The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: orgs/canadian/league-for-human-rights/audits/incident-audit.1996


Archive/File: orgs/canadian/league-for-human-rights/audits/incident-audit.1996
Last-Modified: 1997/05/07

Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents 1996

Presented by

The League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada

     Rochelle Wilner, National Chair
     Marvin Kurz, National Legal Counsel
     Dr. Karen Mock, National Director

B'nai Brith Canada

     Lyle Smordin, National President
     Frank Dimant, Executive Vice-President
     Pearl Gladman, Director of Field Services

This report was prepared by David Cooper, Research &
Communications, and edited by Dr. Karen Mock, National
Director of the League for Human Rights. Some text in this
volume was extracted from previous publications of the
League.

We are grateful to the volunteers, students and staff for
their contribution both to this report and to the continuing
work of the League for Human Rights. We also acknowledge the
invaluable contributions of everyone who assisted us with
the collection of data for this edition of the Audit of Anti-
Semitic Incidents, particularly the B'nai Brith Field Staff,
Sophie Tapper (Manitoba), Robert Libman (Quebec), Rubin
Friedman (National Capital Region), and Joyce Aster (Ontario
Region). We also thank Harry Abrams and David Lethbridge for
their contribution to the British Columbia section. Special
thanks are due to Rochelle Wilner, National Chair, for
seeing the Audit through its final stages.

No part of this book may be produced or utilized in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the
publisher.

c 1997 League for Human Rights
B'nai Brith Canada

15 Hove Street, Toronto Ontario M3H 4Y8
Tel:(416) 633-6224 Fax:(416) 630-2159
league@bnaibrith.ca
www.bnaibrith.ca

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the LAWRENCE
TANENBAUM FAMILY CHARITABLE FOUNDATION in the printing and
distribution of this publication.

                      Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION

II. DEFINITIONS AND DATA COLLECTION

Vandalism
Harassment

III. THE JEWISH COMMUNITY IN CANADA SUMMARY OF DATA

Nature of Incidents by Year
Geographic Distribution of Incidents
From Coast to Coast - Highlights of Specific Incidents

IV. HATE IN CANADA

The State of the Neo-Nazi Right in Canada
Hate on the Internet
Recruitment in the Schoolyard
Hate Propaganda and Holocaust Denial
The Far-Right Against Anti-Racists

V. ANTI-SEMITISM IN CANADA - CURRENT CLIMATE AND TRENDS

Highlights of Issues and Trends
The Climate in British Columbia
The Climate in Quebec
Polish Skinheads
The Climate on Campus
Anti-Semitism and the Ethnic Press

VI. THE STRUGGLE AGAINST ANTI-SEMITISM AND HATE

i. Education Training and Research

ii. Legal/Legislative Initiatives
Supreme Court Decisions
Somalia Inquiry
Criminal Code Amendments
Hate on the Internet
And Still Zundel
Telephonic Hate

iii. Community Partnerships
Intercultural Dialogue
Joint Community Action
Inter-Jurisdictional Cooperation
Other Recent Publications by the League for Human Rights

INTRODUCTION

B'nai Brith Canada has been at the forefront of the battle
against anti-Semitism, racism and bigotry for more than a
century. Through the League for Human Rights, B'nai Brith
monitors the activities of hate groups in Canada and
documents all reported incidents of anti-Semitism. The Audit
of Anti-Semitic Incidents, published annually since 1982 by
the League for Human Rights, is a major vehicle for
reporting our findings to the public.

In 1996, we witnessed, as in the past few years, that
incidents of anti-Semitism continue to become more diffuse
in nature. In the early 1990s, trends in hatred and bigotry
directed at Canada's Jews were linked to specific
activities, including the Gulf War and the rise of the
Heritage Front and other neo-Nazi groups in Canada. However,
the last four years have seen a more random pattern of anti-
Semitism in this country. As in the past, Metropolitan
Toronto, Canada's largest and most ethnically diverse city,
had by far the largest number of reported anti-Semitic
incidents. This is primarily due to the size of the Jewish
population, the continued presence of many of the "leaders"
of Canada's hate movement, and the ethnic frictions which
are usually evident in all large and ethnically diverse
cities.

Despite an apparent decline in organized hate activity, and
in the overall level of incidents in 1996, several serious
incidents of anti-Semitism during the past year proved to be
disturbing. In April, the Jewish National Fund office,
located in the Calgary Jewish Community Centre, received a
package bomb that injured an employee. Fortunately, the bomb
malfunctioned and only partially detonated, thus sparing the
Centre and the many people inside its full impact. In
Toronto, a house was broken into and severely vandalized
with swastikas and other anti-Jewish graffiti. In Winnipeg,
a Jewish group home for teens was vandalized extensively
with anti-Semitic graffiti. On the eve of Yom Kippur, the
Jewish day of atonement, a former Front de l'Liberation de
Qu‚bec (FLQ) bomber issued a statement to the press that
contained threats of violence to the Jewish community and a
number of its individual leaders.

As will be seen in the analysis of the trends in the data,
there has been a dramatic increase in the spread of anti-
Semitism via the Internet and the so-called ethnic press.
Neither of these trends has been included in the statistics
as their impact is not quantifiable, although it is felt
broadly throughout the community.

Despite several serious cases and systemic trends, positive
steps have been made in combatting anti-Semitism, racism and
bigotry in Canada this year. The influence and impact of
organized neo-Nazi groups remains low; however, there are
indications that the Heritage Front and others are starting
to rebuild their grassroots movements and continue to
recruit.

Bill C-41, requiring sentence enhancement for perpetrators
of hate-motivated crimes, was enacted into law in September
1996. This law recognizes the increased victim impact of
crimes directed at minority communities, and provides for
penalties which reflect the hate motivated nature of these
offenses.

Several important court cases took place in 1996 involving
the spreading of hate towards Jews. In the case of Jim
Keegstra, the Alberta teacher accused of promoting Holocaust
denial and conspiracy theories in his classroom, the Supreme
Court of Canada upheld Keegstra's conviction as
constitutional. The Supreme Court confirmed its earlier
decision against Keegstra for spreading hatred and promoting
anti-Semitism in his classroom. In 1996 the Supreme Court
also upheld the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission's
order to keep Malcolm Ross, known purveyor of Holocaust
denial and other racist doctrines, out of the classroom.
Both of these unanimous decisions by Canada's highest court
have sent a very strong message that hate will not be
tolerated in Canada.

The Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents is an important resource
for government, human rights organizations, educators,
police, media and others to gauge anti-Semitism in Canada.
By providing an analysis of the nature and extent of
reported anti-Semitic activity in Canada, the Audit provides
a model for data collection and analysis, and helps guide
decisions in resource allocation, legislative development,
and plans for formal educational initiatives to confront
racist attitudes and to sensitize all Canadians to the
problems of hatred and intolerance. Finally, the Audit also
serves as an important indicator of the general level of
racism in Canada.

The Audit is part of the League for Human Rights of B'nai
Brith's commitment towards combatting anti-Semitism.
Canadians must be able to identify and name it if we ever
hope to eradicate it.

DEFINITIONS AND DATA COLLECTION

The annual Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents is a record of
reported incidents only. The Audit depends on the voluntary
reporting of anti-Semitic incidents to the League for Human
Rights through B'nai Brith offices and the nationwide B'nai
Brith Lodge network. Recorded incidents may have been
reported by victims directly to our offices, or may have
been reported by other sources. Experts in the analysis of
crime, including officers in police intelligence units,
suggest that only a small percentage (in the neighborhood of
approximately 10%) of hate crimes or harassment are ever
reported to any source. The situation is akin to spousal or
child abuse, both of which are notoriously under-reported.

