The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: orgs/canadian/canada/justice/ethnocultural-groups/ecg-004-03

Archive/File: orgs/canadian/canada/justice/ethnocultural-groups/ecg-004-03
Last-Modified: 1997/01/28
Source: Department of Justice Canada


91. Michael Jackson, Locking Up Natives in Canada (Canadian
Bar Association, 1988), at 2-3.

92. File, Gaps in Obtaining Justice.

93. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

94. Jean-Paul Brodeur, Access to Justice and Equality of
Treatment (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1991).

95. Archibald Kaiser, The Criminal Code of Canada: A Review
Based on the Minister's Reference (Ottawa: Law Reform
Commission of Canada, 1991.

96. T.J. Samual and R. Faustino-Santos, "Canadian Immigrants
and Criminality," International Migration, 29(1) (1990).

97. Derrick Thomas, "The Foreign-born in the Federal Prison
Population," unpublished paper presented at Ottawa: Canadian
Law and Society Conference, June 1993, and Derrick Thomas,
"The Social Integration of Immigrants in Canada" in S.
Globerman, ed., Issues in Immigration Policy, to be

95. Robert M. Gordon and Jacquelyn Nelson, Census '93: The
Report of the 1993 Census of Provincial Correctional Centres
in British Columbia (Victoria, B.C.: B.C. Ministry of the
Attorney General, 1993).

99. A.H. Richmond and Warren E. Kalbach, Factors in the
Adjustment of Immigrants and their Descendants (Ottawa:
Statistics Canada, 1980).

100. R. Beaujot, K.G. Basavarajappa and R.B.P. Verrna,
Income of Immigrants in Canada, Current Demographic
Analysis, Catalogue 91-527E (Ottawa: Minister of Supply and
Services, 1988).

101. R. Lescop, "Resultats d'analyse d'un echantillion de
prevues blancs et non-blancs arretes sur le territoire du
SPCUM en 1957" in Commission des droits de la personne de
Quebec, Enquete sur les relations entre les corps policiers
et les minorities visible et ethniques, Annexe IV (Montreal:
Ministere des communications, 1988).

102. D. Clairrnont, W. Barnwell, and A. O'Malley,
"Sentencing Disparity and Race in the Nova
Scotia Justice System," Appendix 4, _Report of the Royal
Commission on the Prosecution of Donald Marshall, Jr_.,

103. C. Spohn, J. Gruhl and S. Welch, "The Effect of Race on
Sentencing: A Re-examination of an Unsettled Question," Law
and Society Review," 16(1) (1981-82).

104. M.L. Friedland, Access to the Law (Toronto:
CarswelVMethuen, 1975).

105. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

106. Stephen Lewis, Report on Race Relations in Ontario,
(June 1992).

107. Cited in Brodeur, Access to Justice, at 60.

108. Etherington, _Review of Multiculturalism_.

109. Andre Normandeau, "Police, Race and Ethnicity in
Montreal," Crimcare, 4(3) (1988).

110. Brodeur, _Access to Justice_, at 80-81.

111.  Martin's Annual Criminal Code, Canada Law Book Co.

112. Etherington, _Review of Multiculturalism_.

113. C. Spoun, G. Gruhl and S. Welch, "The Impact of
Ethnicity and Gender of Defendants on the Decision to Reject
or Dismiss Felony Charges," _Criminology_, 25(1) (1987).

114. J. Petersilia, "Racial Disparities in the Criminal
Justice System: Executive Summary of the Rand Institute
Study" in D. Georges-Abeyie, ed., The Criminal Justice
System and Blacks (New York: 1984).

115. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

116. Ibid.

117. Ibid.

118 Gallup Canada, Inc., Focus Groups.
Prairie Research Associates, Duty Counsel Systems: Summary
Report (Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada, 1993).

120. Brodeur, Access to Justice, at 101.

121. D. Clairmont, et. al., "Sentencing Disparity" is the
only Canadian research to date and it is inconclusive on the

122. J. Petersilia, "Racial Disparities in the Criminal
Justice System: A Summary," Crime and Delinquency, 31(1)

123. G. Kleck, "Racial Discrimination and Sentencing: A
Critical Evaluation of the Evidence with Additional Evidence
on the Death Penalty," American Sociological Review, 46
(1981); and "Life Support for an Ailing Hypothesis: Modes of
Describing the Evidence for Racial Discrimination in
Sentencing," Law and Human Behaviour, 9(3) (1985).

124. Clairmont, et al., cited in Etherington, Review of

125. Ibid.

126. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

124. Clairmont, et al., cited in Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.
125. Ibid.

126. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

127. David Pomerant, Language of Accused and Multicultural
     Issues (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1991).

128. Ibid.

129. Ibid.

130. Ibid.

131. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

132. Leo Carroll and Margaret E. Mondrick, "Racial Bias in
     the Decision to Grant Parole," Law and Society Review, 11:1
     (Fall 1976), pp. 93-107.

133. Petersilia, "Racial Disparities."

134. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

135. Ibid.

136. Ibid.

137. Ibid.

138. Ibid.

139.  Ibid

140.  File, Gaps in Obtaining Justice.

141.  Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

142. Site visit to the Toronto Bail Supervision Program, 1992.

143. For a general discussion on addressing problems of
changing attitudes and behaviour see Howard Schuman and
Michael J. Johnson, "Attitudes and Behaviour," Annual Review
of Sociology, 2 (1976), at 161207.

144. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

145. Gordon and Nelson, Census '93.

146. Clairmont, et. al., "Sentencing Disparity."

147. Etherington, Review of Multiculturalism.

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