented by Mr. Chamberlain to Herr
Hitler, and
        with the latter's reply
..................................  288

[XXIX]

217  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 24
        Sir Nevile Henderson is convinced he has left no
possible
        doubt in Herr Hitler's mind of Great Britain's
resolution.
        The Fhrer has, however, informed him that his
patience is
        exhausted. Were a single new incident against a
German to
        occur in Poland, he "would march." The British
Ambassador
        in Berlin considers that the only hope of at least
putting
        off the fatal day of reckoning would lie in an
immediate
        contact between Warsaw and Berlin
.........................  289

218  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 24
        The French Government will insist firmly that the
Polish
        Government should not take military action in the
event that
        the Senate of the Free City proclaims Danzig part of
the
        Reich
.....................................................  290

219  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 24
        In view of the vast scale of the German military
prepara-
        tions the Polish Government brings a large part of
its army
        to mobilisation strength
..................................  290

220  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 24
        The Polish Ambassador in Berlin has been instructed
to ask
        for an interview with Herr von Weizscker in order
to remind
        him that the Government of Warsaw have always shown
them-
        selves prepared to open discussions under normal
conditions,
        and point out that in this respect their attitude is
un-
        changed
...................................................  291

221  M. ROGER CAMBON_London, August 24
        In his reply to Mr. Chamberlain, Herr Hitler
attempts to make
        Great Britain responsible for the existing
situation: without
        Britain's unconditional assurance to Poland, the
latter would
        not have refused to negotiate on questions of vital
interest
        to the Reich, such as the German city of Danzig and
the assoc-
        iated problem of the Corridor. Success or failure to
bring
        about a peaceful settlement does not depend on the
Reich ..  291

222  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 24
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs enjoins the French
Ambassa-
        dor in War saw to recommend the Polish Government to
refrain
        from replying by any military action should Danzig
be pro-
        claimed part of the Reich, and to point out, at the
same time,
        that this attitude is one of expediency, the
adoption of which
        could in no way restrict Poland's liberty of
judgment in the
        event of military action by the Reich
.....................  293

223  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 24
        German-Polish incidents are becoming more frequent
owing to
        German provocation
........................................  294

224  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 24
        Because of the claims made by the Danzig Senate,
Poland
        breaks off the Customs negotiations
.......................  294

225  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 24
        The Senate, by a decree of August 23, has conferred
upon
        Herr Forster the title of Chief of State
..................  295

226  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 24
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw recommends the
Polish Govern-
        ment not to take, without previous consultation with
the
        French Government any initiative which could bring
about ir-
        reparable consequences
....................................  295

[XXX]

227  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 24
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw reiterates his
recommenda-
        tions of prudence to  M. Beck, who expresses his
complete
        agreement
.................................................  295

228  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Rome, August 24
        The American Ambassador in Rome has handed His
Majesty the
        King of Italy a message from President Roosevelt
requesting
        the Sovereign to do all in his power to bring about
peaceful
        settlement
................................................  296

229  M. DE SAINT-QUENTIN_Washington, August 24
        President Roosevelt has addressed to Herr Hitler and
M.
        Moscicki two messages entreating them to bring the
dispute
        to a peaceful conclusion
..................................  296

230  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 24
        M. Lipski has been received by Marshal Goering, who
seems
        to have given him a cordial reception, but to have
avoided
        giving political significance to the interview
............  297

231  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 24
        The Polish Government proposes to send a letter to
the Danzig
        Senate, reserving its judgment on the appointment of
Herr
        Forster as head of the Danzig State
.......................  297

232  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 24
        Berlin official circles consider that the German-
Russian Pact
        will have for its first consequence the partition of
Poland,
        whose capitulation, more over, is anticipated
.............  297

233  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 25
        M. Beck informs the French Ambassador in Warsaw, who
has ap-
        proached him as instructed by the Minister for
Foreign Af-
        fairs that the Polish Government will continue to
display
        completely unruffled composure
...........................   298


234  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 25
        Incidents continue to occur in Danzig. Following the
arrest
        of the Polish railwaymen, the Polish Government
reserves the
        right to take reprisals, which would, however, be of
an ad-
        ministrative and economic nature only
.....................  299

235  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 25
        Numerous incidents on the Polish-German frontier
..........  299

236  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 25
        General Faury also recommends Marshal Rydz-Smigly to
give
        very strict instructions, so that Polish troops in
the fron-
        tier zone should observe the utmost self-restraint
........  300