Reported incidents are investigated for corroboration, then
documented and analyzed by League staff to determine
appropriate courses of action. Proper investigation is vital
to determine whether reported incidents are indeed racially
motivated, and whether they are anti-Semitic in nature. For
example, harassment of a Jewish person in the workplace may
be real but may not be anti-Semitic. As well, while general
pamphleteering by a hate group will be condemned by the
League, and while the League will be actively involved in
countering its effects, if such pamphleteering does not
specifically target Jews, then for the purposes of the
Audit, it will not be included as an anti-Semitic incident.
Finally, where an anti-Semitic mail campaign takes place, or
where a number of Jewish businesses or people are targeted
by one group or one individual for harassment or vandalism
in a defined area over a defined period of time, such events
are recorded as a single incident. Incidents are catalogued
for the Audit in two broad categories: vandalism and
harrassment.

Vandalism

Vandalism is defined as an act involving physical damage to
property. It includes graffiti, swastikas, desecrations of
cemeteries and synagogues, other property damage, arson and
other criminal acts such as thefts and break-ins where an
anti-Semitic motive can be determined.

Harassment

Harassment includes anti-Semitic hate propaganda
distribution, hate mail and verbal slurs or acts of
discrimination against individuals. Death threats and bomb
threats against individuals and property, as well as any
kind of physical assault, are also included in this broader
category.

THE JEWISH COMMUNITY IN CANADA
- A Brief Overview

The 1991 census published by Statistics Canada reported that
356,315 of the 27 million people in Canada were Jewish. This
amounts to only 1.3% of the entire population of the
country. In 1991, Toronto and Montreal were reported to have
162,605 and 101,210 Jewish residents respectively, and no
other locale had more than 20,000 Jewish residents. In fact,
Jews comprise less than one half of one per cent of the
population of Canada outside of the two aforementioned
cities. The fact that Toronto and Montreal have the two
largest Jewish communities in Canada (three quarters of the
Jews in this country live in these two urban areas, with
45.6% in Metropolitan Toronto, and 28.4% of Canada's Jews
living in Greater Montreal) accounts for the fact that the
overwhelming majority of reported cases of anti-Semitism
occur in these centres.

Vancouver, the third largest Canadian city, has 19,375
Jewish residents (5.8% of the Jews in Canada), 1.3% of the
total Vancouver population of 1,584,115. The Ottawa-Hull
area, known as the National Capital Region, is home to
nearly 12,000 Jews, 3.3 % of the Jewish population in
Canada. Winnipeg, with 15,000 Jewish residents, has the
highest concentration of Jews (2.3%) of any city other than
Montreal (3.3%) and Toronto (4.2%). In no other Canadian
urban area do Jews make up more than one per cent of the
total population.

Jews have lived in Canada since the 18th century. However,
the first significant waves of Jewish immigration from
Europe started in the 1870's. Eastern European Jews often
moved to Winnipeg or to rural areas to work as farmers - one
of the few occupations for which immigrants were allowed
into Canada.

During the Second World War the Canadian government refused
to allow Jewish immigrants fleeing the Holocaust to enter
this country, with one government official stating that
"none is too many" when asked how many Jews would be let
into Canada. However, thousands of Jewish war survivors were
permitted entry in the late 1940's and 1950's. The impact of
post-war ‚migr‚s on the Canadian Jewish community is perhaps
the most significant difference between patterns in American
and Canadian Jewish immigration. Holocaust survivors who
came to Canada comprise a more significant percentage of the
total Jewish community here than in the United States,
largely because the Canadian government had restricted
Jewish immigration earlier.

Until the 1970's Montreal was regarded as the principal hub
of Canadian Jewry. Although other cities had Jewish
communities, Montreal was the oldest and largest, and was
considered the most important Jewish centre in Canada.
However, the threat of Quebec separation in the mid-1970's
was a frightening prospect for many Jews, the vast majority
of whom were Anglophone. Thousands of Montreal jobs were
relocated to Ontario, as were tens of thousands of
Montreal's Jews. Although the new census data will not be
available until late in 1996, a recent study conducted by J.
Torczyner, D. Brotman, and J. Brodbar (1995) entitled "Rapid
Growth and Transformation: Demographic Challenges Facing the
Jewish Community of Greater Toronto" suggests further shifts
in the Jewish population, particularly in the wake of the
ongoing Quebec Referendum debate and the increase in
nationalist rhetoric. Today, Toronto is considered the
Jewish capital of Canada, with approximately 165,000 people
in the community.

Canadian Jewry tends to be more traditional than the
American Jewish population. In 1990, forty per cent of
affiliated Jews identified themselves as Orthodox, another
forty per cent as Conservative, and twenty per cent as
members of the Reform movement. As well, in recent years
Reconstructionist congregations have opened in Toronto and
Montreal.

SUMMARY OF DATA

- _Nature of Incidents by Year

There were 244 anti-Semitic incidents reported to the League
for Human Rights in 1996. This represents a decrease of
26.3% from the 331 incidents in 1995, which had been the
highest number reported in 14 years of documentation._

The number of reported incidents of anti-Semitic vandalism
was 81, up only 1.25% from the 80 incidents reported last
year. The fact that the incidents of vandalism remained
essentially the same as 1995, which had been 13% lower than
the year before, continues a trend attributable to the
demise of such groups as the Church of the Creator and the
Heritage Front. It appears that ongoing community vigilance
and education is also keeping vandalism from seriously
increasing.

Anti-Semitic harassment dropped to 163 reported incidents in
1996 from 251 in 1995, a decrease of 35.1%. Harassment
includes the distribution of hate propaganda; however, it
must be noted that incidents of anti-Semitism spread over
the Internet have not been included.

Table 1 and Figure 1 (below) summarize the total number of
anti-Semitic incidents reported to the League for Human
Rights of B'nai Brith Canada over the last 15 years.

Figures 1(a), (b), (c) present the three year total average,
and yearly incidents of vandalism and harassment
respectively.

[Transcription note: Graphic representations of the data
following have been omitted. Knm]

Table 1.

                Nature of Incidents by Year

Year           Vandalism      Harassment      Total
1982           19             44              63
1983           25             23              48
1984           60             23              26
1985           52             66              95
1986           23             43              55
1987           18             32              55
1988           52             37              112
1989           63             60              176
1990           60             113             210
1991           50             150             251
1992           46             201             196
1993           105            150             256
1994           92             151             290
1995           80             251             331
1996           81             163             244


Geographic Distribution of Incidents

There were 98 reported incidents of anti-Semitism in 1996 in
Toronto, down 38.4% from 159 incidents last year. Toronto is
the largest city in Canada, and is also home to the largest
Jewish population. Not surprisingly, anti-Semitic incidents
in Toronto represented 40.2% of all reported incidents in
1996.

Montreal, which in 1995 reported 52 incidents, had 30 anti-
Semitic cases in 1996 (12.3% of the total), Ottawa figures
also declined, with 27 reported cases in 1996 (11.1%), down
from 37 in 1995.

Last year the Audit reported an appreciable increase in anti-
Semitic incidents in smaller communities in Ontario. The 28
incidents in 1994 represented a 40% increase over the year
before; in 1995 there were 29 anti-Semitic incidents in
regional Ontario; and in 1996 there were 32 incidents, 13.1%
of the total number of reported incidents in Canada. This
trend shows a consistent increase of incidents in regional
Ontario outside of Toronto and Ottawa. It is clear that as
police hate crimes units clamp down on hate and bias crimes
in the cities, hate groups have increased their recruitment
activity in smaller communities, such as Pickering,
Brampton, Oakville, St. Catharines and the Niagara region.

