From: Jean-Francois Beaulieu
Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: TREBLINKA Date: 28 Apr 1996 17:20:06 GMT Organization: Communications Vir, Internet Access Montreal. Lines: 576 Message-ID: <4m09c6$khn@Vir.com> NNTP-Posting-Host: ipdyne67.vir.com TREBLINKA Wartime Aerial Photos of Treblinka Cast New Doubt on Death Camp Claims by Mark Weber and Andrew Allen Treblinka is widely regarded as the second most important German wartime extermination center. Only Auschwitz-Birkenau is supposed to have claimed more lives. Treblinka became the focus of worldwide attention in 1987-1988 during the 14-month trial in Jerusalem of John (Ivan) Demjanjuk, a Ukrainian-born American factory worker. As Treblinka's Ivan the Terrible, Demjanjuk supposedly operated the machinery used to gas hundreds of thousands of Jews there. Citing testimony by Jewish survivors, the Israeli court that condemned him to death in April 1988 declared that more than 850,000 Jews were killed at Treblinka between July 1942 and August 1943. After the death sentence was handed down, Demjanjuk's family was able to discover previously suppressed evidence -- much of it from Soviet Russian archives -- indicating that the real Ivan the Terrible was another Ukrainian named Ivan Marchenko (or Marczenko). This new evidence discredited the courtroom testimony of five Jewish camp survivors, each of whom had positively identified Demjanjuk as the sadistic mass murderer of Treblinka. (note 1) As historians know, and as common sense would suggest, such decades-old testimony is far less trustworthy than contemporary records or forensic evidence. (note 2) And yet, Treblinka's reputation as a mass extermination center is based almost entirely on precisely such subjective and unprovable testimony by former prisoners -- evidence that has proven to be notoriously unreliable in several major trials of alleged Nazi war criminals. (note 3) There is no documentary evidence that Treblinka was an extermination center. In fact, contemporary records suggest that the camp had a very different function. Aerial reconnaissance photographs taken in 1944 of the Treblinka death camp site -- and forgotten for almost 45 years in the National Archives in Washington, DC -- cast serious doubts on the widely accepted story that it was a mass extermination center. Discovered in 1989, and published here for the first time in the United States, these German reconnaissance photos corroborate other evidence indicating that Treblinka was actually a transit camp. (note 4) These photographs indicate that the remarkably small camp was not isolated, or even particularly well guarded. (They clearly show that fields where Polish farmers planted and cultivated crops were directly adjacent to the camp perimeter.) Moreover, the camp's burial area quite obviously appears too small to contain the hundreds of thousands of bodies supposedly buried there. (Casting doubt on the widely accepted story of hundreds of thousands of Treblinka victims, these photos suggest instead that only those deportees who died during the sometimes protracted rail journey to the camp were buried there.) 'Steam Chambers' The generally accepted story today is that hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed at Treblinka in gas chambers with poisonous exhaust from engines. But the original Treblinka extermination story was that Jews were steamed to death there in steam chambers. According to an eyewitness account received in November 1942 in London from the Warsaw ghetto underground organization, Jews were exterminated in death rooms at Treblinka with steam coming out of the numerous holes in the pipes. (note 5) In August 1943, the New York Times reported that two million Jews had already been killed at Treblinka by steaming them to death. (note 6) The Treblinka steam story is also given in detail in The Black Book of Polish Jewry, a work published in New York in 1943 and sponsored by Albert Einstein, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, Congressman Sol Bloom, New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, and other personalities. (note 7) Another book, Lest We Forget, published in New York in 1943 by the World Jewish Congress, describes in detail how Jews were steamed to death, and provides a diagram showing the location of the purported boiler room that produced the live steam. (note 8) According to a 1944 eyewitness account compiled by the OSS, the principle US intelligence agency, Jews at Treblinka were in general killed by steam and not by gas as had been at first suspected. (note 9) At the main Nuremberg trial of 1945-1946, two conflicting stories were given: steaming and gassing. Former Treblinka prisoner Samuel Rajzman testified that Jews were killed there in gas chambers. (note 10) (To confuse matters still more, a few months earlier Rajzman claimed that during the time he was in Treblinka, Jews were suffocated to death there with a machine that pumped air out of death chambers.) (note 11) American prosecutors at the main Nuremberg trial supported the steam story. As proof, a Polish government report dated December 5, 1945, was submitted as prosecution exhibit USA-293. It charged that Jews were killed at the camp by suffocating them in steam-filled chambers. This report, which says nothing about poison gas killings, was published in the official Nuremberg trial record as document PS-3311. (note 12) An American prosecutor quoted from this report during his address to the Tribunal on December 14, 1945. (note 13) Although no reputable historian now supports the steam story, and little has been heard of it during the last several decades, it was revived in a widely-circulated booklet published in 1979 and 1985 by the influential Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith. (note 14) There may have been a factual basis for the steam chamber stories. It is quite possible that there was indeed some kind of steaming operation at Treblinka -- but one designed to kill disease-carrying lice, not people. Such disinfection steaming was commonly used in German camps for Allied prisoners of war. (note 15) Shortly after the war, the World Jewish Congress published The Black Book, a 559-page volume of real and imagined wartime atrocities against Jews. At Treblinka alone, the book alleges, three million persons were killed. Three diabolical techniques, including