237  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 25
        German nationals commit several acts of aggression
on Polish
        territory
.................................................  300

238  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 25
        Marshal Rydz-Smigly points out to General Faury that
he has
        seen through the German maneuver attempting to trick
the
        Poles into committing some incautious act
.................  301

239  M. CHARLES-ROUX_Rome, August 25
        His Holiness Pope Pius XII expresses to His Majesty
the King
        of the Belgians his appreciation of the declaration
made by
        Leopold III in the name of the Oslo group of States
.......  301

[XXXI]

240  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 25 At Danzig, new
artillery
        batteries are brought to the seaboard, while young
ma brought
        in by lorry from East Prussia are sent at once to
jumping-
        off positions
.............................................  301

241  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 25
        The Danzig Senate has received from the Polish
Government a
        note protesting against the appointment of Herr
Forster as
        Head of State
.............................................  302

242  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 25 Herr Hitler sends for
the French
        Ambassador in Berlin to ask him to transmit a
statement to
        M. Daladier. He reiterates his desire to avoid a war
with
        France, and complains vehemency of the Polish
attitude.  M.
        Coulondre, in his reply, reminds him of the French
attitude  302

243  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 25
        The French Government replies favourably to the
appeal made
        by His Majesty the King of the Belgians in the name
of the
        representatives of the Oslo group of States
...............  305

244  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 25
        President Moscicki, in a telegram addressed to His
Majesty
        the King of the Belgians, states that, in the Polish
view,
        the surest guarantee of peace lies in the settlement
of inter-
        national differences by the method of direct
negotiation
        based on mutual respect for each other's rights and
        interests
.................................................  305

245  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 26
        Herr Hitler informs Sir Nevile Henderson that he
agrees to
        make a last attempt to save peace. The British
Ambassador in
        Berlin leaves by air for London to transmit the
Fhrer's pro-
        posals to the British Government
..........................  306

                             III
                              
 M. Daladier's Letter and Herr Hitler's Reply(August 26-27)

246  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 26 The French Ambassador in
Berlin
        thinks that Herr Hitler might he willing to agree to
settle
        the question of the minorities by an exchange of
populations
        similar to the one recently effected in the Tyrol.
Sir
        Nevile Henderson and  M. Lipski share this belief.
M.
        Coulondre suggests that the Poles should take the
initiative
        and approach the Fhrer within forty-eight hours
..........  307

247  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 26
        The Polish Government confirms to the Ambassador of
France
        in Warsaw that it will discuss any plans with France
and
        Great Britain before making any important decision
........  308

243  M. COULONDRE-Berlin, August 26
        Herr Hitler's proposals, which Sir Nevile Henderson
is to
        put before London for consideration, contain certain
new
        elements; serious dangers will none the less have to
be
        avoided; moreover, negotiations could not begin
before all
        threat of force were set aside
............................  305

244  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 26
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs transmits
immediately to
        the French Ambassador in Warsaw the suggestion
concerning a
        possible exchange of

[XXXII]
        populations, with a request that he should urge the
Polish
        Government to accept it
...................................  309

250  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 26
        Official circles absolutely refuse to accept
President Roos-
        evelt's message
...........................................  309

251  M. DE DAMPIERRE_Ottawa, August 26
        Mr. Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of Canada, sends
an ap-
        peal to Herr Hitler, Signor Mussolini, and  M.
Moscicki ...  310

252  M. LON NOEL Warsaw, August 26
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw has submitted to the
Polish
        Government the suggestion of a possible exchange of
popula-
        tions
.....................................................  310

253  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 26
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs transmits to the
French
        Ambassador in Berlin a letter from  M. Daladier
addressed to
        Herr Hitler, replying to the latter's message.
Recalling once
        more the French attitude, he insists that a last
attempt at
        a peaceful settlement between Germany and Poland
should be
        made
......................................................  311

254  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 26
        The British Ambassador in Warsaw has received
instructions
        that, in the event of conversations taking place
between
        the German and Polish Governments, he should propose
the
        appointment of neutral observers in the parts of
Poland
        inhabited by German minorities. The French
Ambassador in
        Warsaw is invited to support his British colleague
in making
        this suggestion
...........................................  312

255  M. LON NOEL-Warsaw, August 26
        The Polish Government points out to the French
Ambassador in
        Warsaw that the murders of Germans in Poland, to
which Herr
        Hitler drew the attention of  M. Coulondre on August
25,
        were never committed
......................................  313

