Newsgroups: alt.conspiracy,alt.skinheads,alt.revisionism,soc.culture.jewish,soc.motss,soc.rights.human Subject: Fascism Almanac: Cobb County, Georgia (LONG) Summary: A report on the activity of hate groups in Cobb Country, along with information about neo-Nazi groups, the Klan, and their inter-relationships; includes data regarding some of the players. Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org Followup-To: alt.revisionism,soc.rights.human Organization: The Old Frog's Almanac, Vancouver Island, CANADA Keywords: Georgia,Cobb,Stoner,Klan Lines: 1760 [Followups directed to alt.revisionism and soc.rights.human] Archive/File: orgs/american/georgia/cobb.county cobb.citizens.coalition Last-Modified: 1994/04/25 Archived and published to UseNet with permission. The Shadow of Hatred Hate Group Activity in Cobb County, Georgia Produced for the Cobb Citizens Coalition A Neighbors Network Publication This report has been prepared by the Neighbors Network, a legal non-profit organization incorporated under the laws of the State of Georgia. The Neighbors Network opposes hate crime and hate group activity through research, education, victims assistance, and community action. Written and compiled by: W. B. Reeves, Patrick Kelly, and Steve Adams Copyright 1994, Neighbors Network Any reproduction without the expressed consent of the Neighbors Network is prohibited. For permission to reproduce contact email@example.com Appendix Appendix II Chronology The Shadow of Hatred Hate Group Activity in Cobb County, Georgia Preface Cobb County, Georgia has a history of organized hate group activity which dates back to the Reconstruction Era Ku Klux Klan following the Civil War. The lynching of Leo Frank in Cobb County in 1915 was a major factor in the twentieth century rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan, which had been dormant since the 1870s. For many years, Cobb County has been the center of hate group activity in the Metropolitan Atlanta area. A major factor has been the activity of J. B. Stoner, Ed Fields, and their associates. From 1980 to 1984, Marietta was headquarters for Ed Fields' New Order Knights of the KKK, which maintained klaverns in Marietta and Kennesaw. In the early 1980s, the Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan had at least two of its twenty-five Georgia klaverns in Cobb County. The Cobb klaverns were in Marietta and Kennesaw. These were the only towns in Georgia known to support klaverns of two different klan factions. During the past five years, most of the nazi skinhead organizations in the Atlanta area have been based in Cobb County, including the National Socialist Youth of Georgia, Georgia National Socialist Alliance, SS of America, Aryan Resistance League, Hammerskins, Aryan National Front, Atlanta area Confederate Hammerskins, and White Women's Association. The Georgia organizer for the Tennessee-based Christian Guard also resides in Cobb. Holocaust Revisionism (a pseudo scholarly movement that denies the reality of the nazi extermination of European Jews) in the Atlanta area is headquartered in Cobb County. Marietta attorney Sam Dickson's Atlanta Committee for Historical Review sponsors visits by European Holocaust Revisionists and hate group members. The Populist Party of Georgia maintained its headquarters in Smyrna, Cobb County, until April of 1992. Its then Executive Director, C. Ray Harrelson, is a frequent attendee of klan gatherings, and has made anti-Semitic public statements. Cobb County has also witnessed violence and harassment by those who call themselves "pro-life." In September 1984, the Cobb County Planned Parenthood Office was set on fire. Currently, the Neighbors Network is receiving numerous complaints of incidents involving nazi skinheads, including a lesbian-bashing in the Merchants Walk-Merchants Exchange area of Cobb County. Introduction Recent events in Cobb County have placed it and its government at the center of the ongoing debate over the human rights of lesbians and gay men. The passage of a resolution by the Cobb County Commission condemning homosexuality as inconsistent with Cobb's "community standards" sparked public demonstrations both in support of and in opposition to the resolution. Media attention has been focused on both Cobb and the Metropolitan area. Cobb County has experienced such international notoriety only once before in its history. In 1915, a group of men calling themselves the "Knights of Mary Phagan" kidnapped a Jewish factory manager named Leo Frank from the state prison farm near Milledgeville, Georgia. Frank, who had been convicted of the murder of Mary Phagan amid an atmosphere of anti-Semitic vigilantism and mob violence, was driven to Marietta, Georgia and lynched. Two organizations emerged from the ensuing public turmoil--the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith and the revived Ku Klux Klan. The history of intolerance and bigotry in Cobb County has been largely ignored. The recent actions of the Cobb Commission have been viewed as political grandstanding unconnected to the sentiments of the County at large. This increasingly suburbanized community, located in the shadow of a city perceived to be one of the most cosmopolitan and progressive in the South, has now become a staging platform for the anti-gay agenda. Despite its proximity to Atlanta, Cobb County has long been a focal point for hate group organizing. Groups ranging from the Klan and nazi skinheads to the Populist Party and right-wing tax protestors have found a home in the County. The presence of these organizations and the character of their activities have impacted the Cobb community, contributing to the current climate of fear and intolerance. The Thunderbolt and the National States Rights Party Since the early 1980s, Cobb County has held a preeminent place in the history of hate groups in Georgia . For years, the county seat of Marietta was the base of operations for J.B. Stoner and his racist and anti-Semitic tabloid The Thunderbolt. Stoner's repeated campaigns for public office, filled with rhetoric attacking "nigger apes" and "Christ killing Jews," have made him a celebrity of sorts. Lacking both personal charm and media skills, Stoner was widely viewed as an anachronism. Despite his ability to attract over 40,000 voters in the 1970 gubernatorial election, the public viewed Stoner as a vestige of old time segregationist politics that had all but faded away. He was widely considered to be an unpleasant but harmless crank. This assessment proved false when Stoner was indicted in Alabama for his involvement in a series of bombings that targeted black churches. Stoner was eventually convicted and served a prison sentence for his participation. This was not the only link between Stoner and criminal terrorism. In the 1940s Stoner, then a Klan Kleagle living in Tennessee, spoke at meetings of Atlanta's Nathan Bedford Forrest Klavern, one of the most violent klan organizations in the nation, calling for the extermination of all Jews. From 1958 through the 1980s, Stoner had operated a barely disguised nazi group called the National States Rights Party ("NSRP"). Individuals associated with this organization were repeatedly implicated in various acts of racial and anti-Semitic violence. As Stoner became increasingly preoccupied by his legal troubles, he withdrew from active involvement in the day to day management of both The Thunderbolt and the National States Rights Party. More and more these responsibilities fell to Stoner's protege and longtime associate, Marietta resident Edward R. Fields. It was Fields more