poison gas and steam, were supposedly used there to kill some 10,000 Jews daily. But the most widespread method consisted of pumping all the air out from the chambers with large special pumps. (note 16) A former inmate testified shortly after the war that Treblinka's victims were poisoned by the different gasses or asphyxiated when the chamber was turned into a vacuum and all the air sucked out. (note 17) In the Nuremberg trial of Oswald Pohl, U.S. Judge Michael A. Musmanno declared that death was inflicted here [at Treblinka] by gas and steam, as well as by electric current. Citing Nuremberg document PS-3311, Musmanno declared: After being filled up to capacity the chambers were hermetically closed and steam was let in. (note 18) Adolf Eichmann, the wartime head of the SS Jewish affairs section, said in 1961 during pre-trial interrogation in Israel that during the war he was told that Jews were gassed at Treblinka with potassium cyanide. (note 19) One of the strangest Treblinka extermination stories, which appeared in September 1942 in a Polish underground periodical, claimed that Jews were killed there with a delayed action gas: (note 20) H2>BLOCKQUOTE>They enter it [the gas chamber] in groups of 300-500 people. Each group is immediately closed hermetically inside, and gassed. The gas does not affect them immediately, because the Jews still have to continue on to the pits that are a few dozen meters away, and whose depth is 30 meters. There they fall unconscious, and a digger covers them with a thin layer of earth. Then another group arrives. H2>/BLOCKQUOTE> According to the testimony of yet another eyewitness, a Jew named Oskar Berger who escaped from the camp, many Jews were systematically put to death at Treblinka by shooting them with rifle and machine-gun fire. (note 21) Diesel Gassing In recent years, the most widely-circulated story has been that Jews were gassed at Treblinka with carbon monoxide from the exhaust of a diesel engine. (note 22) However, as American engineer Friedrich Berg has established, this story is improbable for technical reasons. (note 23) In spite of the obnoxious odor of diesel exhaust, diesel engines produce much smaller quantities of toxic carbon monoxide than ordinary gasoline motors. (note 24) It would thus be difficult efficiently to gas large numbers of people using diesel exhaust. A normal gasoline engine would be much more logical. (note 25) It is important to keep in mind that the evidence now usually cited for diesel gassing at Treblinka is no more credible than the evidence that was once presented for steaming and suffocating. Apparently the steaming and suffocating stories have been dropped for the sake of credible consistency. Solid evidence for gassings at Treblinka has proven to be very elusive. For example, it turned out that none of the witnesses in the 1951 West German Treblinka court case ever actually saw anyone being gassed. The type of gas used to kill the people there [Treblinka] cannot be determined with certainty because none of the witnesses was able to witness this procedure, the judges declared in their verdict. (note 26) At least some former Treblinka prisoners testified in postwar West German trials that they not only never saw a gas chamber, but did not even hear about gassings from others. (note 27) Holocaust historians today are not able to agree about the number of homicidal gas chambers at Treblinka. Raul Hilberg maintains that there were three at first, but because they were allegedly not adequate for the job, more were built later on. There were eventually six or perhaps ten chambers, he reports. (note 28) Others have reported the existence of 13 gas chambers at Treblinka. (note 29) Bomba's Testimony One of the most memorable testimonies about Treblinka presented in Shoah, the nine-and-a-half-hour Holocaust film by French Jewish film maker Claude Lanzmann, is that of Abraham Bomba. He told how he and other Jewish barbers cut the hair of the naked Jews who were about to be gassed. They worked inside the gas chamber (he always spoke of one chamber), which was around four by four meters (about 12 feet by 12 feet). Bomba also reported that 140 or 150 women, with children, as well as 16 or 17 barbers, were inside this small room. In addition, there were benches where the women sat while their hair was cut, as well as two or more German guards. The barbers had to leave the chamber for five minutes while the victims were gassed, Bomba said, and it took just one minute to clear out the 140 or so corpses, and clean the floor and walls, before everything was ready for the next batch of victims. (note 30) Bomba's moving testimony, which conservative writer George Will called the most stunning in this shattering film, is simply not credible. Treblinka Labor Camp About one mile (1.5 km) from the extermination camp, which was known as Treblinka II, was a penal labor camp for Poles and Jews known as Treblinka I. It was not at all secret. The 1941 directive announcing the establishment of the Treblinka Labor Camp was published in both Polish and German in widely distributed official journals. (note 31) Poles and Jews worked in a large sand and gravel quarry at the Treblinka labor camp. (note 32) As wartime aerial reconnaissance photographs clearly show, the Treblinka T-I labor camp was located at the end of the rail spur on which the Treblinka T-II extermination (transit) camp was also located. This fact strengthens the thesis that the T-II camp was not particularly secret, since penal labor prisoners being taken by train to and from the publicly known T-I camp passed directly by the supposedly top secret T-II extermination camp. (note 33) Documentary Evidence Documents found after the war confirm that large numbers of Jews were deported to Treblinka in 1942 and 1943. German railway records report the transfer of trainloads of settlers (Umsiedler) and workers to Treblinka from various places in Poland and from other countries. (note 34) In July 1942, a senior German railway official reported to the chief of Himmler's personal staff that 5,000 Jews were being transported daily to Treblinka. (note 35) An August 3, 1942, German Ostbahn railway directive similarly reported that special trains would be carrying resettlers from Warsaw to Treblinka daily, until further notice. (note 36) Interestingly, it was not until September 1, 1942, that