The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: orgs/canadian/canada/justice/hate-motivated-violence/hmv-001-02

Archive/File: orgs/canadian/canada/justice/hate-motivated-violence/hmv-001-02
Last-Modified: 1997/01/19
Source: Department of Justice Canada


1. Peritz, "Vandals deface seven synagogues with swastikas,
anti-Semitic slogan", The [Montreal] Gazette, Tuesday,
January 5, 1993, p. A1.

2. R. DiManno, "The quiet dignity of a Tamil beaten by
racists", The Toronto Star, Wednesday, June 16, 1993, p. A7.

3. These problems are discussed at pp. 29-30 of this paper.

4. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Report of
the National Inquiry into Racist Violence in Australia,
Racist Violence (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing
Service, 1991), pp. 10-13.

5. R. Oakley, Racial Violence and Harassment in Europe, a
consultant's report prepared for the Council of Europe, ref.
MG-CR (91) 3 rev.2 ([Strasbourg]: Council of Europe,
[1993]), pp. 12-13.
6 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, being Schedule B
of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11, s. 2(b)(d)

7. League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada, 1992 Audit
of Anti- Semitic Incidents (Downsview, Ont.: B'nai Brith
Canada, 1993), Table 1, p. 5. The audit, on p. 3, states
that incidents are classified into two categories: (a)
vandalism, defined as an act involving physical damage to
property, and (b) harassment, defined as any incident of
abuse or threat directed against an individual, group or
institution. Hate propaganda directed quite specifically at
Jews is included in the harassment classification.

8. Ibid., pp. 5-6, 6-7, 11.

9. See S. Semenak, "Stabbing victim was dying of AIDS:
Friends say killing was part of recent wave of attacks on
gays", The [Montreal] Gazette, Tuesday, March 21, 1989, pp.
A 1 -A2; S. Semenak, "Gay Bashing: Montreal gays say it's
getting worse as gangs cruise streets for trouble", The
[Montreal] Gazette, Monday, March 27, 1989, p. AS; A.
Picard, "Hate slaying of gay man stuns Montreal: Police
charge four neo-Nazi skinheads", The [Toronto] Globe and
Mail, Friday, December 5, 1992, pp. A1-A2.

10. C. Petersen, "A Queer Response to Bashing: Legislating
Against Hate" (1991) 15 Queen's L. J. p. 237.

11. See M. McClintock, "Gays seek hate crime law", The
Ottawa Sunday Sun, May 16, 1993, p.
10, which pointed out that since January, 1993, all
complaints of attacks on homosexuals and other hate crimes
have been followed up by the new Ottawa Police Bias Crimes
Unit, which up to the date of the article had investigated
five cases of attacks on gays; G. Swainson, "Hate crimes on
rise, police say", The Toronto Star, Wednesday, June 16,
1993, p. A7, which stated that Metro police were expected to
release a report to the Metro Police Services Board in July,
1993 showing that about 70 crimes related to race,
nationality, religion or sexual orientation have been
reported since February 1993.

12. According to statistics compiled from the 1991 Census,
although the share of the Canadian population made up of
immigrants has remained relatively stable during the past
several decades, there has been a change over the years
concerning where immigrants have come from. Overall, in 1991
there were 5.3 million immigrants in Canada (defined as
persons who are, or have been, landed immigrants in Canada)
representing 16 percent of the total population. While the
majority of the immigrant population was born in Europe,
this proportion of the immigrant population declined from 62
percent in the 1986 Census to 55 percent in the 1991 Census.
The percentage of immigrants born in Asia increased from 18
percent in 1986 to 25 percent in 1991. Almost one-half (48
percent) of recent immigrants who came to Canada between
1981 and 1991 were born in Asian countries. Over one-half
(57 percent) of the immigrant population lived in one of the
three largest metropolitan areas (Montreal, Toronto, and
Vancouver). For the first time, the Census also counted
nonpermanent residents (persons who held student or
employment authorizations, Minister's permits or who were
refugee claimants). There were 223,500 nonpermanent
residents in 1991, representing slightly less than one
percent of the population. Persons born in Asia represented
the largest proportion (55 percent) of nonpermanent
residents. Nearly three quarters (72 percent) of all
nonpermanent residents lived in Toronto, Montreal, and
Vancouver. Statistics Canada, Census 91, Immigration and
Citizenship: The Nation (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1992),
pp. 1-2. See also "The Daily", Statistics Canada, Tuesday,
December 8, 1992, for a summary of this 1991 Census

13. See T. J. Samuel, Visible Minorities in Canada: A
Projection (Toronto: Canadian Advertising Foundation, 1992).
By Mr. Samuel's calculations, the number of visible
minorities in Canada rose from 1.6 million in 1986 to about
2.6 million in 1991 and will rise to about 5.7 million in
2001_an increase of over 3.5 times during the 15 years. The
term "visible minority" is defined by Mr. Samuel as meaning
persons who are nonwhite, non-Caucasian and nonaboriginal,
comprising persons who trace their origins to Asia, Africa,
the Caribbean, and Latin America.

14. Canadian Multiculturalism Act, R.S.C. 1985 (5th Supp.),
c. 25.

15. Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-35, ss. 318-319.

Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

© The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.