than any other individual who would be responsible for the revival of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia. Ultimately, it would be his organizing efforts that would lead NAACP Regional Director Earl Shinhoster to state in 1982 that "Cobb County is perhaps the center of Klan and neo-nazi activity in Georgia." Ed Fields >From the New Order Knights to the America First Party It is impossible to discuss hate group activity in Cobb County or, for that matter, in Georgia, without paying particular attention to the activities of Edward R. Fields. His career spans decades and his influence is international in scope. He is the least recognized major leader of America's white supremacist movement. In 1981, the economically deprived West Georgia community of Cedartown was the scene of events that signified a dramatic and violent resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan. The arrival of Mexican immigrant labor had further increased competition for low skilled, low paying jobs at the town's Zartic Frozen Food plant. The resulting tensions made the town ripe for exploitation by traditional Klan methods. However, what actually occurred was an unprecedented departure in Klan tactics, demonstrating that a newer, shrewder leader was in charge. That leader was Ed Fields. Having observed the success that David Duke, Bill Wilkerson, and others enjoyed with their Klan recruitment efforts, Fields organized a Klan faction of his own dubbed The New Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The Hitlerian overtones of the phrase "New Order" were appropriate. The tactics that Fields employed in Cedartown are best understood in the context of Nazism rather than in the history of the Ku Klux Klan. Whereas historically the Klan had been hostile to organized labor, often operating as strikebreakers, Fields took a different approach. Under Fields' direction, workers at the Zartic plant were organized into a group called The American Labor Union. This union then proceeded to stage pickets of the plant calling for the firing of "illegal Mexican workers." Shockingly, the picket lines included both robed Klansmen and African-American employees. Tensions in Cedartown reached a violent climax with the shooting death of a Mexican worker who had been engaged to a local teenager. At the trial that followed, the courtroom was packed with spectators wearing klan badges and insignia. The defendant in the case was acquitted despite the testimony of an eyewitness. Subsequent to the trial, this witness was killed in a house fire. Arson was suspected. Seeking to capitalize on the notoriety of events in Cedartown, Fields embarked on an intensified campaign of Klan recruitment. The New Order Knights staged rallies, leaflettings and crossburnings throughout north Georgia. In May of 1982, one such rally in Spaulding County, Georgia was closed down for violating a local ordinance by local law enforcement, aided by the Anti-Terrorist Unit of the Georgia Bureau of Investigation. Fields sued to have the ordinance overturned. Fields testified in court that there were between 500 and 600 members in the New Order Knights. Fields' publicly stated goals were quite ambitious. He intended to "make Georgia the number one klan state in the nation" and to unite all klan factions in Georgia under his leadership. The architect of this aggressive campaign had an unlikely beginning for a Georgia klan leader. Fields grew up as the only child in an affluent, midtown Atlanta family and was an altar boy at the respected Marist Academy while in his teens. He was politically precocious, counting as a high point of his life his meeting with Governor Eugene Talmadge prior to Talmadge's death in 1946. A year earlier, however, Fields had made an acquaintance that would have a far more profound effect on his development---Klan recruiter J. B. Stoner. During this same period, the first openly nazi group was organized in Georgia. Clad in khaki shirts with Sam Browne belts and sporting the thunderbolt emblem borrowed from Hitler's nazis, this group targeted white youths for recruitment. They called themselves The Columbians. The group collapsed after its leadership, headed by Emory Burke, was convicted of plotting a series of dynamite bombings of homes belonging to black families. In this atmosphere and under the influence of Stoner and the Columbians, Ed Fields came of age as a racist. Fields later became a member of a committee that lobbied for Burke's release from Reidsville state prison. During their brief history, The Columbians published a newsletter called The Thunderbolt. J. B. Stoner was in regular contact with the organization. When Stoner founded his publication in 1958, he appropriated both the name of the Columbians' newsletter and their organizational emblem for the masthead. Ed Fields was to serve as editor of this publication from that time until the present. In the late 1980s the tabloid's name was changed from The Thunderbolt to The Truth At Last. In the mid to late 1970s, both Fields and Stoner traveled regularly to Britain and addressed meetings of Britain's National Front. The National Front was at that time the single largest legal electoral party espousing blatantly racist and anti-immigrant views in Great Britain. The Front's contacts with the NSRP were longstanding, dating back to the early 1960s. A July 1977 issue of The Thunderbolt quoted a speech given by Fields on one of his trips to England. "To thundering cheers from the throng I told the patriots that the Jew is the common enemy of all the white nations of Europe. . . . I also warned that colored immigration and foreign workers threatened to pollute and destroy all the white countries of Europe." These visits to Britain were only part of the story. Often they were a stop-off for Fields and Stoner, who would then continue on to the European continent to attend an annual memorial meeting for the World War Two dead of Hitler's SS in the town of Diksmuide, Belgium. This gathering has operated as a forum for the international nazi movement, where schemes ranging from gun running to proposals for breaking J. B. Stoner out of prison received a hearing. In 1983, Fields' fortunes took a turn for the worse. Despite legal maneuvering, J. B. Stoner had been convicted of the 1958 bombing of a Birmingham church, and was serving a ten-year sentence. After a series of appeals and a brief period as fugitive, Stoner surrendered to authorities and began to serve his sentence. In his absence, a faction within the National States Rights Party, which held legal title to The Thunderbolt as well as to Stoner's residence, sought to seize the Party's assets by firing Fields from his position as the Party's Executive Secretary. Fields was locked out of The Thunderbolt's offices and joined with Stoner in a lawsuit to regain control of the Party's assets. In May of 1984, Fields was arrested and charged with burglarizing The Thunderbolt's offices and illegally removing $5,000.00 worth of equipment and confidential NSRP files from the premises. Counterclaims filed against Fields by his opponents in the NSRP accused him of assault, saying that he had "threatened to blow the brains out of" Reverend R. B. Montgomery while he [Fields] "held a pistol in his hand." While the various suits and counter-suits were eventually settled, the prolonged legal battle severely limited Fields' ability to organize. Although Fields continued to be a featured speaker at Klan events such as the national gatherings of the klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia, by 1985 the New Order Knights