the Treblinka train station was closed to passenger rail travel by the general public (to permit a smooth handling of the special resettlement trains), which suggests that German officials were not particularly concerned with keeping the deportations or the station secret. (note 37) Other records mention trains to Treblinka in March 1943 from Vienna, Bulgaria and Greece. (note 38) From Vienna and Luxembourg, Jews reportedly arrived at the camp in passenger train coaches, and the deportees were given food and medical care during their journey. (note 39) In at least one case, a train with sleeping cars and a dining car arrived at Treblinka. (note 40) German railway records have been cited as evidence that hundreds of thousands of Jews were exterminated at Treblinka. (note 41) While there is little doubt that these documents are genuine, and that they confirm transports of Jews to Treblinka, they are not proof of an extermination program. (note 42) Transit Camp If Treblinka was not an extermination center, what was it? As already mentioned, the balance of evidence indicates that Treblinka II -- along with Belzec and Sobibor -- was a transit camp, where Jewish deportees were stripped of their property and valuables before being transferred eastwards into German-occupied Soviet territories. (note 43) The generally-accepted story is that Treblinka II was a pure extermination center, from which no Jew was permitted to leave alive. (note 44) However, credible reports of deportations of Jews from Treblinka refute the allegation that all Jews sent there were destined for extermination, and indicate instead that the camp functioned as a transit center. In the aftermath of the April 1943 Warsaw ghetto uprising, for example, Jews were transported from Warsaw to Treblinka II. As some of the deportees later confirmed, after a selection in the camp, trainloads of hundreds of Jews were taken from Treblinka to Lublin (Majdanek), and possibly other camps. (note 45) Several thousand Jews (at least) were transferred by German authorities from Treblinka to other camps, a postwar German court determined. (note 46) Letters and postcards that arrived in the Warsaw ghetto from Jews who, by all accounts, had been deported to Treblinka, indicate that the camp was a transit center from where Jews were resettled in the occupied Soviet territories. These messages, which arrived from settlements and camps in Belarus (Byelorussia), Ukraine, and even Russia proper (near Smolensk), were written by Jews who had been deported in 1942. Some letters and cards had been sent by mail and some had arrived through the underground. Many mentioned that the senders were working hard, but confirmed that they (and often their children) were being fed. (note 47) Completely contrary to its supposed character as a top secret extermination center, Treblinka was neither secret nor even closely guarded, as both former inmates and officials have confirmed. Secrecy? Good heavens, there was no secrecy about Treblinka, Jewish prisoner Richard Glazer later testified. All the Poles between there and Warsaw must have known about it, and lived off the proceeds. All the peasants came to barter, the Warsaw whores did business with the Ukrainians -- it was a circus for all of them. Polish farmers worked the fields that directly adjoined the camp. And many others, said Jewish survivor Berek Rojzman, came to the fence to barter, mostly with the Ukrainians, but with us too. (note 48) Even regular German concentration camps such as Dachau and Buchenwald were much more closely guarded than Treblinka. As already mentioned, aerial reconnaissance photographs taken in 1944 confirm that the area around Treblinka was not cleared. The photos show that one perimeter of the camp passed through a wooded area, and that cultivated fields where Polish farmers worked were directly adjacent to the camp perimeter. (note 49) How Many Victims? Shortly after the end of the war, the World Jewish Congress and at least one former Treblinka prisoner alleged that more than three million Jews had been exterminated there. (note 50) More recent estimates of the number of people allegedly killed at Treblinka range from between 700,000 (Leon Poliakov and Uwe Adam), 750,000 (Raul Hilberg and Encyclopaedia Judaica), 870,000 (Yitzhak Arad), to more than 900,000 (Wolfgang Scheffler and Washington Post). (note 51) There is no documentary or physical evidence for any of these figures, which are simply conjectural estimates. Layout and Size Diagrams published in recent years that show Treblinka as a neatly organized, rectangular-shaped camp are not accurate. (note 52) As already mentioned, though, wartime aerial reconnaissance photographs confirm that the Treblinka II camp was actually unsymmetrically four-sided and irregularly shaped. (note 53) One of the most remarkable features of the Treblinka death camp is its small size. The entire Treblinka II camp area was only 32 or 33 acres (13 hectares), or about onetwentieth of a square mile. (note 54) Even smaller was the alleged extermination area of the camp, which was 200 by 250 meters in size (or five hectares) according to purportedly authoritative sources. (note 55) Poland's Central Commission announced shortly after the war that the burial or ditches area where the bodies of Treblinka's victims were buried (before they were supposedly later dug up for burning) was about two hectares or five acres (or some 20,235 square meters). (note 56) And according to a diagram in a book about Treblinka by Jewish Holocaust historian Alexander Donat, the camp's ditches area was not more than 80 or 100 meters in length and about 50 meters wide -- that is, a maximum of 5,000 square meters or half a hectare. (note 57) By comparison, the mass graves area in the Katyn forest (near Smolensk), which held the bodies of some 4,500 Polish officers who had been killed by Soviet secret police and buried there in 1940, measured about 500 square meters. (note 58) In short, it is very difficult to accept that anything like 700,000 or 800,000 bodies could have been buried in the minuscule area allegedly set aside at Treblinka for this purpose. Cremation Inconsistencies Between April and July 1943, the corpses of Treblinka's hundreds of thousands of victims were allegedly dug up from the burial pits and burned with dry wood and branches on grids made of rails in batches