256  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 26
        The German Press, making a pretext of a Polish raid
on Danzig
        territory, enlarges on its accusations against
Poland .....  313

257  M. CORBIN_London, August 26 The British Cabinet,
informed by Sir
        Nevile Henderson of Herr Hitler's proposals, is
preparing to
        reply to the Fhrer. It will, in its communication,
point
        out in particular that a general discussion, if it
is to
        take place, could have no better preface than a
peaceful
        settlement of the German-Polish quarrel
...................  314

258  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 26
        The Polish Government is prepared to countenance the
sugges-
        tion concerning the exchange of populations
..............  315

259  M. CORBIN_London, August 26
        The French Ambassador in London notes that in the
course of
        Herr Hitler's interview with Sir Nevile Henderson,
the
        British Ambassador had made no more than an allusion
to a
        possible exchange of populations, which Herr Hitler,
more-
        over, did not, as it seems, take up
.......................  316

260  M. CORBIN_London, August 26
        Herr Hitler did not inform Sir Nevile Henderson
whether it
        would he possible to revert to the programme he had
put for-
        ward in April, which dealt with the question of
Danzig and
        that of a motor road through the Corridor
.................  316

[XXXIII]

261  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 27
        The French Ambassador in Berlin reports that Herr
Hitler
        has refused to consider the proposal advanced by  M.
Daladier
        as a contribution towards a peaceful settlement of
the German-
        Polish dispute
............................................  317

262  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 27
        Herr Hitler insists that M. Daladier's letter and
the reply
        he will make to it be kept secret
.........................  317

263  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 27
        M. Coulondre considers that his approach to Herr
Hitler
        strengthened the latter's belief that France is
prepared to
        fight, and placed the Fhrer face to face with his
own
        responsibility, showing him, at the same time, that
the
        French Government remains in favour of a settlement
honour-
        able to both parties
......................................  319

264  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 27
        M. Beck takes a less pessimistic view of the
situation ....  319

265  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 27
        Fresh acts of unprovoked aggression by Germans are
taking
        place in increasing numbers at many different points
on the
        Polish frontiers
..........................................  320

266  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 27
        Herr von Ribbentrop hands M. Coulondre a copy of
Herr
        Hitler's reply to  M. Daladier; that reply is in the
        negative
..................................................  320

267  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 27
        Herr Hitler's reply to M. Daladier s message:
"Danzig and
        the Corridor must return to Germany."
.....................  321

268  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 27
        Mobilisation appears to be general in Germany
.............  324

269  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 27
        Danzig is now a vast fortified camp
.......................  325

270  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 27
        The French Government assures the Belgian Government
that it
        will respect Belgium's neutrality in the event of a
war.
        Only if Belgian neutrality were not respected by
another
        Power could France, in self-defence, be led to
modify her
        attitude
..................................................  325

271  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 27
        Our representatives abroad are informed of Herr
Hitler's
        refusal to be a party to  M. Daladier's proposal for
a peace-
        ful settlement with Poland
................................  326

                             IV

Herr Hitler Agrees to Hold Direct Conversations with Poland

                       (August 28-30)
                              
272  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        The attitude of the Reich obliges Poland to call up
new
        classes of reservists
.....................................  326

273  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        Marshal Rydz-Smigly gives orders to the Polish
troops not to
        reply to any German provocation, but only to repel
flagrant
        incursions into Poland
....................................  326

[XXXIV]

274  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        German incursions into Polish territory are
increasing in
        number
....................................................  327

275  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        In an interview with  M. Leon Noel on July 15, Herr
von
        Moltke, the German Ambassador in Warsaw, admitted
that he
        had not had to complain for some time past of
administrative
        measures directed against Germans nor had he had
occasion to
        raise questions of any other nature
.......................  327

276  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        Accusations of ill-treatment of Germans by the
Poles,
        repeated by Herr Hitler, are pure calumny. The
German Ambas-
        sador in Warsaw has, moreover, made no protest in
this
        respect
...................................................  328

277  M. CORBIN_London, August 28
        The British Government's reply to Herr Hitler
.............  328

278  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 28
        M. is authorised to make indirect overtures with a
view to
        a settlement of the minorities question by an
exchange of
        populations
...............................................  331

279  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 28
        The French Government inform the Grand Ducal
Government of
        their intention to respect the inviolability of
Luxemburg
        territory. Only in the event of that territory being
vio-
        lated by another Power might they be led, in self-
defence,
        to modify their attitude
..................................  331