were defunct as a separate Klan faction. Fields continued to maintain close ties with local Klan leaders such as Dave Holland of the Southern White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (SWK). Fields was present in January 1987, when a mob organized primarily by the SWK, attacked a group of peaceful civil rights marchers in Forsyth County, Georgia. This brutal assault resulted in a successful lawsuit brought by the Southern Poverty Law Center against the SWK and the Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. In 1988, Fields participated in an abortive attempt by klan and nazi factions to march on the Democratic National Convention, then meeting in Atlanta. In 1989, Fields was a speaker at a public Klan rally in Gainesville, Georgia, which also featured Richard Butler, leader of the Idaho-based Aryan Nations. Fields attended national klan meetings in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1991, 1992, and 1993. In June 1993, he addressed a rally of the Royal Confederate Knights in Rome, Georgia. Despite his continuing ties to the klan, Fields has maintained a much lower public profile since the breakup of the NSRP. Even when addressing Klan gatherings, he shuns the traditional robes in favor of a coat and tie. He now avoids press interviews as avidly as he once sought attention. But this lowered profile in no way indicates a lessening of his influence within the racist right. Indeed, he has been described by Charles Wittenstein of the Atlanta office of the Anti Defamation League as the "Joseph Goebbels of the American white supremacist movement." Fields' propaganda, from The Truth At Last to numerous pamphlets and articles, has become a major resource for the racist right. His literature permeates the movement and is distributed by groups across the spectrum, from the Populist Party to nazi skinhead gangs. His influence extends beyond the borders of the United States to groups such as Canada's Heritage Front. The Front's leader, former Klansman Wolfgang Droege, has described Fields as "a good friend." His propaganda has been used as an organizing tool by activists for England's racist British National Party. Since the late 1980s, Fields has positioned himself on the far right of the Conservative movement. He has assumed a respectable pose for this purpose. He has worked closely with the Populist Party in Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, New Jersey and elsewhere. He has associated himself with the Holocaust denial market, attending conferences of the Institute for Historical Review and heavily promoting events sponsored by the Atlanta Committee for Historical Review which is headed by Marietta attorney, Sam Dickson. In the pages of The Truth At Last, Fields uses euphemistic phrases such as "patriot," "Christian patriot," and "rightist" to describe klan and nazi groups. He continues to exploit the issue of Hispanic immigration through his Emergency Committee To Suspend Immigration. During 1992, Fields gave front page space in The Truth At Last to the Presidential candidacy of Pat Buchanan. He continues to feature prominent coverage of Buchanan's activities. In the early 1990s, Fields began promoting what he called "unity meetings" in various locations in the eastern states. It was soon apparent that these meetings were part of an effort to reorganize a sizable portion of the white supremacist movement under Fields' leadership. At the very least, these gatherings served to increase Fields' prestige and influence. In 1991, Fields embarked on a speaking tour with British nazi John Tyndal, an old acquaintance, formerly of the National Front and currently leader of the British National Party. Beginning with a crowd of 150 in Atlanta, Fields and Tyndal went on to address meetings in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, Washington, D.C., and Clifton, New Jersey. The Populist Party of Maryland and The Spotlight, a nationally distributed tabloid that has been described by the Anti-Defamation League as "the most successful" anti-Semitic publication in the country, co-sponsored the Washington event. The Spotlight's publisher, Willis Carto, hosted the gathering. Fields' national and international activities did not prevent his continued involvement in local affairs. In 1992, Fields and such major figures in the Georgia Populist Party as former Party Executive Director C. Ray Harrelson, seized upon the developing controversy over the design of the Georgia state flag. Resigning from his post as Populist Party chief, Harrelson formed the Committee to Save Our State Flag. Fields enthusiastically promoted the Committee's activities, even dropping his normal behind-the-scenes approach long enough to write an open letter to Governor Zell Miller denouncing the Governor as a "scalawag." By the end of 1992, the Populist Party of Georgia was boasting that it had recruited 7,000 new members by exploiting the controversy. In June 1993, Fields' jockeying for position on a national level resulted in a long-touted "National Unity Convention" in Clemmons, North Carolina. Capitalizing on infighting in the national Populist Party, Fields and former Populist Party leader A. J. Barker, launched the America First Party. C. Ray Harrelson serves as the party's treasurer. A featured speaker at the Party's convention was former Columbian leader Emory Burke. In the months since the party's formation, its primary activity has been staging local organizing meetings. It is not yet clear what impact the new organization will have on the racist movement overall, but any doubts about the character of this organization were removed at a recent meeting of the party's National Council. The guest speaker at this function was Richard Butler, leader of the Hayden Lake, Idaho-based Aryan Nations. Fields has not neglected to cultivate the younger, openly nazi elements of the skinhead movement. He has a close association with Cliff Warby, a British-born nazi skinhead who operates Thunor Services, a mail order business trafficking in nazi paraphernalia. Warby has distributed catalogs for his business in pre-printed envelopes bearing both the mailing address of The Truth At Last and the bulk mailing permit assigned to Fields. Fields has played something of a "Godfather" role to Georgia's nazi skinhead movement, using its members for mail and street distributions of his publications. He has publicly lauded these groups for their efforts. He has managed to maintain his influence with young "white revolutionaries" despite his ostensible commitment to electoral politics. Seducing the Young Robert Quincy Smith and the American Front Robert Quincy Smith, a nazi skinhead from Villa Rica, Georgia, was a significant figure in the earliest efforts to promote Nazism among young people in Cobb County. An organizer for the east coast branch of the California-based American Front, Smith operated under the authority of the American Front's east coast Chairman, David Lynch of Port St. Lucie, Florida. Unstable and violent, Smith's so-called organizing amounted to little more than a one-man reign of terror among the teens he recruited. Smith is a habitual exploiter of young girls. In one case, Smith, who was in his early twenties, spirited a fourteen year old away from her mother's home only to abandon her in Florida. In another instance, Smith led a group of his followers in an abortive attempt to "punish" a fourteen year old boy who had broken with the "movement." Smith used another fourteen year old girl in a failed effort to lure the targeted youth into a trap. The girl later stated that