of 2,000 or 2,500. The residual ash and bits of bone were dumped back into the burial pits, and covered with a layer of sand and dirt two meters deep. This was done, it is said, in order to eliminate the physical evidence of mass extermination. (note 59) Although enormous amounts of fuel would have been needed to cremate the hundreds of thousands of alleged corpses, there is no documentary record or witness recollection of the great quantities of firewood that would have been required. According to Polish-Jewish historian Rachel Auerbach, fuel to burn bodies was not needed at Treblinka because the bodies of woman, which had more fat, were used to kindle, or more accurately put, to build the fires among the piles of corpses. Even more incredible, blood, too, was found to be first-class combustion material, she wrote. (note 60) Missing Remains A wartime Warsaw ghetto internee, Dr. Adolf Berman, testified in the 1961 Eichmann trial that he visited the Treblinka camp site shortly after the Soviet occupation of Poland. He told the Jerusalem court that he saw an area of several square kilometers covered with bones and skulls, and nearby tens upon tens of thousands of shoes, many of them children's shoes. (note 61) Berman's testimony, which was considered one of the most emotionally moving of the Eichmann trial, is completely inconsistent with known facts. For one thing, the entire Treblinka camp was much smaller than one square kilometer in size, and no other witness has confirmed the presence of tens of thousands of shoes. Jewish historian Rachel Auerbach, a member of an official Polish commission that inspected the camp site in November 1945 -- that is, a few months after the end of the war -- reported finding large human bones, rotted masses of corpses, pieces of half-rotted corpses, and fully dressed corpses, at the Treblinka camp site. (note 62) In the area where the gas chambers were supposed to have been located, the commission's team of 30 excavation workers reportedly found human remains, partially in the process of decay, and an unspecified amount of ash. Untouched sandy soil was reached at 7.5 meters, at which point the digging was halted. An accompanying photograph of an excavated pit reveals some large bones. (note 63) Poland's Central Commission for Investigation of German Crimes reported that large quantities of ashes mixed with sand, among which are numerous human bones, often with the remains of decomposing tissues, were found in the five acre (two hectare) burial area during an examination of the site shortly after the end of the war. (note 64) The presence of uncremated human remains is not consistent with the often-repeated allegation that all such remains were thoroughly destroyed. Significantly, none of the Polish reports specifies the quantity of human remains, the numbers of corpses, or the amount of ash found at the camp site, which suggests that evidence of hundreds of thousands of victims was not found. (note 65) In spite of its often inconsistent, contradictory and implausible character, testimony indicating that many Jews lost their lives at Treblinka cannot easily be dismissed. Many Jewish prisoners doubtless perished during their rail journey to the camp site, and were almost certainly buried there. Furthermore, it is plausible and even likely that hundreds and perhaps thousands of Jews who were too weak or ill to continue the eastbound journey from the camp were killed there by officials acting on their own authority. All the same, there is no hard or compelling evidence that Treblinka was a mass extermination center where hundreds of thousands of Jews were systematically put to death. To the contrary, credible reports of transfers of Jews from Treblinka eastwards to the occupied Soviet territories, the relative lack of secrecy and security in the camp, and the small size of the area where the bodies were supposedly buried, all suggest instead that this was a transit center. Notes0H2>/H2>
- F. Dannen, How Terrible is Ivan?, Vanity Fair (New York), June 1992, pp. 132 ff. New Evidence: Demjanjuk a Nazi Guard, Probably Not 'Ivan', Los Angeles Times, January 16, 1992. C. Haberman, Soviet Files Are Presented... , The New York Times, June 2, 1992, p. A6.
- On the unreliability of such testimony, see John Cobden's review of Witness for the Defense (by E. Loftus and K. Ketcham) in The Journal of Historical Review, Summer 1991, pp. 238-249. Samuel Gringauz, a Jewish historian who was himself interned in the Kaunas ghetto during the war, wrote: Most of the memoirs and reports [of Holocaust survivors] are full of preposterous verbosity, graphomanic exaggeration, dramatic effects, overestimated self-inflation, dilettante philosophizing, would-be lyricism, unchecked rumors, bias, partisan attacks and apologies. (Jewish Social Studies, New York, January 1950, Vol. 12, p. 65.).
- On the unreliability of such eyewitness testimony in the illustrative case of Frank Walus, who was falsely accused of murdering Jews as a Gestapo officer in Poland, see, for example, The Nazi Who Never Was, The Washington Post, May 10, 1981, pp. B5, B8.
- These aerial reconnaissance photos are on file in the National Archives (Washington, DC), Cartographic Division (Record Group 373).
- Several of these reconnaissance photos were published in Germany in 1990 by Udo Walendy in the booklet Der Fall Treblinka, Historische Tatsachen, Nr. 44, 1990. (Postfach 1643, D-4973 Vlotho, Germany). See especially pages 13, 31, 34, 35, 38. In this booklet, Walendy cites specific archival source references from the US National Archives for these photographs. Unfortunately, these specific references are not always quite accurate. The specific source references cited by Walendy are: GX 12225 (or 122225?), Exp. 257 (and 258, 259?). (November or May 1944) GX 180 D F 934/44 SK , Exp. 246 (May 18, 1944) GX 12299 B A -2249, Exp. 014 (July 10, 1944) GX 72 F 933/44 SK, Exp. 139, 140 (May 13, 1944) GX 1946 F 2926 /44 SK, Exp. 062 (Sept. 18, 1944) GX 937 F 13 A 6099, Exp. 74 GX 12250 F 2795 SK, Exp. 045 (Sept. 2, 1944) GX 12290 F 3086 SK r 2600, Exp. 68 (Oct. 16, 1944) GX 1946 / 44 SD, Exp. 076. GX 12373, Exp. 11 (Sept. 2, 1944) The most important of these Treblinka aerial photographs were made public for the first time in the United States in January 1991 at a meeting in Palo Alto, California. (IHR Newsletter, Feb. 1991, p. 3.).