Winnipeg reported 17 incidents in 1996, consistent with the
number of reported cases of anti-Semitism over the last four
years, and 7.0% of all incidents. It is noteworthy that
Winnipeg's figures remain steady while the overall national
level has declined. In 1995, the number of reported
incidents in Winnipeg represented only 4.2% of all reported
incidents. Similar to Winnipeg, the number of reported
incidents in the western provinces, while declining in real
terms, declined at a significantly lower level than the rest
of the country. In Alberta and Saskatchewan there were 11
reported incidents in 1996 (4.5% of reported incidents. It
is noteworthy that Winnipeg's figures remain steady while
the overall national level has declined. In 1995, the number
of reported incidents in Winnipeg represented only 4.2% of
all reported incidents. Similar to Winnipeg, the number of
reported incidents in the western provinces, while declining
in real terms, declined at a significantly lower level than
the rest of the country. In Alberta and Saskatchewan there
were 11 reported incidents in 1996 (4.5% of total reported
incidents), slightly down from 13 reported cases in 1995;
and the number of reported incidents in British Columbia
remained consistent with 23 incidents in both 1995 and 1996,
representing 9.4% of the total number in Canada. Western
Canada's numbers contras

The Maritimes had 6 reported incidents in 1996 (2.5% of
total incidents), double the number of incidents reported in
the eastern provinces in 1995.

Table 2

           GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF INCIDENTS
   Vandalism                     Harassment
         Vandali  Harassm Threats  Assault  1995    1996
         sm       ent              s
MARITIME 3        2                1        3       6
S
QUEBEC                                              
Montreal 12       11      6        1        52      30
Other                                       1       
ONTARIO                                             
Toronto  21       67      5        5        159     98
Ottawa   15       10      2                 37      27
Other    17       15                        29      32
MANITOBA 5        11      1                 14      17
ALTA/SAS 4        6       1                 13      11
K
B.C.     3        20                        23      23
Totals   81       135     15       7        331     244


From Coast to Coast - Highlights of Specific Incidents

January

The editor of Peachland newspaper in British Columbia,
receives unsolicited Institute for Historical Review
Holocaust-denial material.

In Toronto, a knife wielding man screaming anti-Semitic
epithets, threatens and assaults a Jewish individual. The
man is arrested and charged with assault.

February

Stickers from the National Socialist German Workers Party -
Overseas Organization (NSDAP-AO), an American neo-Nazi
organization, are found on cars outside a B'nai Brith
meeting.

March

In Winnipeg, a young hockey player is the victim of anti-
Semitic slurs by a player from a rival team. The coach of
the offending player, a police officer with the Winnipeg
Police, suspends the player for his misconduct.

A Jewish individual, in Toronto, reports being harassed by
Polish skinheads (Polskas) while walking on the street. Anti-
Semitic diatribes become almost a regular feature in the
Canadian Polish press.

April

NSDAP-AO posters commemorating Hitler's birthday are posted
on a lamppost outside a Winnipeg school.

The Jewish National Fund office located in the Calgary
Jewish Community Centre receives a package bomb that
fortunately malfunctions. The bomb's detonator, which did
ignite, injures the secretary opening the package.

May

A Professor of German language in PEI receives unsolicited
German
language hate material denying the Holocaust.

June

In Winnipeg, a swastika is carved in the grass with a lawn
mower in front of a children's playground.

In Sarnia, on the eve of "Aryan Fest Day," two juveniles
vandalize a home owned by second generation Holocaust
survivors. The youths spray paint swastikas, the slogan
"Brennan das Jude" (burn all Jews), and other neo-Nazi
symbols on the wall of the house and on the street.

July

In Toronto, a house belonging to a Jewish family in the
suburb of North York is broken into and vandalized
extensively with anti-Semitic graffiti. Nothing is stolen
from the house.

In Nepean, a suburb of Ottawa, 10-15 street signs are
defaced with swastikas, and various phrases such as "white
power" and "niggers."

August

In Winnipeg, a Jewish group home for teens is vandalized
with swastikas. A staff member's car is set on fire.

A sign at a construction site for a new synagogue in
Vancouver is defaced with a swastika and the words "Juden
Raus" (Jews Out).

September

A woman at an East Coast university reports that she is
being harassed by a former friend and classmate regarding
her decision to convert to Judaism. The person routinely
makes anti-Semitic remarks to the woman.

In a student residence at McMaster University in Hamilton,
Ontario, a swastika is painted over an Israeli flag in a
mural depicting the flags of various countries.

October

Beginning in October and continuing to date, an individual
leaves the same anti-Semitic message on voice-mail systems
of several Toronto Jewish-owned businesses and
organizations.

November

In Montreal, Le Soleil columnist Michel Vastel exclaims in a
radio interview that Jews should apologize to Christians for
crucifying Christ.

In a joint forces operation by various police forces, two
individuals are arrested in the Durham region for
distributing hate material to schools and residential
neighborhoods.

A sticker "eliminate non-Whites" is stuck on the residence
door of a Jewish Student at the University of Western
Ontario (London).

December

A mock parcel bomb, containing all the ingredients of a
bomb, except for explosives, is left at the London Jewish
Community Centre.

In Toronto, an individual calls 911 from a phone booth
claiming to have planted bombs in several synagogues. The
police are forced to evacuate the synagogues, disrupting
several wedding celebrations in progress.

HATE IN CANADA

The State of the Neo-Nazi Right in Canada

In the last few years, the organized neo-Nazi right in
Canada has become somewhat fragmented. The Heritage Front,
which rose to prominence from 1990 to 1994, declined rapidly
after the expos‚ in 1994 of Grant Bristow, a Canadian
Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) "mole," and the arrest
of Wolfgang Droege. Since the demise of the Heritage Front,
no single individual or group has been able to rebuild and
bring order to the far-right movement in Canada. There are
several reasons for this lack of leadership. First, no
dynamic individual has emerged with the skills or a focused
agenda to unify the various groups within the hate movement.
Secondly, after the "Grant Bristow Affair" a great deal of
suspicion remains within the extreme right regarding
possible infiltration by police or CSIS "moles." As a
result, there is a reluctance to create an organization with
an identifiable leader and hierarchy similar to the pre-1994
Heritage Front. That is, in Canada, groups have adopted the
strategy of "leaderless resistance," creating small cells of
individuals to elude infiltration. Recently, there has been
an increase in the number of these cells in Canada, a
pattern similar to the United States. Thirdly, until
recently some of the key activists of the hate movements
such as George Burdi of the Church of the Creator, and
Wolfgang Droege of the Heritage Front have been serving jail
terms. Despite these factors, which have contributed to the
far right's fragmentation and apparent decline, there
continues to be recruitment in high schools and suburban
areas. There has also been a steady increase in the
proliferation of hate on the Internet, perpetrated by
various individuals and small groups.

Legal problems persisted this year for several members of
Canada's far right. In late April, Matt McKay, a former
member of the Airborne Division, and Robert Welsh, a
suspected former leader of the violent white supremacist
Northern Hammerskins, were charged in connection with the
murder of Gordon Kuhtey in Winnipeg in 1991. Police believe
that Kuhtey was killed because his attackers thought he was
gay. In March, Canadian authorities deported Oliver Bode, a
friend of Holocaust-denier Ernst Zundel, after he was red-
flagged at Pearson International Airport because of his 12
neo-Nazi hate crime convictions in Germany. Despite an
appeal, Bode was ordered out of the country. Also in March
1996, Charles Scott, last year's "Aryan of the Year," was
ordered by the Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC) to
shut down a hate line. The use of telecommunications to
promote hatred violates the Canadian Human Rights Code.  In
November, two individuals were charged in Oshawa, Ontario,
for willfully promoting hatred. The two are alleged to have
distributed a large amount of NSDAP-AO material throughout
the Durham region. The trial is set for early 1997.