280  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        M. Beck confirms to the British Ambassador in Warsaw
that
        Poland remains prepared to enter into direct
conversations
        with Germany
..............................................  332

281  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        A Polish gang leader, whose activities are now being
denoun-
        ced by the German Government, has been dead for two
years .  332

282  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 28
        Herr Hitler assesses the German population of Poland
at an
        excessive figure. The German Ambassador in Warsaw
himself
        admitted that the numbers of the national minorities
in Ger-
        many and in Poland are approximately equal
................  333

283 BELGIAN GOVERNMENT'S NOTE_Brussels, August 28
        The Brussels Government acknowledges receipt of the
French
        Government's communication concerning its
undertaking to
        respect Belgian neutrality. Should Belgium be the
object of
        unprovoked aggression she would appeal to France
..........  333

284  M. BARGETON_Brussels, August 28
        Offer of the good offices of Their Majesties the
Queen of
        the Netherlands and the King of the Belgians
.............  334

285  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 29
        Herr Hitler, when he received the British
Government's reply
        took an uncompromising attitude. He demanded all the
Cor-
        ridor, with territorial modifications in Upper
Silesia ....  334

286  M. HENRI CAMBON_Luxemburg, August 29
        The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg
thanks the
        French Government for its communication
...................  335

[XXXV]

287  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 29
        The French Ambassador in Berlin transmits further
informa-
        tion on Herr Hitler's interview with Sir Nevile
Henderson.
        The Fhrer has expressed the wish to study the
British Govern-
        ment's communication before giving his reply
..............  335

288  M. CORBIN_London, August 29
        The French Ambassador in London reports the feeling
of pes-
        simism in London following Herr Hitler's interview
with Sir
        Nevile Henderson
..........................................  336

289  M. DE LA TOURNELLE_Danzig, August 29
        In Danzig the bullying of Poles continues
.................  337

290  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 29
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw gives fresh details
reveal-
        ing the unfounded character of the Reich's
allegations con-
        cerning the treatment of German minorities in Poland
......  337

291  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 29
        In handing Sir Nevile Henderson his reply to the
British
        Government Herr Hitler points out to the British
Ambassador
        that he will accept direct conversations with Poland
on con-
        dition that a Polish plenipotentiary arrives in
Berlin the
        following day, August 30. At the same time he
restates his
        demands for Danzig and for the Corridor
...................  338

292  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 29
        The French Government welcomes the offer of their
good of-
        fices made by Their Majesties the King of the
Belgians and
        the Queen of the Netherlands
..............................  339

293  M. CORBIN_London, August 29
        The French Ambassador in London gives some further
informa-
        tion as to Sir Nevile Henderson's interview with
Herr Hitler.
        The latter in particular added Silesia to his
claims, and
        let it be understood that he would not negotiate
with Poland
        unless he were certain beforehand of the Polish
Government's
        acceptance of all his demands
.............................  339

294  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 30
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs communicates to the
French
        Ambassador in Warsaw an account of Sir Nevile
Henderson's
        interview with Herr Hitler. He remarks that for the
first
        time Herr Hitler has agreed to enter into direct
conversa-
        tions with Poland
.........................................  340

295  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 30
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs requests the French
Ambas-
        sadors in Berlin and Warsaw to examine, with a view
to aver-
        ting the incidents now becoming more frequent,
whether a
        suggestion could be made to the German and Polish
Governments
        for the withdrawal of their troops a few kilometres
on either
        side of the frontier
......................................  341

296  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 30
        The French Ambassador in Berlin is of the opinion
that the
        Polish Government, to show its good will, should
appoint a
        plenipotentiary; for his part, however, he considers
that
        this plenipotentiary might be, not  M. Beck, but  M.
Lipski,
        who is on the spot
........................................  341

297  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 30
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw draws attention both
to the
        scope of the demands put forward by the Reich, and
to their
        lack of precision
.........................................  342

[XXXVI]

298  M. BARGETON_Brussels, August 30
        The French Ambassador in Brussels has delivered the
French
        reply to the offer of their good offices made by
Their
        Majesties the Queen of the Netherlands and the King
of the
        Belgians
..................................................  343

299  M. CORBIN_London, August 30
        The French Ambassador in London communicates to the
French
        Government the text of Herr Hitler's reply to the
British
        Government
................................................  343