- We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the Polish Historical Society (Stamford, Connecticut) in compiling this essay.
- Soviet wartime aerial reconnaissance photographs of the Treblinka camp site almost certainly exist, and are very probably still held in Russian archives. If so, they should be made public.
- Likwidacja zydowskiej Warszawy, Treblinka, Biuleytn Zydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego (Warsaw), Jan.-June 1951, pp. 93-100. Quoted in: Carlo Mattogno, The Myth of the Extermination of the Jews, The Journal of Historical Review, Fall 1988, pp. 273-274, 295 (n. 16).
- New York Times, Aug. 8, 1943, p. 11. Reprinted in: The Record: The Holocaust in History (New York: ADL, 1985), p. 10. (The Record was also distributed as an advertising supplement to the New York Post, April 17, 1978.)
- Jacob Apenszlak, ed., The Black Book of Polish Jewry (New York: 1943), pp. 142-143, 145.
- World Jewish Congress, Lest We Forget (New York: 1943), pp. 4, 6-7. See also the reference to killings at Treblinka by hot steam in Hitler's Ten-Year War On the Jews (p. 149), a book published in New York in 1943 by the Institute of Jewish Affairs, an agency of the American Jewish Congress and the World Jewish Congress.
- OSS document, April 13, 1944. National Archives (Washington, DC), Military Branch, Record Group 226 (OSS records), No. 67231.
- International Military Tribunal, Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg: 1947-1949, (blue series), Vol. 8, p. 325. (Feb. 27, 1946)
- Rajzman text in: Yuri Suhl, ed., They Fought Back (New York: 1967), p. 130. This story also appears in: Isaiah Trunk, Jewish Responses (New York: 1982), p. 263.
- IMT, Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (IMT blue series/ 1947-1949), vol. 32, pp. 153-158 Also published in: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (NC&A red series/ 1946-1948), Vol. 5, pp. 1104-1108. See also: NC&A (red series), vol. 1, pp. 1005-1006.
- IMT, Trial of the Major War Criminals (blue series), vol. 3, p. 567-568.
- The Record: The Holocaust in History. (The NYT report of Aug. 8, 1943, is reproduced here.)
- Major S. G. Cowper, A Note on a Disinfestation Plant Used in a Typhus Hospital for Prisoners of War in Germany, Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, Sept. 1946, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 173-176. Typhus, 1922 supplement to Encyclopaedia Britannica. Facsimile reprint in: Carlos Porter, Made in Russia (1988), p. 364. Globocnik reported in Jan. 1944 that textile goods seized in the course of Aktion Reinhardt were disinfected. See: 4024-PS. IMT blue series, vol. 34, p. 84. Jacob Seewald, a Polish Jew, spent the war years working as a forester in a German labor camp. When he came down with a severe illness, he was transferred to a hospital, where he recovered. After the war he emigrated to the United States. In a 1983 interview, he recalled that the camp authorities took us [Jewish workers] into a shower for the steam to kill lice. There we got no clothes, just a bundle with our names on them. Naked. Then they turn on the water for a second -- scalding water. (John C. Bromely, Stories from the Darkness, The Denver Post Magazine, Sunday, June 12, 1983, p. 20.) Similar events at Treblinka may perhaps have provided a basis for the camp's steam legend.
- Jewish Black Book Comm., The Black Book (1946), pp. 407-408.
- Isaiah Trunk, Jewish Responses (New York: 1982), p. 263.
- Trials of the War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals (NMT green series/ Washington, DC: 1949-1953), vol. 5, pp. 1133-1134.
- Jochen von Lang, ed., Eichmann Interrogated (New York: 1983), p. 84. See also: R. Aschenauer, ed., Ich, Adolf Eichmann (1980), pp. 179, 183.
- Information Bulletin, Sept. 8, 1942, published by the command of the Polish underground Armia Krajowa. Quoted in: Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka (Bloomington: 1987), pp. 353 f.
- E. Kogon, Theory and Practice of Hell (New York: Berkley, pb., 1981), pp. 183-185.
- Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York: 1985), p. 878. Treblinka, Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971), vol. 15, p. 1368. Eugen Kogon, et al., Nationalsozialistische Massentötungen (1986), p. 163 Yitzhak Arad, Treblinka, in: I. Gutman, ed., Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, pp. 1483, 1484.
- F. Berg, The Diesel Gas Chambers, The Journal of Historical Review, Spring 1984, pp. 15-46.
- R. Schmidt, A. Carey, and R. Kamo, Exhaust Characteristics of the Automotive Diesel, Society of Automotive Engineers Transactions (New York), Vol. 75, Sec. 3, 1967, pp. 106, 107. (paper 660550).
- Even more logical and efficient than a gasoline engine -- in the view of engineer Friedrich Berg -- would have been the Holzgas generator, which were in very widespread use in Europe during the war years. See: F. Berg, The Diesel Gas Chambers, The Journal of Historical Review, Spring 1984, pp. 38-41.
- Case against J. Hirtreiter, LG Frankfurt, 1951. Justiz und NS-Verbrechen (Amsterdam: 1972), Band 8, p. 264 (270 a-4).