In 1996, two cases against the far right did not succeed. In
March, charges of defamatory libel and conspiracy to promote
hatred against Jews were brought against Ernst Zundel by
Holocaust survivor Sabina Citron. However, charges were
withdrawn by the Crown due to insufficient evidence. In
April, a Federal Court judge dismissed a contempt charge
against the Heritage Front due to inadequacies in the
evidence. The case was launched by the CHRC which alleged
that the Heritage Front leader Wolfgang Droege and member
June French had violated a court order not to communicate
hate messages on the telephone, by setting up another line
after the Heritage Front hate line had been shut down. Both
cases indicate the importance of gathering sufficient
evidence and preparing sound cases when bringing hate
mongers to court.

An interesting twist occurred this year, when Gary Botting
of Victoria B.C., a former recipient of the George Orwell
Free Speech Award from Doug Christie's Canadian Free Speech
League, denounced Christie's League as a front for "anti-
Semitic pro-Nazi propaganda." Christie is the Victoria
lawyer who has defended a string of Holocaust-deniers
including Ernst Zundel, James Keegstra, and Malcolm Ross,
among other members of the far right in Canada. Botting, who
once testified on behalf of Zundel, returned his award to
Christie and denounced both Zundel and Christie.

Hate on the Internet

There is evidence that, despite the various setbacks,
elements of Canada's far right remain alive and well,
particularly in "cyberspace." The League has documented the
beginnings of the use of computers by hate groups in the
last few years. But in 1996, under the rubric of webmaster
Marc Lemire's "Freedom Site," Canada's far right has taken
to the Internet in a big way. Most of the ideologues of
Canada's extreme right, such as Paul Fromm, Ernst Zundel,
and Doug Christie have established sites on the World Wide
Web both to disseminate their propaganda and recruit new
"foot soldiers" to their cause. The growing sophistication
of these web sites, including their use of RealAudio which
allows for real time audio broadcasts, is testimony to the
importance these individuals place on the Internet as a tool
to maximize their influence. Unfortunately, it is extremely
difficult to measure the real impact of the Internet in
terms of hate recruitment. The Internet has indeed proved to
be a boon to both those who are actively seeking hate
material and to those who want to disseminate it.

The Internet's attractiveness lies in its ability to reach a
diverse audience and to give the hate mongers a level of
credability, control, and influence that far outweighs their
numbers. In the most recent issue of their fundraising
letter, the Institute for Historical Review (IHR) stresses
the importance of its Internet presence and sums up the
reasons it has become such a useful tool for the extremist
right:

     Probably our single most important achievement in
     recent years has been through the Internet 'information
     superhighway' computer network. Around the clock and
     around the world, millions can instantly access hard-
     hitting IHR pamphlets and Journal articles on the World
     Wide Web. Crossing national boundaries and defying
     central control, we regularly reachnetwork. Around the
     clock and around the world, millions can instantly
     access hard-hitting IHR pamphlets and Journal articles
     on the World Wide Web.

Recruitment in the School Yard

Despite the growth of the Internet, person-to-person
recruitment remains important. The most prevalent type of
recruitment takes place in the schoolyards of junior and
senior high schools. Hate groups continue to target
teenagers who are at a vulnerable stage of development.
Recruitment by the Heritage Front, Northern Hammerskins, and
other skinhead groups remains strong in Toronto and
surrounding areas, especially in the regions of Durham,
Halton-Peel, St. Catherines and Niagara. Charles Scott and
the Aryan Nations continue to recruit actively in the
interior of British Columbia. As the League points out in
its "Is Your Child a Target?" pamphlet for parents and
teachers:

Young people are more likely to accept at face value the
racist ideology of the hate monger. They are often na‹ve and
easily brainwashed by racist propaganda because they don't
have the experience or facts at hand to refute the lies and
myths fed to them ùLonely, marginalized youth seeking a
sense of belonging are both the most attractive targets for
racists and their most useful tool once recruited (see
Appendix for full copy).

Hate Propaganda and Holocaust Denial

Along with recruiting, the distribution and dissemination of
hate material continues relatively unabated. Even materials
on Revenue Canada's list of prohibited imports seem to seep
through Canada's porous border. The high volume of imports
makes effective control of the importation of hate material
very difficult. However, in June, the League alerted Revenue
Canada with the help of the Metropolitan Toronto Police Hate
Crimes Unit, and succeeded in preventing the distribution of
The Turner Diaries (see page 34). In addition, heightened
awareness raised by police hate crimes units has resulted in
police forces making some headway in slowing the
distribution of hate material. In November 1996 in Durham,
west of Toronto, the regional police, with the assistance of
Metro Toronto Police and the Ontario Provincial Police,
arrested two individuals who were distributing hate
propaganda in school yards and residential neighbourhoods.
In British Columbia, police arrested an individual who was
distributing material in the Lower Mainland. However, Ernst
Zundel, based in Toronto, continues to publish and
disseminate Holocaust denial material world-wide, both on
the Internet and through the exports of his publishing
house, Samisdat.

The Far-Right Against Anti-Racists

The far right has also begun to try to take advantage of
legal means to thwart the efforts of anti-racist activists.
Alan Dutton, Executive Director of the Canadian Anti-Racism
Education and Research Society based in Vancouver, is
currently being sued by an outspoken radio commentator,
Charles Maclean. This action followed complaints by Dutton
to the CRTC, concerning comments made by a variety of right-
wing guests (Paul Fromm, David Irving) on Maclean's radio
program. David Lethbridge, Director of the Salmon Arm
Coalition Against Racism, is being sued for defamation by
Eileen Pressler of the Council for Public Affairs. Such
cases require significant amounts of money for legal
defense. But the "libel chill" approach has not at all had
the effect of silencing the critics of the far-right. If
anything, it has strengthened the resolve of anti-racists to
network more effectively with each other and to ensure a
stronger legal position against racist hate mongers.

ANTI-SEMITISM IN CANADA - CURRENT CLIMATE AND TRENDS

Highlights of Issues and Trends

As in past years, several trends in hate activity and anti-
Semitism can be discerned from the statistical data. Two
provinces worthy of highlighting are British Columbia and
Quebec. B.C. has seen an increase in organised hate group
activity, especially after several eastern-based hate
mongers sought "greener pastures" in the west. Since the
referendum last year, the political climate in Quebec
continues to cause deep anxiety within the Quebec Jewish
community. Another issue worth noting is that despite a
decline in most right-wing groups, there has been an upsurge
in the growth of the Polish skinhead movement. A number of
reported incidents of hate and anti-Semitism on college and
university campuses indicates that this remains an important
issue to be addressed. Finally, anti-Semitism continues to
be fueled by blatant anti-Semitic slurs and rhetoric in
several so-called "ethnic" newspapers in Canada.

The Climate in British Columbia

Overt anti-Semitism and racism appeared to have increased in
British Columbia in 1996. The circle which includes Doug
Christie, Eileen Pressler, Paul Fromm, Ron Gostick, Ernst
Zundel, Tony McAleer, Bernard Klatt, and Glen Kealey
continues to hold and attend meetings in various parts of
the province.

Several important meetings of known racists and anti-Semites
were held during the past year in B.C. The "Second Canadian
Free Speech Conference" met in Surrey on March 23rd; the
"Canadian Free Speech League" conference took place on
October 26th, in Victoria; the Canadian League of Rights
"Third Option" scheduled a conference for October 18-19 in
Edmonton, but this was later moved to Leduc, B.C. The hotel
in Edmonton cancelled the conference after being advised
"that the main speakers are well known promoters of anti-
Semitism and racism." Speakers at these meetings included
most of the individuals listed above as well as speakers
from the Heritage Front (e.g., Steve Dumas).