she believed that Smith intended to murder his quarry. In 1989, Smith was convicted in Douglas County on a charge of interfering with the custody of a minor girl and received probation. Smith was arrested on at least three separate occasions in 1989. In August he was charged with terroristic threats in Smyrna, Georgia. In October he was arrested in Smyrna, along with David Lynch, in an incident growing out of an automobile accident. In December Smith was jailed in Fulton County for telephoning threats to the offices of the Anti-Defamation League and the Center for Democratic Renewal. In February 1990, following his release from jail, Smith assaulted a fifteen year old east Cobb youth whom he suspected of disloyalty. The victim was beaten so severely that his face required reconstructive surgery. Convicted of aggravated assault for this attack, Smith was sentenced to a prison term. While incarcerated in Hall County, Smith wrote a letter to Racial Loyalty, the publication of the Hitler-worshiping cult Church of the Creator, in which he identified himself as a "reverend" of the Church. Pied Pipers of Hate In 1990, local skinheads initiated a politically sophisticated organization for recruiting Georgia teenagers to the nazi skinhead movement. This effort was based in Cobb County. Anthony (Tony) Holmes Butler, a nazi organizer from Pensacola, Florida, and his local organization, the Georgia National Socialist Alliance ("GNSA"), established a youth auxiliary called the National Socialist Youth of Georgia ("NSYOG"). The youth outreach was under the titular leadership of Samuel Miles Dowling and John Edwards, both Marietta residents. The house that they occupied on Blanche Drive was soon a center for nazi youth activity throughout the Metropolitan Atlanta area and remained so until Dowling moved out in 1992. The house provided space for meetings, social gatherings, and served as a stopover for nazi skinheads passing through Georgia. Butler, Dowling, and Edwards pursued both legal political activity and more questionable efforts to recruit minor children in local schools. At this time, Butler was producing a newsletter for local nazi skinheads called The Standard Bearer which promoted racism and anti-Semitism. On weekends, the group conducted leaflettings around the Metropolitan Atlanta area. The NSYOG solicited donations, distributed their own literature, and, significantly, gave out copies of The Truth At Last at intersections in towns such as Loganville, Acworth, and Dacula. While engaging in such street agitation, the NSYOG also operated in less orthodox areas. Youth hangouts, such as the food courts at local malls and various punk and alternative music clubs, were targeted for the distribution of literature and business cards. They produced thousands of fliers promoting nazi beliefs for surreptitious distribution on school premises in Cobb, Gwinnett, Fulton and Cherokee Counties. All of these activities were combined with a conscious campaign to silence opposition among young people through psychological and physical intimidation. The results of this coordinated propaganda effort were soon felt in area schools. In April 1990, a fourteen year old Jewish boy was beaten at J.J. Daniels Middle School, following weeks of anti-Semitic harassment by a group of students who openly displayed nazi and klan symbols including the Hitler salute. The child's mother had informed school authorities of the harassment prior to the beating and had been assured that her son was in no danger. In January 1991, eight students at McEachern High School were suspended following a racial brawl that left one student injured. The brawl occurred after white students distributed nazi literature at the school and after a swastika and the slogans "white power" and "kill Jesus Christ" were spray-painted on a school building. Later that same year, a group of fourteen and fifteen year old girls circulated nazi skinhead propaganda at a school in north Fulton County. Neighbors Network volunteers determined that the NSYOG produced the literature. At Pope High School in Cobb County, a senior associated with the NSYOG delivered an oral report in class arguing that the nazi extermination of the Jews was a hoax. The NSYOG did not limit its propaganda efforts to printed material. The group also supplied minors with tapes of so-called "Hate Rock" by nazi skinhead bands such as Screwdriver and Midtown Boot Boys. These tapes contained songs with titles such as "Nigger At the End of a Rope" and lyrics in praise of convicted war criminal Rudolph Hess. The NSYOG also distributed T-shirts and stickers bearing nazi slogans attacking Jews, African Americans, Hispanics, and homosexuals. The NSYOG also showed video tapes of nazi propaganda films and racist gatherings procured through The Truth At Last and the California based White Aryan Resistance to potential recruits. According to sources within the nazi skinhead movement, early in this period Ed Fields began to actively court the GNSA and the NSYOG. Fields reportedly issued invitations to these groups to attend a series of private meetings he was organizing at a Shoney's restaurant in Marietta. Some of these meetings were addressed by guest speakers including a former lieutenant of George Lincoln Rockwell's American Nazi Party. In addition to employing nazi skinheads in The Truth At Last's mail order operation, Fields apparently invited nazi skinheads to dinner at his home and utilized them as body guards. Butler's and Dowling's organizing efforts attracted the attention of other elements of the local white supremacist movement. In 1990, Butler met with Dave Holland, then Grand Dragon of the Southern White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and subsequently conducted a mass leaflet distribution effort advertising the annual Labor Day klan gathering at Stone Mountain, Georgia. Butler's organizing talents and political savvy were so impressive that at one point he was approached to be Populist Party organizer for the 7th Congressional District. In April 1991, nazi skinhead organizing reached the point that local organizations felt strong enough to stage a major event. This new confidence resulted in the first Adolph Hitler Birthday Celebration of any size to be held in Georgia. The Hitler bash was held at the Acworth residence of Lewis Tabor, a Populist Party member and associate of NSYOG. The gathering attracted approximately seventy young people, including a contingent from Florida. The Hitler fest was to be a high water mark for the GNSA and the NSYOG. In 1991, Butler left Georgia following a brawl with a Populist Party member. In Butler's absence, Dowling, Edwards, and the NSYOG as a whole affiliated with the Huntersville, North Carolina-based SS of America, a spin-off of the hyper-militant Confederate Knights of America Klan. The flirtation with SS of America proved to be short lived. By November 1991, Dowling, who had moved closer to the Birmingham, Alabama-based Aryan National Front, traveled to Fultondale, Alabama, where he delivered a speech at an "Aryan Fest" sponsored by the ANF. >From Cobb County to "Aryan Uprising" By summer 1992, it was apparent that Georgia's nazi skinheads had developed close ties to the ANF. In Albany, Georgia, a group originally organized by Miles Dowling had affiliated with the ANF. On July 6, the Albany group attended a klan rally in Ashburn, Georgia, along with ANF leader and convicted felon Billy Riccio. In June, Dowling and Edwards participated in a march and rally in Birmingham, Alabama, sponsored by the ANF. The demonstration was called in