- Hans Peter Rullmann, Der Fall Demjanjuk (Sonnenbühl: 1987), p. 149. Source cited: Adalbert Rückerl, NS-Vernichtungslager (1977). An unsatisfactory explanation has been offered for this remarkable testimony: these witnesses must have been inmates of the nearby Treblinka labor camp, or for some other reason were never in the extermination section of the T-II camp.
- R. Hilberg, Destruction (1985), p. 879.
- Central Commission..., German Crimes in Poland (Warsaw: 1946-1947), vol. 1, p. 97. Yitzhak Arad, Treblinka, in: I. Gutman, ed., Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, pp. 1483, 1485.
- Shoah (Paris: Fayard, 1985), pp. 126-129. (I am thankful to Dr. Faurisson for pointing this out.) See also: Bradley R. Smith, Shoah: Abraham Bomba, the Barber, The Journal of Historical Review, Summer 1986, pp. 244-253.
- Directive of Nov. 15, 1941. Amtsblatt für den Distrikt Warschau, Dec. 16, 1941, p. 116. Facsimile reproduction in: S. Wojtczak, Karny Newsgroups: alt.revisionism From: email@example.com (Daniel Keren) Subject: Re: TREBLINKA Message-ID:
Organization: The World, Public Access Internet, Brookline, MA References: <4m09c6$khn@Vir.com> Date: Sun, 28 Apr 1996 21:25:23 GMT Lines: 102 Jean-Francois Beaulieu writes: [Repost of old "revisionist" hogwash] # Wartime Aerial Photos of Treblinka Cast New Doubt on # Death Camp Claims [...] # Aerial reconnaissance photographs taken in 1944 of the # Treblinka death camp site -- and forgotten for almost 45 years # in the National Archives in Washington, DC -- cast serious doubts # on the widely accepted story that it was a mass extermination # center. This is truly amazing, as the camp was destroyed after the rebellion of August 1943. Didn't bother to check this out, did you? Maybe my hunch was right: the photos were taken from one of Zundel's UFO's, a light-year away, so, although taken in 1944, they showed what happened in 1943? We have surely heard "revisionist" claims no less insane than this one... # Moreover, the camp's burial area quite obviously appears too # small to contain the hundreds of thousands of bodies supposedly # buried there. Only if you practice "revisionist math". Do a little exercise. Compute the volume of an average corpse (remember that many of the victims were infants and children). Then, compute how many fit into a mass grave, say 50 X 20 X 8 meters. Allow some inefficiency in the "packing" of the corpses. Post your result here. # According to an eyewitness account received in November 1942 # in London from the Warsaw ghetto underground organization, # Jews were exterminated in death rooms at Treblinka with steam # coming out of the numerous holes in the pipes. An incorrect observation by members of the Polish underground, who were spying on the camp from a distance. When the doors of the gas chambers were opened, a cloud of the engine's exhaust came out. This was probably mistaken for steam. # However, as American engineer Friedrich Berg has established, # this story is improbable for technical reasons. (note 23) In spite # of the obnoxious odor of diesel exhaust, diesel engines produce # much smaller quantities of toxic carbon monoxide than ordinary # gasoline motors. As noted here numerous times, a long series of experiments, conducted in Britain in 1957, proved that the exhaust of a tiny (6 BHP) diesel engine kills animals which are locked in a closed chamber. Surely, the exhaust of a 500 BHP engine (of a tank) would also be lethal. BTW, Friedrich Berg appeared on this newsgroup about 2 years ago. Whenever someone refuted his claims, Berg began calling him "creature", "Jewish trash", etc. A true "revisionist scholar". # For example, it turned out that none of the witnesses in the # 1951 West German Treblinka court case ever actually saw anyone # being gassed. This is typical "revisionist" insanity. These people - both survivors and Germans who ran the camp - testified that the victims were herded into the chambers, the engine turned on, and the victims later taken out, dead. The witnesses were not inside the chambers, and they didn't have closed circuit TV to watch what was happening inside them. A peephole was installed in some chambers but, as Prof. Pfannenstiel testified, it was quickly covered with steam. # Polish farmers worked the fields that directly adjoined the # camp. And one can look in the movie "Shoa" and see what they said took place in Treblinka... but don't expect a "revisionist" to mention this, of course. That's the good old "lying by omission" trick. # In the area where the gas chambers were supposed to have been # located, the commission's team of 30 excavation workers reportedly # found human remains, partially in the process of decay, and an # unspecified amount of ash. Untouched sandy soil was reached at # 7.5 meters, at which point the digging was halted. Again, note the depth of the graves. The claims about the size of the burial area being too small to hold hundreds-of-thousands of corpses are false. A simple calculation will prove this. Let's see our "revisionist scholars" here at work... -Danny Keren. -- Lies written in ink can never disguise facts written in blood. -Lu Xun. From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Miloslav Bilik) Newsgroups: alt.revisionism Subject: Re: TREBLINKA Date: Wed, 01 May 1996 22:33:24 GMT Organization: Compuserve Lines: 273 Message-ID: <email@example.com> References: <4m09c6$khn@Vir.com> NNTP-Posting-Host: ad48-219.compuserve.com X-Newsreader: Forte Free Agent 1.0.82 Jean-Francois Beaulieu wrote: >Aerial reconnaissance photographs taken in 1944 of the Treblinka death >camp site -- and forgotten for almost 45 years in the National Archives >in Washington, DC -- cast serious doubts on the widely accepted story that >it was a mass extermination center. Treblinka was erected in late May- earlier June 42; first "transport" on July 23; and dismantled at the end of November 43. A former Ukrainian guard named Strebel with his family became a farmer on this area, planted pine woods, saw lupin,.. So in 44, a photograph would hardly show anything. >Discovered in 1989, and published here for the first time in the United >States, these German reconnaissance photos corroborate other evidence indicating >that Treblinka was actually a transit camp. (note 4) >These photographs indicate that the remarkably small camp was not isolated, >or even particularly