With Charles Scott's move to the Creston-Yahk area at the
end of 1995, 1996 became a year of intense white supremacist
Christian Identity activity and recruiting in the Kootenays.
The Canadian League of Rights also met repeatedly in the
Kootenays, holding nine meetings in as many days in Crescent
Valley, Creston, Trail, Slocan City, Nakusp, Cranbrook,
Meadow Creek, Nelson, and New Denver.

A cache of militia weapons and Christian Identity literature
was found in Smithers, B.C. during the summer, and reported
by the RCMP in October, sOctober, suggesting a probable
pathway of safe houses for adherents to the U.S. militia
movement in B.C. and across the Canada.

In Victoria, a mixed message was sent to those groups, who
might want to use public facilities to hold meetings to
promote their racist hate causes. While the Victoria city
councillors agreed to restrict hate groups from using public
facilities, the Victoria Public Library voted against such a
measure. The issue arose when anti-racist activists and the
local B'nai Brith Canada lodge learned that Doug Christie's
Free Speech League was holding meetings at the Victoria
Public Library. The objection was raised that their presence
created a poisoned environment for other users of the
library, including Holocaust survivors and various visible
minority groups.

The Climate in Quebec

The year 1996 was distressing for the Jewish community in
post-referendum Quebec. On October 30, 1995 the Quebec
population voted by a very narrow margin not to separate
from Canada. Following the infamous referendum night remarks
of former Premier Jacques Parizeau - blaming the
sovereignist defeat on "money and the ethnic vote," long-
time separatist hard-liner Pierre Bourgault called the
Jewish, Italian and Greek communities racist for their block
vote against Quebec sovereignty.

Against the backdrop of this tense post-referendum
atmosphere, in 1996 there were a number of high profile
incidents involving the Jewish community of Quebec in one
way or another. When analyzed individually, most may seem to
be isolated cases. When combined, one cannot ignore the
perception of a pattern that has emerged - and many have
concluded that anti-Semitic demons from Quebec's past
history have been reawakened.

In March, the community was in an uproar as Quebec's
language watchdog, l'Office de la langue francaise, urged
some stores to remove imported Kosher for Passover products
from their shelves because they did not have labels in
French. Despite the fact that l'Office eventually reached a
deal exempting the limited Kosher for Passover products from
labeling requirements, many Jews felt that their community
was being unfairly targeted. This feeling was reinforced by
the decision of l'Office shortly thereafter to pursue
Schwartz' delicatessen for minor sign law violations. While
Schwartz' delicatessen is no longer Jewish-owned, it is
still perceived to be a Jewish institution.

During the summer, senior Radio Canada reporter Normand
Lester caused a stir with his claim that he could not be
treated in French at the Jewish General Hospital. The
isolated case of one nurse who was led to believe that Mr.
Lester was English speaking and apparently insisted that he
speak English, became front-page news in the French media.
An episode such as this sends out a very negative and false
signal to the francophone majority about the attitude of the
Jewish community. The Jewish General Hospital is a fully
bilingual institution, and has served the Quebec population
admirably for over half a century.

Much was also made last summer of the religious background
of English rights activist Howard Galganov. In an apparent
attempt to slur him, La Presse journalist Gilles Paquin
established an irrelevant link between Galganov's recent
political campaign and his participation in a Jewish Defense
League activity over 20 years ago. The JDL organization
today is considered by many to be racist and it is banned in
Israel. Bloc Quebecois leader Michel Gauthier and columnists
Pierre Bourgault and Michel Vastel called on the Jewish
community to dissociate itself from Galganov, thus
exhibiting the intolerant, misguided view that the man's
political ideology was related in some form to his religion.

In September, concern reached its apex on the eve of Yom
Kippur, the holiest day of the year on the Jewish calendar,
when convicted FLQ terrorist Raymond Villeneuve, in a
newsletter entitled La Tempˆte (the Storm), denounced
English speaking Montreal Jews for their long standing
opposition to Quebec separation and warned that Jews could
face confrontation if they continued to oppose separation.
"If there is trouble after Quebec becomes independent,
nationalists will remember who was against them." In a
subsequent radio interview he spoke of intimidation and even
Molotov cocktails.

The Jean-Louis Roux affair and its troubling aftermath
erupted later that year. It was disclosed that Quebec's
Lieutenant Governor had drawn a swastika on his University
lab coat during the Second World War and participated in an
anti-conscription demonstration that eventually degenerated
into a riot where storefronts of Jewish merchants were
smashed. Sovereignists called for the immediate resignation
of Roux who is a committed federalist. Both Canadian Jewish
Congress and B'nai Brith Canada asked for an explanation and
apology. Roux opted to resign before meeting with Jewish
community leaders where he offered an apology. Some members
of the French media irresponsibly laid blame on the Jewish
community for Roux's resignation, most notably Pierre Foglia
of La Presse who wrote a cynical and inaccurate portrait of
the community's involvement in the Roux affair. Jewish
community organizations, which he maliciously called "le
Grand Tribunal Permanent de l'Antisemitisme" did not call
for Roux to resign. Foglia's column prompted numerous anti-
Semitic hate messages, many quoting him. This episode
presents us with an illustration of how careless
misinformation can be used by people with an anti-Semitic or
racist inclination to justify and to bolster their own
hatred. It also aided in unleashing a great deal of
antagonism and name-calling, which compromises relations
between the francophone majority of Quebec and the Jewish
community.

The Roux affair reopened important debate about Quebec's
anti-Semitic past. B'nai Brith Canada sees this as a
positive opportunity to confront a very dark period in the
province's history and by so doing, to illustrate how this
is in contrast to the Quebec of today. In that vein, late in
the year, B'nai Brith Canada made a request of the Montreal
Urban Community Transit Corporation (MUCTC) to have the name
of the Lionel Groulx metro station changed. The late cleric
Groulx had published extensive anti-Semitic and xenophobic
writings. The removal of his name from this very public
landmark would send a very powerful message to Quebec's
ethno-cultural minorities. To date, the MUCTC has refused to
consider changing the name, but B'nai Brith will pursue the
matter further.

Reacting to the approach taken by B'nai Brith, Le Soleil
columnist Michel Vastel outrageously ranted in a radio
interview that the Jews should apologize to Christians for
crucifying Jesus Christ. The charge of Jews as "Christ
killers" has sent millions of Jews to their deaths through
the ages. This myth has been denounced by Vatican II. B'nai
Brith Canada called on all Quebecers to condemn Vastel's
remarks.

There were some positive signs in 1996 in that mainstream
francophone opinion leaders denounced the likes of
Villeneuve and the zeal of l'Office de la langue fran‡aise.
The Canadian Judicial Council in 1996 recommended that
Justice Jean Bienvenue be removed from the bench for his
insensitive remarks diminishing the suffering of Jews in the
Holocaust. In March, B'nai Brith officials accepted the
invitation of Quebec Premier Lucien Bouchard to attend his
speech at the Centaur Theatre, yet were disappointed that
his government followed up that meeting with Bill 40, an
initiative to reincarnate the Commission de la protection de
la langue fran‡aise, "Quebec's language police." However,
later in the year there was another positive sign as the
governing Parti Quebecois officially abandoned its policy of
French unilingualism on outdoor commercial signs, which had
been deemed a violation of freedom of expression guarantees
in both the Canadian and Quebec Charters of Rights and
Freedoms. The adoption of Bill 40 was also put on hold.
Although these were all seen as steps in the right
direction, many are skeptical and believe that these
political maneuvers were for political expediency only.