300  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 30
        M. Coulondre considers that the Chancellor of the
Reich's
        reply to the British Government is brutal, and more
like a
        Diktat than an expression of willingness to
negotiate with a
        sovereign State
...........................................  346

301  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 30
        Agitation develops according to German plans;
terrorist acts
        are committed by members of the German minority
...........  346

302  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 30
        The German Press lets it be understood that the
Governments
        of Berlin and Moscow have reached an agreement
concerning a
        solution of the Polish problem
............................  347

303  M. DE LA TOURNELLE.-Danzig, August 30
        In Danzig incidents continue
..............................  348

304  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 30
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw is asked to support
the
        dmarche his British colleague is to make concerning
direct
        German-Polish conversations
...............................  348

                              V
                              
 Italy's Suggestion for a Conference and German Maneuvering
         to Bring About the Rupture of Negotiations
                              
                         (August 31)
                              
305  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 31
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw has supported his
British
        colleague's dmarche; the Polish Government has
promised to
        reply by August 31
........................................  348

306  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Rome, August 31
        Count Ciano informs the French and British
Ambassadors in
        Rome of an offer by Signor Mussolini to invite
Germany,
        after agreement with France and Britain, to a
conference to
        be held on September 5, the object of which would be
to ex-
        amine the difficulties arising out of certain
clauses in the
        Treaty of Versailles
......................................  349

307  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 31
        The Polish Government agrees to enter into direct
conversa-
        tions with the German Government.  M. Lipski is
invited to
        ask for an audience at the Wilhelmstrasse in order
to re-
        establish contact
.........................................  349

308_M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, August 31
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs asks the British
Government
        to make the Polish acceptance known to Berlin as
soon as they
        have themselves been informed of it from Warsaw
...........  350

[XXXVII]

309  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 31
        Repeated frontier incidents occur in conjunction
with acts
        of terrorism in Poland
....................................  350

310  M. CHARLES-ROUX_Rome, August 31
        The French Ambassador to the Holy See transmits to
the French
        Government a message from His Holiness Pius XII in
favour
        of peace
..................................................  351

311  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 31
        The Polish Government, in its reply to the British
Government,
        suggests the establishment of a provisional modus
vivendi in
        Danzig, makes reservations pending more complete
information
        as to the possibility of an international guarantee,
and
        expresses the hope that, should it be able to enter
into
        direct conversations with the Reich Government, it
may still
        count on the good offices of the British Government
.......  351

312  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 31
        Evident embarrassment is noticeable in Berlin, where
they
        pretend to hope that the crisis will ultimately be
solved by
        a compromise similar to the Munich Agreement, and
that active
        military aid will be obtained from Russia
.................  352

313  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 31
        At 1 p.m.  M. Lipski, the Polish Ambassador in
Berlin,
        requested an audience of the Reich Minister for
Foreign Af-
        fairs. At 3 p.m. Herr von Weizscker asked him by
telephone
        if he proposed to appear in the capacity of a
plenipotentiary
        or as Ambassador.  M. Lipski replied that he was
acting as
        Ambassador, whereupon Herr von Weizscker told him
that he
        would report to Herr von Ribbentrop. At 6.15 p.m.
the Polish
        Ambassador has still received no reply from the
Reich Min-
        ister for Foreign Affairs
.................................  353

314  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 31
        M. Lipski is received by Herr von Ribbentrop at 7.45
p.m.,
        and informs him of his Government's willingness to
proceed
        by direct conversations
...................................  353

315  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 31
        The French Ambassador in Berlin summarises the
events of
        August 31. At 9 a.m. Sir Nevile Henderson warned  M.
        Coulondre that, according to information he had
received,
        the Germans will launch an attack against Poland if
the
        Polish Government has not before noon accepted the
proposal
        to send a plenipotentiary. The night before, at
midnight,
        Herr von Ribbentrop had read him the German plan for
a set-
        tlement announced in Herr Hitler's reply to Great
Britain,
        but had refused to hand him the text. M. Coulondre,
after an
        interview with  M. Lipski, telephones to Paris to
make en-
        quiries about the Polish Government's reply, he
learns that
        it is in the affirmative;  M. Lipski does, in fact,
receive
        such instructions from Warsaw; after asking for an
audience
        at 2 p.m., not before 7.45 p.m. is he allowed to
hand his
        communication to Herr von Ribbentrop
.....................  354