well guarded. (They clearly show that fields where >Polish farmers planted and cultivated crops were directly adjacent to the >camp perimeter.) It sounds strange to set a "transit" camp as small, on a blind railroad way. But it is true that the Polish peasants cultivated fields close to the camp; it was strongly forbidden to come closer or to look inside, but there was a trade with ukranians guards who bought food with money extorted to the "gold Jews". True also that it was quickly no secret about what happened into the camp. But some deported in the close labor camps were sending mails, and for a few months it confused the Jews from Warsaw. Stangl said to Sereny: "Nobody knew nothing, nothing clear, guessed nothing. But hundreds of soldiers and civilian came to the entry of the camp; along the barriers, trying to buy things because they knew the existence of all this business. During a time, we even saw planes flying low to see what happened [..]. We shot and they stopped. But we were never able to stop the others. They saw corpses of Jews on the terrain or carried out of the station. They photographed them. The whole place stank miles away. Two weeks after a "visit", many people told they could no longer eat. But no, they knew nothing clear, nothing. Of course.." >Moreover, the camp's burial area quite obviously appears too small to contain >the hundreds of thousands of bodies supposedly buried there. (Casting doubt >on the widely accepted story of hundreds of thousands of Treblinka victims, >these photos suggest instead that only those deportees who died during the >sometimes protracted rail journey to the camp were buried there.) Photographs of 1944 are of no interest. But you should think about the volume of 900000 victims' ashes. There were six roasters in the worse time. The ashes were buried beside, mixed to earth and dust, and later placed in the former burying pits. >'Steam Chambers' >According to an eyewitness account received in November 1942 >in London from the Warsaw ghetto underground organization, Jews were exterminated >in death rooms at Treblinka with steam coming out of the >numerous holes in the pipes. (note 5) In August 1943, the New York The underground newspaper of the Bund, On Guard, September 20, 1942: "The women and children from the arriving transport were divided into groups of 200 each and were taken to the "baths", which was located closest to the digging machine. From the bath nobody returned, and news groups were entering there constantly. That bath was actually a house of murder. The floor in this barrack opened up and the people fell into a machine. According to the opinion of some of thouse who escaped, the people in the barrack were gassed. According to another opinion they were killed by electrical current. From the small tower over the bath, there were constant shots. [..]. The bath absorbs 200 people every fifteen minutes, so in twenty-four hours the capacity is 20000 people. That was the explanation for the incessant arrival of people in the camp, from where there was no return, except a few hundred who succeeded in escaping during the whole time.." So, in September 42, indications are precise, quoting even the Lazarett, and the uncertainty concerns the exact mode of execution. That's logical since there is no escape once in the highest part of the camp, and very few contacts between the two parts. It is the best testimony possible at this time. A lot believed that the noise of Diesel was coming from the digger. >American prosecutors at the main Nuremberg trial supported the steam story. >As proof, a Polish government report dated December 5, 1945, was submitted >as prosecution exhibit USA-293. It charged that Jews were killed at the >camp by suffocating them in steam-filled chambers. This report, >which says nothing about poison gas killings, was published in the official >Nuremberg trial record as document PS-3311. (note 12) An American prosecutor >quoted from this report during his address to the Tribunal on December 14, >1945. (note 13) Less than 70 escaped prisoners of Treblinka were still alive at the end of the war. Far mostly of the lower part. In the main Nuremberg trial (see some exchanges between Jackson and the French prosecutor btw) they didn't explore the differences between the different camps. The mass murder was admitted as a general policy, it was sufficient for **this** trial. >One of the strangest Treblinka extermination stories, which appeared in >September 1942 in a Polish underground periodical, claimed that Jews were >killed there with a delayed action gas. See above. Polish also imagined that poison could be mixed with the engine's exhaust (they noticed a few weeks later that an engine was connected to the gassroom). That's the best that you can guess from 100 or 200m away. >Diesel Gassing >In recent years, the most widely-circulated story has been that Jews were >gassed at Treblinka with carbon monoxide from the exhaust of a diesel engine. >However, as American engineer Friedrich Berg has established, this story >is improbable for technical reasons. (note 23) In spite of the obnoxious You missed the recent, complete and detailed post of Ken MacVay on the analysis of Berg. He stated, with the same sources than Berg, that the rate of O2 could be below 6% (lethal by itself, and, supererogatorly, the high toxicity of CO is strongly related to the low rate of O2), without considering the rate of NOx, and other irritants equally mortal alone at their rates in the smokes of a diesel engine like the Berg's ones. >At least some former Treblinka prisoners testified in postwar West German >trials that they not only never saw a gas chamber, but did not even hear >about gassings from others. (note 27) Astonishing. That's why they uprised and escaped at the risk of their life? A trial: where, when, who said he didn't even hear about gassings? In Treblinka, they uprised because they were all in concern; in Birkenau, it wasn't the case and everyone knew the gassings. >Holocaust historians today are not able to agree about the number of homicidal >gas chambers at Treblinka. Raul Hilberg maintains that there >were three at first, but because they were allegedly not adequate for the >job, more were built later on. There were eventually six or perhaps ten >chambers, he reports. Well, six, some witnesses telling ten. The SS had few