Fortunately, despite the heated rhetoric and emotion in
1996, there was no appreciable link to a rise in actual anti-
Semitic incidents, compared with previous years. However,
there remains an undercurrent of suspicion that if emotions
really begin to heat up again, there will be genuine cause
for concern by the Jewish community of a renewed wave of
anti-Semitic sentiment.

Polish Skinheads (Polskas)

In the midst of a general decline in skinhead activity in
Canada, there has been a rise in activity amongst Polish
skinheads or "Polskas in Toronto." It is estimated that
there are approximately 80-100 Polskas in the Metro area.
Their ages range from fifteen to late thirties. Recruitment
by Polish skinheads is aggressive and new Polish immigrants
to Canada are heavily targeted. Some young Polish immigrants
maybe susceptible to recruitment as they are in a new
country and are often seeking cultural, social and
linguistic links with other Poles. In addition, new
immigrants who arrive from Poland, which is a particularly
homogeneous society, maybe overwhelmed by Canada's cultural
diversity and may find it difficult to socialize and to
relate to other ethnic Canadians. It is reported that the
Polish skinheads, who are well organized, generally hang-out
in the west part of Toronto in the Bloor and Jane Street
area, Roncesvalles Avenue, Lakeshore Boulevard, and the
Islington\Kipling area.

The Polish skinhead movement in Canada is intricately linked
to the
flourishing skinhead movement in Poland, where there are a
large number of neo-Nazi skinhead bands, such as Konkwista
88, Sztorm 68, and Deportacja. In addition, there are a
large number of fan magazines (fanzines) for these bands,
such as Falanga Iskra and Odlam Skiny full of anti-Semitic
images and lyrics. Many of the Polish language neo-Nazi
records and fanzines, such as the skinhead magazine
Szcczerbiec, have been imported to Canada. Local Canadian
Polish newspapers, as described below, also fuel their anti-
Semitism.

Recently, there have been approximately ten reported
incidents involving Polish skinheads in Toronto. In one
incident reported to police, Polish skinheads brazenly
attacked several Black individuals in the Toronto Lakeshore
area. The three skinheads were charged with assault with a
weapon. In another incident, a group of Polish skinheads
marched through a schoolyard intimidating other students and
teachers. The impetus of the march was a dispute between
Polish and Portuguese youth attending that school.

The Climate on Campus

University and college campuses are often viewed as islands
of tranquillity and reflection, of academic debate and civil
discourse. However, campuses are also apparently hot beds of
hate incidents and anti-Semitism. The League has recorded a
proliferation of incidents in the campus environment in the
last few years. Outside of the large urban universities,
Jewish students feel particularly vulnerable to anti-Semitic
incidents because of the lack of Jewish institutions there
to assist them. Requests for assistance have come from
Victoria, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Saskatoon, Winnipeg,
Hamilton, Toronto, Kingston, Montreal and Halifax.

During 1996, there were a variety of reported incidents of
anti-Semitism at campuses across the country, but the types
of incidents have varied greatly. In Halifax, a woman at
Dalhousie University reported being harassed by a fellow
classmate over her decision to convert to Judaism. At both
McMaster (Hamilton) and Western (London) Universities in
Ontario, there were several reported incidents of anti-
Semitic graffiti in the residences. Another persistent
problem found on university campuses is anti-Semitism in the
form of exaggerated anti-Zionism. At both the University of
Toronto and the University of Calgary there were reported
incidents of anti-Israel posters that contained anti-Jewish
themes. Several universities reported that swastikas were
drawn on the posters of Jewish student clubs, and Jewish
campus groups received several threatening and harassing
phone calls, particularly during Israel week.

Dealing with anti-Semitic incidents on campus is
problematic. At most universities, Hillel or the Jewish
Student Unions are commonly the groups that deal with
incidents. Unfortunately, these groups are usually ill
equipped to deal with anti-Semitic incidents due to lack of
training, not knowing to whom to report such incidents, and
because of the usual high turnover of individuals in student
governments. The League has prepared and distributed Anti-
Semitism on Campus - A Handbook for Student Action to assist
groups in countering anti-Semitism constructively and
practically. The League has also made Jewish campus groups
aware of its hotline (1-800-892-BNAI) to report and seek
assistance in handling anti-Semitic incidents.

Anti-Semitism and the Ethnic Press

Due to the large number of immigrants to Canada and the
federal government's policies of promoting multiculturalism,
Canada has a large and flourishing ethnic media (radio, TV
and print). During 1996, there were several reported
incidents of anti-Semitism in various ethnic language
newspapers, in particular the Arabic and Polish press. All
the reported incidents came from readers who speak the
languages in which the papers were written. Complaints were
also received from people who had read various issues of The
Final Call, the newspaper of the U.S. based Nation of Islam
(NOI).

Tracking and responding to anti-Semitism in the ethnic press
is difficult for two reasons. First, the ethnic press is not
as systematically monitored as is the English or French
language media because of lack of easy accessibility.
Therefore B'nai Brith relies largely on individual
complainants calling in to report and to translate.
Secondly, those reading or writing for the ethnic press are
not always sensitive to anti-Semitism and therefore do not
necessarily note instances of anti-Semitism.

Generally, there are two types of anti-Semitism found in the
ethnic media --deliberate and non-deliberate. The deliberate
type is characterized by anti-Jewish stereotypes, anti-
Israel rhetoric used to disguise anti-Semitism, Jewish
conspiracy theories, and Holocaust denial. An example of
this type of article was published in the Polish newspaper
Glos Polski in September 1995. The article titled "Do the
Jews Rule the World," is about Jewish domination of both
capitalism and communism. The article was featured with a
cartoon depicting two hooked nose figures wearing pointed
hats decoraabout Jewish domination of both capitalism and
communism. The article was featured with a cartoon depicting
two hooked nose figures wearing pointed hats decorated with
Stars of David, dropping humans in a boiling cauldron. Both
the article andGazeta in the form of a lengthy letter-to-the-
editor. Henryk Dambrowski, the author of the letter, in a
short treatise on Jewish economic dominance, writes "every
now and then, the Canadian economy is driven artificially,
this has been going on for dozens of years now, and Jews are
the main engine. They never do anything with their own
money, but always with ours or the government's." Several
such letters appeared in 1996 on the editorial pages.

A frequent complaint about the Arabic media is the use of
anti-Israel or anti-Zionist rhetoric as a disguise for anti-
Semitism. While criticism of Israel and its policies may be
legitimate, the Arabic media often depicts Israelis as Nazis
and the policies of Israel as akin to those of Nazi Germany.
A poem in the May 15, 1996 edition of Al-Miraat compares
Israel's occupation of the security zone in southern Lebanon
to German occupation of Nazi conquered Europe.

Another troubling source of anti-Semitism in the media has
been the Nation of Islam's (NOI) newspaper the Final Call.
The paper's intense and negative coverage of Israel and
Jewish affairs underscores the NOI and Louis Farrakhan's
anti-Semitic agenda. There are few editions that do not have
articles discussing Jewish/Israeli related issues. For
example, in October 1996 there were several articles
critical of Jews and Israel including articles dealing with
Israel's "theft of Arab lands;" Jews "arrogant view of
themselves" as the (Chosen People); and the refusal by
Jewish leaders in the United states to meet with Farrakhan.
Overall, the paper creates a negative image of Jews and
promotes disharmony and even hostility between Blacks and
Jews.

The non-deliberate forms of anti-Semitism found in the
ethnic media are generally of Jewish stereotyping. For
example, there are many occasions when such notions as
Jewish power and wealth are propagated as truisms in the
ethnic media. Often these stereotypes are used in a
seemingly positive manner, but they are nevertheless
injurious and false.