316  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 31
        The Poles are deprived of practically all their
prerogatives
        in Danzig. The Polish Press reports the acts of
victimiza-
        tion to which they are subjected, but without making
capital
        out of them
...............................................  356

317  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 31
        At 9.15 and at 9.25 p.m. Herr von Weizscker hands
the
        British and French Ambassadors, for the guidance of
their
        Governments, a Press

[XXXVIII]

        communiqu and a German plan for the settlement of
the
        German Polish problem, a plan which the German
Government
        considers the Poles to have rejected although it
was, in
        actual fact, never submitted to them
......................  356

318  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, August 31
        The French Ambassador in Berlin unmasks a maneuver
intended
        to make Poland appear hostile to any peaceful
endeavour just
        at the moment she has agreed to negotiate
.................  357

319  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, August 31
        Communications between Berlin and Warsaw have been
interrup-
        ted, so the only Polish information of the
development of
        the situation is that received through the German
wireless,
        which is trying to conceal the rupture of the
negotiations.
        Warsaw speculates as to whether this is a final
attempt at
        blackmail or an act preliminary to the opening of
hostili-
        ties
......................................................  357

                             VI
                 The Outbreak of Hostilities

                        (September 1)

320  M. CORBIN_London, September 1
        A telegram delayed in transmission from the British
Ambas-
        sador in Warsaw gives further details of the Polish
Govern-
        ments reply to Great Britain. From this it appears
in part-
        icular that the Polish Government is prepared to
take part
        in any exchange of views with the Reich Government
on the
        basis of the British proposals
............................  358

321  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 1
        The wireless broadcast setting out the German claims
proves
        that Herr Hitler is trying to get out of the
negotiations
        to which he had agreed; furthermore, it follows from
this
        that the Polish plenipotentiary, if he had come to
Berlin,
        would not have been allowed to discuss, but
requested to
        subscribe to the Fhrer's will
............................  359

322  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 1
        The German attack began at 4 a.m.
.........................  360

323  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 1
        The Germans are attacking on all frontiers. Danzig
has pro-
        claimed itself part of the Reich
..........................  360

324  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 1
        The Reichstag meet for one hour to hear a speech by
Herr
        Hitler
....................................................  360

325  PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S APPEAL_Washington, September 1
        President Roosevelt's appeal to Great Britain,
France,
        Italy, Germany and Poland asks them to undertake not
to bomb
        civilian populations or open towns from the air
...........  364

326  M. WALTER STUCKI_Paris, September 1
        The Swiss Minister in Paris notifies the French
Government
        of the Swiss Government's declaration of neutrality
.......  364

327  M. GEORGES BONNET._Paris, September 1
        The French Government inform the Italian Government
of their
        favourable reply to the Italian proposal to call a
        conference
................................................  365

[XXXIX]

328  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 1
        The French Ambassador in Berlin fears that his
earlier com-
        munications may have been delayed in transmission,
and re-
        peats his report of the events of August 31
...............  366

329  M. CORBIN_London, September 1
        The Polish Ambassador in London, on the ground that
his
        country is the victim of aggression, requests the
applica-
        tion of the British guarantee
.............................  367

330  M. CORBIN_London, September 1
        A British communiqu exposes the inaccuracy of the
German
        version of the development of the negotiations
............  367

331  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 1
        The aggression is flagrant, aerial bombardments have
begun.
        M. Lipski has been instructed to ask for his
passports ....  369

332  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Rome, September 1
        The French reply has been handed to Count Ciano
...........  369

333  FRENCH GOVERNMENT'S NOTE_Paris, September 1
        The French Government replies favourably to
President Roose-
        velt's appeal concerning aerial bombardments
..............  370

334  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 1
        The French Government takes note of the Swiss
Confederation's
        declaration of neutrality
.................................  370

335  M. CORBIN_London, September 1
        The British Government informs the German Government
that if
        the Reich does not suspend its aggressive action or
show wil-
        lingness to withdraw its troops from Polish
territory Great
        Britain will fulfill her obligations towards Poland
.......  371

                             VII
                              
  The Franco-British dmarche in Berlin, and the Entry into
                             War

                       (September 1-3)

336  M. CORBIN_London, September 1
        The so-called German proposals to Poland were not
officially
        communicated to the British Government; Herr von
Ribbentrop
        had only read them hurriedly to Sir Nevile
Henderson, and
        refused to let him have the text
..........................  372

337  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 1
        M. Coulondre is instructed to associate himself with
Sir
        Nevile Henderson's approach to the German Government
......  372