interest to show a good memory, they said if they could that they worked only in the lowest part, and the direct witnesses still alive were rare in Dusseldorf in 64-65. >Bomba's Testimony >Bomba's moving testimony, which conservative writer George Will called the >most stunning in this shattering film, is simply not credible. Since you didn't see the movie, it will be simplier if I summarize the testimony of Bomba. Effectively he tells that he cutted hair of the women right in the gassroom, and had to left the place when the following women were incoming (therefore without cutting hair of one hundred women). He doesn't explain that later the barbers were at the entry of the "tube" and were no longer in the gassroom. He can't speak during a long space of time. The movie is focusing on his feelings, and he's still all upset after these 30 years. Bomba repeats he can't speak, and please to stop the record. >Treblinka Labor Camp >penal labor prisoners being taken by train to and from the publicly known >T-I camp passed directly by the supposedly top secret T-II extermination >camp. If not killed in T2, that means that there were a million of prisoners in Treblinka I? >Documentary Evidence >Documents found after the war confirm that large numbers of Jews were deported >to Treblinka in 1942 and 1943. German railway records report the transfer >of trainloads of settlers (Umsiedler) and workers >to Treblinka from various places in Poland and from other countries. (note >34) >Interestingly, it was not until September 1, 1942, that the Treblinka train >station was closed to passenger rail travel by the general public (to >permit a smooth handling of the special resettlement trains), which >suggests that German officials were not particularly concerned with keeping >the deportations or the station secret. (note 37) You therefore noticed that enormously Jews were deported by this path? The main railroad is Malkinia-Siedlice. Treblinka is a cul-de-sac. >Transit Camp >If Treblinka was not an extermination center, what was it? As already mentioned, >the balance of evidence indicates that Treblinka II -- along with Belzec >and Sobibor -- was a transit camp, where Jewish deportees were stripped >of their property and valuables before being transferred eastwards into >German-occupied Soviet territories. (note 43) Stripped, indeed. See the album of Kurt Franz.. Nobody saw them coming back, excepted for a very few number. >other camps. (note 45) Several thousand Jews (at least) were transferred >by German authorities from Treblinka to other camps, a postwar German court >determined. (note 46) Several thousands, it's very impressive. >There is no documentary or physical evidence for any of these figures, which >are simply conjectural estimates. The testimony of Zabecki, perhaps, at the station, who daily added, from the first day to the last, the numbers marked with a chalk on each car? He found 1,200,000. >Cremation Inconsistencies >Although enormous amounts of fuel would have been needed to cremate the >hundreds of thousands of alleged corpses, there is no documentary record >or witness recollection of the great quantities of firewood that would have >been required. For the wood, the existence of the "Waldkommando" is well known. Forests were near the camp. For the "huge amount" of wood, you can read everywhere that the unburied bodies burned nearly without fuel, and that it's when the common pits were emptied that fuel was needed. >Missing Remains >Jewish historian Rachel Auerbach, a member of an official Polish commission >that inspected the camp site in November 1945 -- that is, a few months after >the end of the war -- reported finding large human bones, rotted masses >of corpses, pieces of half-rotted corpses, and fully >dressed corpses, at the Treblinka camp site. (note 62) >In the area where the gas chambers were supposed to have been located, the >commission's team of 30 excavation workers reportedly found human >remains, partially in the process of decay, and an unspecified amount >of ash. Untouched sandy soil was reached at 7.5 meters, at which point the >digging was halted. An accompanying photograph of an excavated pit reveals >some large bones. (note 63) >The presence of uncremated human remains is not consistent with the often-repeated >allegation that all such remains were thoroughly destroyed. Significantly, >none of the Polish reports specifies the quantity of human remains, the >numbers of corpses, or the amount of ash found at the camp site, which suggests >that evidence of hundreds of thousands of victims was not found. (note 65) Nobody told that **all** the bodies were thoroughly incinerated. On the contrary, when they emptied the common pits, they put into the ashes with partly burnt bone, what added to remaining half-decomposed bodies not pulled of. The remaining corpses couldn't be pulled of the graves. Wirth **beated** the SS to do it with the inmates, since several inmates choose the death instead of pulling the bodies of. That explains why one found humain rests, in the same place where all witnesses told that there was. The local peasants were so adviced that corpses were in these places, that before the arrival of the commission they returned the ground of all the zone (as for Belsen or Sobibor), hoping to find some gold or money. >All the same, there is no hard or compelling evidence that Treblinka was >a mass extermination center where hundreds of thousands of Jews were systematically >put to death. To the contrary, credible reports of transfers of Jews from >Treblinka eastwards to the occupied Soviet territories, the relative lack >of secrecy and security in the camp, and the small size of the area where >the bodies were supposedly buried, all suggest instead that this was a transit >center. There is **no** plausible clue that a significant number of deported followed the reverse way. But, there are full railway statements in the direct way, and the extermination was so well known in the whole region that the inhabitants showed (while laughing) to the occupants of convoys that their throat will soon be cutted of; and that they returned the surface of the camp when the Germen were gone, searching gold, jewels or other currencies (having selled during a full year to the ukranians guard, supplies at the price of gold).
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