Addressing anti-Semitism in the ethnic media generally
receives mixed responses. On several occasions, certain
Polish newspapers have acted defensively and aggressively
when accusations of anti-Semitism are made towards them. The
League's pointing out anti-Semitic stereotypes and diatribes
has even resulted in Jews being accused of harbouring anti-
Polish sentiment. For example, Robert Varin, President of
the Polish National Union of Canada, stated that "the
problem is that we have a lot of evidence that shows a
certain segment of the Jewish people have a lot of prejudice
against Poles."

Particularly troubling about the cases of deliberate anti-
Semitism is that many of the newspapers involved receive
funding from various levels of government in the form of
grants and paid advertising. When complaints are filed with
the government departments that support these newspapers,
the response is often that they do not have the ability or
resources to monitor the ethnic language papers for bias,
and it appears that little is done. This is an area of
serious concern, lest the fomenting of hatred between
minority groups undermines the unity and social cohesion
that is the goal of multiculturalism.

THE STRUGGLE AGAINST ANTI-SEMITISM AND HATE

In addition to responding on a case-by-case basis to
reported incidents, it is by using the tools of education
and research, legal/legislative interventions, community
action and coalition building that the League strives to
fulfill its goals of combatting anti-Semitism, racism, and
bigotry, and to promote and achieve human rights for all
Canadians.

Education, Training and Research

Education is one of the major tools with which to counteract
hate in high schools, colleges and universities. Through its
Education and Training Centre, the League provides
educational materials for students and teachers, conducts
countless professional development workshops in school
boards and on campuses, and provides training programs in
the public and private sectors. In 1996 the Centre conducted
anti-racist education workshops, courses on human rights and
workplace harassment, programs on and for the criminal
justice system, and public lectures and symposia on
Holocaust education. Participants in the League's "Holocaust
& Hope Study Tour" to Germany, Poland and Israel assist in
anti-racism education in British Columbia, Alberta,
Saskatchewan, Ontario, New Brunswick, indeed right across
the country, including many communities targeted by hate
group recruitment.

In 1996, the League concluded a research study for the
Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto on the Nature and
Extent of Racism and Hate Activity in Metropolitan Toronto,
authored by Dr. Karen Mock, the League's National Director.
The results were presented to Metro Council where all the
recommendations were accepted unanimously. The study added
to the League's earlier investigation of Victim Impact of
Racially Motivated Crime, conducted for the Commission on
Systemic Racism in the Justice System whose final report was
released last year. The Metro study correlated demographic
data with incidents of hate and bias crime, utilized our 1-
800 number for direct reporting of incidents (1-800-892-
BNAI), and conducted extensive focus group discussions and
interviews to determine a more effective model of
coordinated action, data collection, service delivery and
victim protection against hate motivated crime.

The League is in the process of completing several other
projects including a comprehensive training manual and
program entitled Taking Action Against Hate: Guidelines for
Community Action, funded in part by the Trillium Foundation.
This project will allow for direct training of a wide
variety of community groups to counter anti-Semitism and
hate activity. A compendium of Canadian and international
hate crimes legislation and case law is also being prepared
to assist prosecutors and law enforcement agencies.

The League was also a significant contributor to two manuals
this year - one by the Metropolitan Toronto Anti-Racism,
Access and Equity Centre, and the other by the Ontario
Ministry of Education on how to counter hate activity and
racism. The League contributed to two kits by the Toronto,
and Windsor and Essex County Boards of Education. By
conducting and disseminating in-depth primary research, the
League provides law enforcement officials, the media, and
the public at large with up-to-date accurate information on
hate groups, and strategies to counteract their influence.

The League continues to monitor hate on the Internet and to
propose educational curricula and policy development to
regulate, in some way, the transmission of hateful messages.
The League is working closely with Ken McVay's Nizkor
Project (http://www.nizkor.org) through the "Holocaust and
Hope" program. The League and Nizkor have prepared a
workbook entitled Hate and the Internet: Selected Readings
to assist in workshops on assist in workshops on this topic.
The creation of a B'nai web site (http://www.bnaibrith.ca)
facilitates the dissemination of information to counter hate
and also provides a means of reporting incidents directly to
the National Office.

Legal/Legislative Initiatives

Supreme Court Decisions

In 1996, two important Supreme Court decisions strengthened
the struggle against anti-Semitism in Canada. In March, the
Supreme Court upheld the conviction of James Keegstra.
Keegstra was charged 12 years ago under the Criminal Code
for "_willfully promoting hatred against an identifiable
group" after it was learned that he promoted Holocaust
denial and Jewish conspiracy theories to his high school
history classes. In 1996, Keegstra attempted to relitigate
one aspect of the constitutionality of this section of the
Criminal Code of Canada. The unanimous 9-0 decision of the
Supreme Court confirmed its earlier decision against
Keegstra and sent a strong message that the Canadian anti-
hate laws are constitutional. The League had leave to
intervene in the Keegstra case.

 In April, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld unanimously
the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission's tribunal
decision to keep Malcolm Ross out of the classroom. Ross is
a known purveyor of Holocaust denial and other racist
material. Canada's highest court sent a clear message that
teachers who write or disseminate hate material, regardless
of whether they bring it into the classroom or not, are
unsuitable role models. Such hate mongers may create a
poisoned environment and thus forfeit their right to teach.
The League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada also
intervened in the Ross case.

Somalia Inquiry

B'nai Brith Canada continues to intervene, with full
standing, in the Somalia Inquiry, the investigation of the
murder of a Somali teenager by soldiers of the First
Airborne where there had been known members of white
supremacist groups and evidence of racist activity. At
various times representatives of B'nai Brith questioned
witnesses appearing before the Inquiry. B'nai Brith
expressed deep reservations concerning the Federal
Government's decision to end the Somalia Inquiry before all
outstanding issues are resolved, including the infiltration
by right-wing groups into the Canadian Armed Forces and the
tolerance of systemic and overt racism in the military.
These issues were highlighted when a sergeant major
testified that he found nothing racist with soldiers having
swastika tattoos. Others have testified that confederate
flags were deemed acceptable to be hung in soldier's
barracks and that there was no racism, even when a Black
soldier was walked around on a leash with "KKK" sprayed on
his back. The League's research will be filed on this topic
with the Commission of Inquiry.

Criminal Code Amendments

Bill C-41 (Criminal Code amendments including enhanced
sentencing for
hate/bias crime) was passed in 1995 and enacted into law in
September 1996. There is evidence that this amendment is
being taken very seriously, as expert witnesses are
increasingly being invited to offer testimony during trials
and sentencing hearings. B'nai Brith Canada was called upon
to provide expert testimony on hate groups and hate crimes
in a recent case of two juveniles who spray painted anti-
Semitic and Nazi graffiti on the road and outside walls of a
house in Sarnia, Ontario. The mischief was deemed hate
motivated and the two young offenders received enhanced
sentences (18 months probation, two months of house arrest
and 100 hours of community work) due to the nature and
victim impact of their crimes.

Hate on the Internet

B'nai Brith has been at the forefront in examining the issue
of hate on the Internet and recognizes that this must be
done on a number of fronts, including legal, legislative and
educational. B'nai Brith strongly supports legal efforts to
combat hate on the Internet and has proposed that the
Government of Canada examine the adequacy of the Criminal
Code and related statues to address the dissemination of
hate propaganda and, where necessary, seek to amend the
Criminal Code to rectify jurisdictional or other impediments
to the successful prosecution of criminal activity via the
Internet.