support of three ANF members charged in the murder of Benny Rembert, a homeless African American man. Among those charged was Mark Lane, a 17 year old nazi skinhead from Lilburn, Georgia. On July 27, Billy Riccio addressed a rally of young people in Conyers, Georgia. The rally was sponsored by John Armstrong, whose group, The Aryan White Knights, had recently affiliated with Riccio's organization. John Edwards of Marietta also spoke at the event. Less than two weeks after the Conyers rally, Riccio was in custody for violations of Federal statutes. Government raids on the ANF in Alabama and Georgia uncovered stockpiles of ammunition, gun parts, and military grade explosives. Despite the arrest of Billy Riccio, affiliates of the ANF continued to function. Jason Reeves and Paul Parsons headed one affiliate, based in Marietta. On the 24th of August, Miles Dowling and four other nazi skinheads were arrested on weapons charges in Naples, Idaho. The five had been attempting to reach the besieged farm of federal fugitive and white supremacist Randy Weaver. Dowling was absent from Georgia for the next few months. Following the crackdown on the ANF, a new umbrella organization for nazi skinheads emerged in Georgia. John Edwards and John Armstrong joined by John Bailey of Rome, Georgia and Bradley Satterfield of Armuchee, Georgia, formed the Aryan Resistance League ("ARL"). Like the NSYOG, the ARL devoted a large amount of its energy to the production and distribution of racist, anti-Semitic and anti-homosexual propaganda designed for a youthful audience. In addition, the ARL had a direct connection to the Christian Identity movement through John Edwards' affiliation with the East Ridge, Tennessee-based Christian Guard. Edwards had attended a meeting of the Christian Guard in Lyerly, Georgia, in May of 1992. J.B. Stoner and a number of other longtime klansmen also attended the meeting. Edwards also participated in a "summit" between John Pendergrass, Grand Dragon of the Rome, Georgia-based Royal Confederate Knights KKK and local ARL members. Discussion between the two organizations revolved around a series of racist and anti-Semitic acts of vandalism in Rome. Pendergrass complained that the klan would be blamed for actions taken by the nazi skinheads. Shortly after this meeting, Bailey and Satterfield relocated to Cobb County. In January 1993, Edwards along with approximately ten other nazi skinheads from Georgia, attended a national white supremacist rally in Pulaski, Tennessee, which drew 200 participants. The overwhelming majority of the participants were nazi skinheads, some from as far away as New York and Canada. Among those present were John Armstrong, Cliff and Lori Warby and Brian McDaniel, a Gwinnett County nazi, long associated with Dowling and Edwards. Early 1993 saw violence among Georgia's nazi skinheads. In February, a group led by Robert Q. Smith confronted a youth who attempted to leave the "movement." The confrontation occurred at the youth's home. When the youth attempted to flee, he was wounded by a gunshot allegedly fired by Smith, who was on parole from prison. Smith was apprehended in California by the FBI in June 1993. On March 7, Miles Dowling, John Bailey, Bradley Satterfield and Robert (Johnny) Argo were arrested in Atlanta and charged in the beating of a young man in the Little Five Points neighborhood. The four are currently out on bail pending trial. April 17 marked a watershed in the development of the nazi youth movement in Georgia. On this date, approximately 150 to 200 young people gathered on a farm in Conyers for an "Adolph Hitler Fest" to commemorate the anniversary of the nazi dictator's birth. Billed as the "Aryan Uprising," the gathering was sponsored by the ARL, ANF, The Aryan Sisters League, and The Christian Guard. The event was a mixture of rock concert, beer bash, and nazi rally. Nationally known nazi bands such as Nordic Thunder, The Voice, Aggravated Assault and Pale Face provided music at the event. Rally participants traveled from as far as Michigan, Illinois, and New York. These included representatives of groups such as Confederate Hammer Skins, Eastern Hammer Skins, Northern Hammer Skins and SS Action. These groups comprise a sizeable portion of the ultra-violent element of the nazi skinhead movement in the Eastern states. The rally was the largest event of its kind ever staged in Georgia. It was also one of the largest held in the entire country in 1993. As such, its impact on the nazi youth movement will be felt on a national level. The local impact was significant as well. Following the "Aryan Uprising," John Armstrong broke with the ARL, affiliating his group with SS Action. Currently, he is publishing and distributing a nazi newsletter called Aryan Revolution under the pen name of William J. Saxon. Miles Dowling has distanced himself from both ARL and ANF by organizing a chapter of the Confederate Hammer Skins in Marietta. The "Aryan Uprising" was itself not free of potential violence. At one point, State Troopers were forced to draw their shotguns in order to apprehend a suspect who had fled from a roadblock into the rally site. Georgia's nazis, while organized into different groups or factions, continue to cooperate with one another. This was particularly apparent at the recent anti-gay demonstrations in Marietta (see Appendix). Cobb County has become the central base for nazi skinhead organizing in the state. Largely unnoticed by the general public, in the past four years Georgia's nazi Youth movement has grown from the level of a street gang to national influence within the movement. While organizational names and allegiances come and go, the central figures of the movement remain largely the same and continue, unabated, their pursuit of the young Bigotry with a Scholarly Face The Atlanta Committee for Historical Review One of the most disturbing recent innovations of the racist right has been the creation of the so-called Historical Revisionist movement. The purpose of this movement is to question the reality of the World War Two nazi genocide against Jews. This effort has been pursued through a variety of pseudo-scholarly publications and ostensibly respectable front groups. The most widely known of these is the Institute for Historical Review and its journal. This organization was the brainchild of Willis Carto, publisher of The Spotlight and head of the Liberty Lobby. The Atlanta Committee for Historical Review, headed by Marietta Attorney Sam Dickson, has repeatedly sponsored appearances by the British Holocaust revisionist writer David Irving. These gatherings have attracted the leading figures of Georgia's white supremacist and nazi fringe. This appeal to the most extreme elements of the racist right is not accidental. As Dickson has admitted publicly, the Committee exists largely as a mailing list of interested individuals maintained by the attorney for his personal use. He is well aware of these individuals and their beliefs. Indeed a number of them have been his clients. Sam Dickson's roots right wing politics run deep. They extend back to his student days at the University of Georgia where he was a leading figure in the Young Americans for Freedom and the Demosthenian Society. In 1978 he campaigned for Lieutenant Governor in the Democratic State primary, receiving 11.6 per cent of the votes cast. Dickson ran on an anti-affirmative action platform proclaiming, "Race is a legitimate issue, ... we whites cannot sit back and let them [minorities] win by default." In October of 1985 Dickson sponsored a gathering billed as "The Georgia Weekend" at a Holiday Inn in Doraville, Georgia. In a letter to potential attendees distributed by Ed Fields, Dickson described the event as a meeting of '... renown representatives of ... patriotic movements ..." The "patriotic" movements represented included bigoted groups such as the Australian and Canadian League of Rights and the Southern National Party. 