338  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 1
        The French Ambassador in Warsaw is instructed to ask
the
        Polish Government if it would agree to take part in
the
        conference proposed by the Italian Government
.............  373

339  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 1
        German Charg d'Affairs in Warsaw has asked for his
pass-
        ports
.....................................................  373

[XL]

340  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 1
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs informs all
diplomatic
        representatives of the recent events which throw
into relief
        the aggressive character of German action against
Poland ..  373

341  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 1
        Herr Hitler's speech to the Reichstag has been
received with
        only moderate enthusiasm; the population of Berlin
appears
        dismayed. The Fhrer has avoided using the word
"war" .....  375

342  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 1
        The Slovak Minister in Warsaw has handed to the
Polish Govern-
        ment, "in the name of the Slovak people," a letter
protesting
        against the German aggression
.............................  375

343  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 1
        The Polish Government maintains that, since Poland
is already
        the victim of unprovoked aggression, it is now no
longer a
        question of calling a conference, but of what common
action
        should be taken by the Allies to resist it
................  376

344  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 1
        At 10 p.m., following immediately on the British
Ambassador,
        the French Ambassador in Berlin carries out the
dmarche he
        had been instructed to make. Herr von Ribbentrop
replies to
        him that there has been no German aggression against
Poland,
        but that it is the latter country which has attacked
Germany 376

345  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 1
        Text of the communication handed by  M. Coulondre to
Herr
        von Ribbentrop
............................................  377

346  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 1
        French Government thanks the Sovereign Pontiff for
his
        message
...................................................  378

347 Paris, September 1
        A Havas telegram, communicated to the Press on the
night of
        September 1-2, announces that the French Government,
ap-
        proached on August 31 by the Italian Government with
a
        suggestion for a settlement of outstanding European
difficul-
        ties, gave the Italian Government a favourable reply
......  378

348  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 2
        Germany, to throw the responsibility for these
events on to
        Poland, denies the truth of the Polish Government's
statement
        that it was never informed of the proposals which it
is ac-
        cused of having rejected. In support of this thesis,
Germany
        puts forward two facts: 1, on the night of August 30-
31 Herr
        von Ribbentrop is stated to have read the text of
the German
        proposals to Sir Nevile Henderson and commented on
them at
        length; 2, on the evening of August 31 the Polish
wireless,
        it is maintained, declared these proposals
unacceptable. The
        truth of the matter is different: Herr von
Ribbentrop read
        the German propositions very hurriedly to the
British Ambas-
        sador and refused to let him have the text; 2, if
the Polish
        wireless did make the declaration it is said to have
made,
        this could only have referred to the drastic demands
made by
        Herr Hitler on August 29. The Polish Government was
never
        informed of the proposals broadcast on August 31 at
9 p.m.;
        nor were they made known even to the British and
French Ambas-
        sadors until after they had been broadcast. Herr von
Ribben-
        trop, after keeping the Polish

[XLI]
        Ambassador waiting until 7.45 p.m., did not breathe
a word to
        him about them
............................................  378

349  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 2
        The German Air Force is causing many casualties
among the
        Polish civilian population
................................  380

350  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 2
        Herr Hitler, following President Roosevelt's appeal,
has
        informed Poland that aerial bombardment will be
confined to
        military objectives, the Polish Government has
replied that
        it has given identical orders, although German
bombardments
        have already caused many casualties among the
civilian pop-
        ulation
...................................................  381

351  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 2
        Violent fighting in Poland on land and in the air
.........  381

352  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Rome, September 2
        The Italian Government, in spite of fresh
difficulties, would
        still be prepared to intervene again on the lines of
its
        original proposal for the calling of a conference
.........  381

353  M. LON NOEL_Warsaw, September 2
        German aircraft continues to cause casualties among
the
        civilian population
.......................................  382

354  M. CORBIN_London, September 2
        The British Government considers that the existing
situation
        cannot be allowed to continue, and is of the opinion
that
        there can be no question of entering into any
negotiations
        before Polish territory has been evacuated by German
troops  382

355  M. ALBERT LEBRUN, PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC_
        Paris September 2
        Message from the President of the Republic to
Parliament ..  383

356  DECLARATION OF THE GOVERNMENT_Paris, September 2
        Declaration read to the Chamber of Deputies by  M.
Daladier,
        President of the Council of Ministers, and to the
Senate by
        M. Chautemps, Vice President of the Council of
Ministers ..  384