While acknowledging the complexity of jurisdictional issues
related to the Internet, the League maintains that the
Internet is no different than other forms of communication
and that those disseminating hate must be prosecuted. To
this end, B'nai Brith Canada has applied to be granted
interested party status in the Canadian Human Rights
Tribunal examining Ernst Zundel's web site. The case was
based on a complaint filed against Zundel by Sabina Citron
and the Toronto Mayor`s Committee on Community and Race
Relations regarding Zundel`s dissemination of hate material
and Holocaust denial via the Internet. The CHRC has ordered
a tribunal to adjudicate the complaint. The hearings will
likely begin in the spring of 1997, and will undoubtedly be
precedent setting in dealing with the complex legal
jurisdictional issues related to the Internet.

(To view examples of hate on the internet, visit Hatewatch
at http://www.hatewatch.org)

And Still Zundel

The League has also requested leave to intervene in another
case against Zundel which involves an appeal by the Federal
government of a Federal Court decision quashing a finding by
the Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC) that
Zundel constituted a security threat to Canada. Zundel won
the decision on the grounds of reasonable apprehension of
bias by SIRC who had mentioned Zundel in their investigation
of the Heritage Front and "Grant Bristow Affair." If the
government wins the appeal, the SIRC finding will
effectively make citizenship for Zundel impossible and will
ease any future attempts by the government to deport Zundel.

Telephonic Hate

The League has also requested leave to intervene in another
case which is also likely to have significant implications
for the codification of international standards regarding
the transmission of hate speech via telecommunications. The
Canadian Liberty Net operates a telephone line through which
it disseminates hate messages. In 1992, the Federal Court of
Canada imposed a temporary restraining order preventing the
Canadian Liberty Net from offering the recorded messages,
which originated in Vancouver, pending the outcome of a
human rights tribunal to determine the permanent status
ofinternational standards regarding the transmission of hate
speech via telecommunications. The Canadian Liberty Net
operates a telephone line through which it disseminates hate
messages. In 1992, the Federal Court of Canada imposed a
temporary restraining order preventing the Canadian Liberty
Net from offering the recorded messages, which originated in
Vancouver, pending the outcome of a human rights tribunal to
determine the permanent status of the phone messages. The
organization subsequently began to offer its messages from a
telephone number in Washington State. As a result, the
Federal Court imposed an interlocutory injunction, ordering
the Liberty Net to

Community Partnerships

Intercultural Dialogue

In the wake of rising tensions between minority groups, and
scapegoating of one by another it is important for
communities to work together to promote harmony and social
cohesion. In March a very successful Black/Jewish Relations
program was conducted in Quebec by the League in
collaboration with the Quebec Black Coalition. Issues they
identified have led to a joint employment project for
minority youth. In Ontario increased outreach to the Black
community followed Farrakhan's visit to Toronto and efforts
are being made to strengthen the existing Black/Jewish
dialogue program.

The Women's Interfaith Dialogue Program continues to break
down myths and stereotypes among different faith communities
and racial groups. Finding common experiences and common
causes forges better relations between Christians, Muslims
and Jews.

Joint Community Action

The League for Human Rights is active in promoting
grassroots responses to anti-Semitism. The case of Paul
Fromm, a Peel Board of Education teacher and Director of the
Canadian Association for Free Expression, is a case in
point. In late 1996, the League initiated a joint community
program with a local synagogue in the Peel Region, the
Halton/Peel B'nai Brith Lodge and the local multicultural
association to have Fromm removed from the Peel Board of
Education for violating terms of his contract prohibiting
him from engaging in activities contrary to the Board's
multicultural and multi-ethnic policies. The League provided
videotape and printed evidence that Fromm continued his
activities despite a 1993 Ministry of Education finding and
Board warning. In addition, the League, the Halton Peel
lodge and a local Rabbi briefed a coalition of area clergy,
who subsequently spoke out on the issue. The League also
presented its evidence formally to the Peel Board.

As a result of this grassroots initiative, the Peel Board
gave notice to Fromm that the Board of Trustees would
terminate his contract. Fromm retained Victoria lawyer Doug
Christie, who made numerous in camera representations to the
Board. As the Audit went to press, the League was informed
that the Board of Trustees accepted the recommendation that
Fromm's teaching contract be terminated.

Joint community action is also underway in Winnipeg. In
1996, in conjunction with the annual Media Human Rights
Awards, the League held a symposium for representatives from
community, education, government and police entitled
"Community Action Against Racism and Hate - Protection,
Prevention and Partnerships." A follow-up symposium will be
held in Winnipeg in the coming year. The League was also
invited to contribute to similar conferences held by other
organizations. In 1996, we participated in hate crimes
seminars and symposia in Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary,
Halton Region, Durham Region, Ottawa, Toronto, and Halifax.

Inter-Jurisdictional Cooperation

In late June, it came to the attention of the League for
Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada that a new version of The
Turner Diaries by William Pierce, published by Barricade
books in the U.S., had slipped into Canada and was to be
distributed by a large book company into mainstream
bookstores. This book is one of the most violent, racist and
anti-Semitic books in print. The League contacted the
company and informed them of the nature of the book and the
possibilities of prosecution. The book company agreed to
voluntarily stop distribution. The League contacted Revenue
Canada for verification that this latest version of The
Turner Diaries would be placed on the list of prohibited
materials as hate propaganda as earlier editions had been.
B'nai Brith conducted numerous consultations with various
government agencies, Metro Toronto's Hate Crimes unit, and
community human rights groups, as well as with the
Independent Book Sellers Association. This collaboration and
the legal scrutiny and assessment of the book on the part of
Revenue Canada culminated in the decision to again prohibit
the importation and distribution of this book in Canada.
This case, as many others described above, illustrates once
again the importance of our three pronged approach in the
struggle against anti-Semitism and hate:

Protection, Prevention, and Partnerships

RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON ANTI-SEMITISM AND HATE

B'nai Brith Canada. Hate Propaganda and Hate Crime - Are You
a Victim? Toronto: League for Human Rights, 1996.

----------. Is Your Child a Target? Guidelines for Parents
and Teachers on the Dangers of Hate Group Recruitment in
Canada. Toronto: League for Human Rights, 1996.

----------. Anti-Semitism on Campus: A Handbook for Student
Action. Toronto: League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith
Canada, 1993.

Braun, Aurel and Scheinberg, Stephen, (eds.). The Extreme
Right: Freedom and Security at Risk. Boulder. Co.: Westview
Press, 1997.

Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police. Hate Crimes in
Canada: In Your Back Yard. Ottawa: Canadian Association of
Police Chiefs, 1996.

Farber, Bernie. From Marches to Modems: A Report on
Organized Hate in Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto:
Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, (In Press).

Metropolitan Toronto Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Centre.
Hate: Communities Can Respond. Toronto: Municipality of
Metropolitan Toronto,
1996.

Mock, Karen R. Nature and Extent of Racism and Hate Activity
in Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto: Anti-Racism, Access and
Equity Centre, Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, 1996.

-------------. Focus on Human Rights. Canadian Social
Studies. Vol. 30-31, 1995-96

-------------. "Amending and Defending Our Codes and
Commissions"

-------------. "Presenting the other Side"

-------------. "On Power"

-------------. "Victims, Perpetrators, Bystanders, Activists
- Who are They? Who are You?"

-------------. "25 Years of Multiculturalism: Past, Present
and Future"

-------------. "Freedom of Expression vs. Political
Correctness - Where do you Draw the Line?"

-------------. "Combatting Racism and Hate in Canada Today:
Lessons of the Holocaust"

-------------. "The Somalia Inquiry - What does it have to
do with Us?"

Ontario Ministry of Education. Organized Hate Groups and
Your School: What Every Educator Needs to Know. Toronto:
Ontario Government, (In Press).

Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

© The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.