1986 was a busy year for Dickson. In February he addressed The Seventh International Revisionist Conference sponsored by the Institute for Historical Review. Other attendees included Ed Fields, former klan leader David Duke, Tom Metzger of the California-based White Aryan Resistance and Willis Carto. In March Dickson represented Daniel Carver of the Invisible Empire Ku Klux Klan in a lawsuit in Madison County, Georgia. This was the first in a series of cases where Dickson defended klan members. In April Dickson defended Carver on an assault charge in Hall County, Georgia. In the same month, Dickson sponsored a speech by David Irving at the Waverly Hotel in Cobb County under the name of the Atlanta Committee for Historical Review. Also at the Waverly in April, there was a speech by William Pierce, leader of the nazi National Alliance based in West Virginia. Under the pen name of Andrew MacDonald, Pierce authored The Turner Diaries, a book widely credited with inspiring the terrorist group, The Order. The engagement was sponsored by Ed Fields under the aegis of the NSRP. Pierce's speech was also notable for providing Dickson with his next klan client. Following the meeting, Dave Holland, then Grand Dragon of the Southern White Knights KKK, was charged with beating an anti-klan activist in the Waverly Hotel parking lot. In court Dickson argued that his client had acted in anticipatory self-defense. Holland was acquitted. In May, Dickson represented klan member Randal Wiley Smith on a charge of assault in Cedartown, Georgia. Smith was convicted. On the 19th of June, Dickson was a guest on the Tom Houk Show on WGST-AM. In response to a caller's question regarding the ideas of Adolf Hitler Dickson stated, "There are certain aspects of his philosophy that I think most Americans would share." Dickson went on to describe himself as a "reactionary." In 1989, Dickson represented one of the defendants in a lawsuit brought by the Southern Poverty Law Center. This suit grew out of the mob assault on civil rights marchers in Forsyth County, Georgia in 1987. The jury found for the plaintiffs. Dickson also hosted a fund-raiser that garnered $1,500 for David Duke's campaign for the U.S. Senate in Louisiana. Dickson would later describe himself as both a friend and advisor to the former Imperial Wizard. In 1990 Dickson, acting through the Atlanta Committee for Historical Review, attempted to host a speech by John Tyndal, in Marietta, Georgia. This appearance was cancelled when Tyndal was denied entry into the United States by Federal Immigration authorities. Undeterred, Dickson managed to sponsor Tyndal's speech the following spring of 1991. This was the first engagement of Tyndal's multi-state speaking tour with Ed Fields. Dickson took an active part in presidential politics in 1992. When Pat Buchanan entered the Republican primary contest, Dickson switched his support from David Duke to the well known conservative commentator. At a Buchanan campaign celebration following the candidate's surprise capture of 30 per cent of the votes in the New Hampshire primary, Dickson told a reporter, "It is the duty of every Duke supporter to see that Buchanan wins the Georgia primary." In October, Dickson again sponsored an appearance by David Irving in Smyrna, Georgia. His record not withstanding, Dickson maintains that he is not a nazi, white supremacist, or anti-Semitic. During an appearance on WGST's "Ralph from Ben Hill Show" following the Smyrna meeting, Dickson did admit to being a "white separatist." At the same time, he stated that he had written a number of articles for a publication called Instauration. This Florida-based magazine was described in the December 30, 1991 issue of the National Review as a ". . . wild racist-nativist publication . . ." Conservative columnist Joseph Sobran has stated that Instauration is " . . . openly and almost unremittingly hostile to blacks, Jews, and Mexican and Oriental immigrants." Dickson continues his activity in the Holocaust denial industry. He attended the Eleventh Annual International Revisionist Conference in 1992. In 1993 he sponsored an appearance by David Irving at the DeKalb County Courthouse in Decatur, Georgia. Wild Man's Civil War Shop Located in Kennesaw, Georgia, Wild Man's Civil War Shop is a long established business operated by Dent Myers, a self-described racist. While advertising civil war relics and memorabilia, this shop is also the largest public outlet for racist and anti-semitic literature and paraphernalia in Metropolitan Atlanta. The shop has served as a central distribution point for hate group propaganda, including material produced by the Aryan Resistance League, the Aryan National Front, and the Confederate Hammer Skins. The shop is regularly frequented by groups of curious teenagers and nazi skinheads. On entering the shop, customers are confronted by a wide variety of bigoted merchandise. Antique klan robes and insignia are sold along with nazi regalia. Publications such as The Truth at Last, The Spotlight, Racial Loyalty, and The Southern Populist are regularly available. Posters of Adolf Hitler and racist caricatures are on display and books such as White Power by George Lincoln Rockwell, The White Man's Bible, and The Turner Diaries occupy shelves alongside biographies of civil war figures and military treatises. A showcase in the shop's back room contains occult merchandise for use in magical rituals. Conclusion The pattern of hate group activity in Cobb County reveals a set of interlocking relationships between groups and individuals, ranging from the gangsterism of the nazi skinheads to the suit-and-tie anti-Semitism of David Irving. The picture that emerges is populated by violence-prone individuals and cynical manipulators eager to encourage and exploit intolerance. Nothing could better illustrate this than the rapid exploitation of the Cobb Commission's anti-homosexual resolution by hate mongers (see Appendix). There are larger questions. To what extent has hate group activity in Cobb County helped create a climate of intolerance? Why has there been no official response by the county's political leadership to the organized recruitment of young people in the public schools? Finally, why has such alarming activity excited little public notice? In the specific area of anti-homosexual sentiment, there is no question that some of these groups have had an impact. Both The Truth At Last and nazi propaganda have made anti-gay and lesbian diatribes second only to their racist and anti-Semitic attacks. Slogans such as "Praise God for AIDS" and assertions that AIDS is a "racial disease" have been staples of hate group propaganda for years. Official silence regarding hate group activity is not unique to Cobb County. The attitude of "the less said, the better" is a fairly common one in communities plagued by hate groups. Certainly, the presence of such groups in a community does nothing to promote that community's growth or quality of life. It is only natural that local officials would seek to dampen what they perceive as bad publicity. Unfortunately, this attitude is likely to produce adverse consequences on both a community-wide and individual level. The case of the Jewish child who was assaulted at