357  M. CORBIN_London, September 2
        The forceful attitude of Mr. Chamberlain's Cabinet
corres-
        ponds with the unanimous feelings of Parliament and
of the
        entire British nation
.....................................  392

358  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 2
        The Polish Ambassador in Berlin has now left Germany
......  393

359  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 2
        At 1.30 p.m. neither the French nor the British
Ambassador
        has received a reply from the German Government
...........  394

360  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Rome, September 2
        At 2 p.m. Count Ciano reports to the French
Ambassador in
        Rome that he has had Herr Hitler informed this
morning of
        the Italian proposal for conference. The Fhrer has
not re-
        jected this suggestion out of hand, but he would
like to
        know if the French and British notes of September 1
were to
        be characterised as an ultimatum, leaving him until
midday
        on 1 September 3 to reply. Count Ciano then
telephoned per-
        sonally to  M.

[XIII]
        Georges Bonnet, then to Lord Halifax, to inform them
of
        Herr Hitler's questions. Both replied that the notes
had
        not the character of an ultimatum, and that, with
regard to
        the time limit, they would have to consult their
respective
        Governments. Lord Halifax having added that, in his
opinion,
        the evacuation of Polish territory by German troops
was in
        any case necessary, Count Ciano observes that, in
his opin-
        ion, there is little chance of obtaining this
.............  394

361  M. CORBIN_London, September 2
        The Polish Ambassador in London informs the British
Govern-
        ment of the progress of the German offensive, and
insists
        upon the immediate entry into force of the British
guaran-
        tee
.......................................................  395

362  M. CORBIN_London, September 2
        Speeches by Lord Halifax in the House of Lords and
by Mr.
        Chamberlain in the House of Commons
.......................  395

363  M. FRANOIS-PONCET_Rome, September 2
        Count Ciano informs the French Ambassador in Rome
that he
        does not consider himself in a position, in
conformity with
        the wish expressed by Lord Halifax, to ask the
German Govern-
        ment to withdraw its troops from Poland,  M.
Daladier's
        speech to the Chamber of Deputies, moreover, reveals
that
        the French Government's attitude is identical with
that of
        the British Government. Consequently, Count Ciano
telegraphs
        to the Italian Ambassador in Berlin that unless the
German
        Government is of a different opinion, the Italian
Government
        does not think it should follow up the suggestion
which it
        had previously made
.......................................  398

364  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 2
        At midnight the Minister for Foreign Affairs
instructs the
        French Ambassador in Berlin that the following day,
September
        3, at midday, he should make a further approach to
the German
        Government
................................................  398

365  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 3
        M. Coulondre is requested to go at midday to the
Wilhelm-
        strasse and ask for the German Government's reply to
the com-
        munication addressed to it on September 1. If this
reply is
        in the negative the French Ambassador is to give
notice that
        his country finds itself in consequence under the
obligation
        of fulfilling its engagements towards Poland as from
Septem-
        ber 3 at 5
p.m.............................................  399

366  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 3
        M. Coulondre reports that he has carried out these
instruc-
        tions
.....................................................  399

367  M. COULONDRE_Berlin, September 3
        M. Coulondre states that the German Government's
reply is
        in the negative
...........................................  400

368  M. GEORGES BONNET_Paris, September 3
        The Minister for Foreign Affairs, in accordance with
The
        Hague Convention of October 18, 1907, notifies all
Diploma-
        tic Missions accredited to Paris that a state of war
exists
        between France and Germany
................................  401

369  FRANCO-BRITISH DECLARATION_Paris, September 3
        The two Governments of France and the United Kingdom
affirm
        their common intention of waging war humanely and
observing
        international undertakings, limiting the use of, or
prohi-
        biting certain weapons; they reserve their liberty
of action
        in the event of their adversary not observing these
under-
        takings
...................................................  402

[XLIII]

370  M. DALADIER_Paris, September 3
        Text of the President of the Council of Ministers'
appeal
        to the French nation
......................................  403

                         Appendices
                              
                         APPENDIX I

Franco-Polish Treaties of 1921 to 1925
............................  407

                         APPENDIX II

Extract from the speech delivered to the Chamber of Deputies
by M.
Georges Bonnet, Minister for Foreign Affairs, January 26,
1939 ....  409

                        APPENDIX III

Telephonic communications of  M. Georges Bonnet, Minister
for Foreign
Affairs, August 31 and September 1 and 2, 1939
....................  412

[XLIV]


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