J.J. Daniels Middle School provides an instructive example. Following the attack, Neighbors Network arranged for a meeting between the mother, joined by representatives of the Cobb chapter of the NAACP and the Cobb Human Relations Commission, and then Superintendant of Schools Kermit Keenum. Despite an extended discussion, wherein it was revealed that the administration at J.J. Daniels had violated established policy by not reporting the incident, no official action was ever taken beyond offering to transfer the victimized student to another school. No apology was offered to either mother or child. The end result was the withdrawal of the child from the Cobb public school system. In Cobb County, where hate mongering has been part of the scene for more than two decades, silence in the face of such activities is likely to be perceived as acceptance, if not tacit endorsement. This is particularly likely among those young people who are subject to the blandishments of these groups. Consequently, the notion of a Government agency singling out a particular group of citizens for official condemnation does not seem unreasonable to many. The public's ignorance of the full dimensions of hate group activity in Cobb County, their impact on the state, and the national and international connections of such groups, is a natural consequence of official silence. This silence is not uniform. The Cobb County Police, for example, have a good record in dealing with criminal activity by hate group members. But police agencies, by definition, cannot provide the moral or civic leadership required to blunt the corrosive influence of hate groups. It is in this context that the actions of the Cobb County Commission must be assessed. Whether intentional or not, the Commission's anti-homosexual resolution plays directly into the propaganda of hate groups. It has the effect of validating the ugliest aspects of bias against lesbians and gay men. If the overt involvement of these groups in the recent anti-homosexual demonstrations is not sufficient evidence, the dramatic increase in reports of anti-gay and lesbian harassment in Cobb County should be. Sources The Fiery Cross, Wade, Wyn Craig The Klan Unmasked, Kennedy, Stetson Terror in the Night, Nelson, Jack The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, . David Edgar of Searchlight Magazine, from speech to NAKN conference Hatred In Georgia, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1991, Neighbors Network Publications Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith Klanwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center Marietta Daily Journal Fulton County Daily Report Observed at First Hearing, Cobb County Commission Resolution on "Gay Lifestyles" Cleburne Jordan. A hate activist for decades, Jordan is closely associated with J.B. Stoner's Crusade Against Corruption. He was formerly associated with Stoner's and Ed Field's former group, the National States Rights Party. During the demonstrations in Cobb, Jordan displayed signs that carried Stoner's name and post office box. Stoner has been a nazi since the 1940s. He was convicted in the 1980s of an arson bombing of a black church in Birmingham, Alabama. Jordan and Stoner are both Cobb County residents. Observed at Cobb Citizens Coalition Rally August 14, 1993 Cleburne Jordan. Dave Holland. Dave Holland is Director of the Southern White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which he formed in December 1985 when he split from the late James Venable's National Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. In 1986, Holland was charged, along with Ed Fields and Frank Shirley, with beating an anti-racist activist in Marietta. Holland was acquitted and charges against the others were dismissed. Holland and his klan group were found civilly liable for their attack on civil rights marchers in Forsyth County in 1987. In 1992, Holland was convicted of perjury. This conviction stemmed from statements Holland had made about his inability to pay the damages. Also in 1992, Holland was indicted in Newton County, Georgia for use of fighting words. These charges stemmed from comments Holland made at a klan rally in Covington. In 1992, Greg Walker, Grand Dragon of Holland's Southern White Knights, was charged with selling marijuana, amphetamines, and illegal weapons. State and Federal Agents say Walker was attempting to fund the Southern White Knights through such illegal sales. Holland is a resident of Gwinnett County. Ed Fields. Ed Fields has been a white supremacist since the 1940's, and has been closely associated with J.B. Stoner during much of that time. For decades, Fields was associated with Stoner's National States Rights Party and edited the group's newspaper, The Thunderbolt. Fields continues to produce this publication, now titled The Truth at Last. Fields also calls himself Chairman of the Emergency Committee to Suspend Immigration. Fields is secretary of the recently formed America First Party. He was charged in 1986 in the beating of an anti-racist activist in Marietta. The charges were dismissed after Dave Holland was acquitted in the same incident. During the 1950's and 1960's, members and associates of the National States Rights Party committed many violent crimes, including the bombing of The Temple in Atlanta, and numerous bombings in Birmingham, Alabama. Fields is a resident of Marietta. Frank Shirley. Frank Shirley has been involved with white supremacist groups since at least 1978, when he was a member of David Duke's Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. From 1980 to 1984, Shirley, using the name Frank Johnson, was an officer in Ed Fields' New Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. During the mid-1980's, Shirley associated with Glen Miller's North Carolina-based White Patriot Party. In 1987, Shirley helped to form and run the Forsyth County Defense League. Since that time, Shirley has remained a frequent participant in klan rallies. In 1986, Shirley was charged with beating an anti-racist activist in Marietta. The charges were dismissed after Dave Holland was acquitted in the same incident. In 1987, Shirley, accompanied by David Duke and Alabama klan leader Don Black, were arrested while protesting a civil rights march in Forsyth County. The protest later turned violent. Later that year, the owner of an apartment rented by Shirley and other white supremacist leaders took out a warrant against Shirley and others for allegedly "trashing" the apartment when they vacated. In 1988, Shirley was found liable for his role in the attack on Brotherhood marchers in Forsyth County in 1987. C. Ray Harrelson. Harrelson served as Executive Director of the racist and anti-Semitic Populist Party of Georgia until April of 1992 when he founded the Committee to Save Our State Flag, which opposes removing the Confederate Battle Flag from the Georgia State Flag. He resigned from the position in July 1992 after being exposed by the Neighbors Network as a white supremacist. Currently Harrelson is treasurer of the recently formed America First Party. During Harrelson's term as executive director of the Populist Party, Marietta nazi Ed Fields was frequently a featured speaker at Populist Party events, as was James Warner, a nazi from Louisiana. Harrelson participated in the 1991 Stone Mountain Klan rally and was present in 1993 at klan rallies in Pulaski, Tennessee, Draketown, Georgia, and a Hitler's Birthday Celebration on a farm in Newton County, Georgia. Harrelson has made harassing and obscene phone calls to a Neighbors Network volunteer. Harrelson is a Smyrna resident. Harrelson is currently treasurer of the recently formed America First Party. Jason Reeves. Jason Reeves is a nazi skinhead. Reeves is director of the Marietta Chapter of the Aryan National Front. The Aryan National Front was based in Birmingham, Alabama, and led by Billy Riccio. During 1992, members of the group were arrested on charges ranging from murdering homeless black men to stealing and stockpiling military weapons and explosives. William West. Hate Activist. Though not a skinhead, he marched with the Nazi skinhead contingent at a January 1993 Ku Klux Klan rally in Pulaski, Tennessee. West is reportedly associated with the National Alliance, which is headed by William Pierce. Pierce is the author (under a pseudonym) of The Turner Diaries, a novel about a revolution by white racists that has become the bible of the most extreme racist elements in America. Observed at Queer Family Picnic Marietta Square August 22, 1993 Frank Shirley, C. Ray Harrelson, and a number of nazi skinheads. Ricky Newton Terrell. Terrell, for years a member of the Southern White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, is now leader of the Conyers-based Confederate Forces. This group, which first came to the attention of monitors at the 1991 Stone Mountain Klan rally, calls itself a "white rights survival group." Terrell participated in a klan rally in Pulaski, Tennessee, in January of 1993. Jeff Partain. Partain is a racist skinhead who was ejected at least twice from the Queer Family Picnic after Neighbors Network monitors reported to police that he was attempting to start fights. John Johnson. Johnson is a nazi skinhead and is reportedly from Floyd County. Johnson accompanied Jeff Partain at the Queer Family Picnic. Both at one point joined with Ricky Terrell and the Confederate Knights in picketing near the picnic. Lester Maddox. Maddox, a long-time outspoken segregationist and perennial candidate for public office since the fifties, served as the Governor of Georgia from 1966 to 1970. In 1964, Maddox won national attention when he defied the just-passed Civil Rights Act by threatening violence to keep his Atlanta restaurant segregated. He finally closed it when ordered to desegregate by a Federal District Court. Louis Vasquez. Louis Vasquez, not a white supremacist, was present counter-demonstrating at the Queer Family Picnic. Vasquez is an anti-choice activist who for years has harassed women entering women's clinics in Atlanta. On at least two occasions, Vasquez has displayed a clip from an automatic pistol to escorts at clinics. Observed at Cobb County Commission Hearing and Vote On Arts Funding August 24, 1993 Cleburne Jordan. C. Ray Harrelson. Jason Reeves. Johnny Argo. Argo has been active as a nazi skinhead in this area since at least 1989. Paul Parsons. Parsons is a Nazi skinhead and Assistant Director of the Aryan National Front. Jonathan Edwards. Edwards has been a nazi skinhead activist for at least five years. He has been convicted of interfering with custody of a minor and was charged in Marietta with obstruction of a police officer. In 1990 Edwards identified himself as Assistant Director of the National Socialist Youth of Georgia. Edwards is also an organizer for the Christian Guard, a hate group based in East Ridge, Tennessee. Edwards has played a major role in organizing the Aryan Resistance League in North Georgia and has attended summits of local nazi/skins and klan groups. In April of 1993, the group sponsored a "Hitler Fest" in Newton County. Miles Dowling. Miles Dowling has been a nazi skinhead leader for at least five years. Among the positions he has held have been Director of the national Socialist Youth of Georgia. Currently he is reportedly connected with the Atlanta area Confederate Hammerskins. Dowling's Marietta home served for a number of years as headquarters of the nazi skinhead movement in the Atlanta area. In 1992, Dowling and other nazi skinheads were arrested in Idaho while apparently attempting to reach a cabin where white supremacist Randy Weaver was holed up following the shooting death of a U.S. Marshall. Dowling was acquitted of these weapons charges. Also in March 1993, Dowling was among a group of nazi skinheads charged with severely beating a man in Little Five Points. The Aryan Resistance League is a nazi skinhead organization that claims chapters in Floyd, Cobb, and Dougherty Counties. In February 1993, ARL members, including its Security Director John Bailey, allegedly went to the home of a Marietta man leaving the group, and one of the nazis allegedly shot the man in the head. June 6, 1989 Cobb County David Craig, Grand Dragon of the True Knights, was convicted of using abusive language to a police officer. The incident occurred during a klan leafletting in Acworth in December 1988. Craig was fined and ordered to learn the Boy Scout oath. Craig would later lie about this incident in a rally in Norcross, where he stated that no True Knight had ever been convicted of a crime. June 13, 1989 Marietta, Cobb County An evening basketball game at the Park Street School turned into a brawl between Black and White youths, leaving two of the white youths injured. One, Scott Gilbert, slipped into a coma with critical head injuries. June 14, 1989 Marietta, Cobb County Jack Spivey, 42, of Ohio, a relative of the two young men injured in the previous night's brawl, returned to the scene with a gun looking for revenge. Police, watching for further trouble, approached Mr. Spivey, who pulled his gun on officer John Friedlander, and was shot by Corporal Michael McClure, after repeated commands to drop the weapon. He was listed in fair condition, and charged with aggravated assault on a police officer and felony possession of a weapon. July 22, 1989 Austell, Cobb County Report of a leafletting by an unidentified klan group. August 11, 1989 Smyrna, Cobb County Robert Qunicy Smith was arrested for making a terroristic threat, after he threatened to shoot his sister's husband. He also stated that he had called two friends to bring him a gun. As he was being arrested, two of his friends arrived, and Smith told them to go get bail money. Smith later stated that he sent the two to borrow money from David Craig, Grand Dragon of the True Knights, who did not give it to them. October 22, 1989 Smyrna, Cobb County A dark day for the American Front. A car driven by David Lynch of Port St. Lucie, Florida, lead of the American Front for the eastern United States, rear-ended a car driven by Robert Quincy Smith, local American Front organizer. Lynch was charged with driving on a suspended license and having no proof of insurance. Smith and Lynch were armed at the time of the incident. November 9, 1989 Cobb County Former True Knights Grand Dragon David Craig and former Imperial Secretary Neva Veitch were arrested for the 1987 murder of Veitch's husband, Bill Joe. Veitch had told police that she and her husband had been kidnapped near Six Flags Over Georgia by two Black men who robbed them and murdered her husband. She had claimed that she was then driven to Carroll County, where she was sexually assaulted before escaping. At the True Knights rally in Norcross (see entry dated July 29, 1989 above), Veitch even passed out copies of a police artist's sketch of the non-existent "assailants." December 2, 1989 Acworth, Cobb County Seven members of the Southern White Knights (SWK) handed out literature on Main Street. The literature includes The Truth At Last, a nazi publication. According to news reports, the SWK also held an activity near to this date in Winder. December 31, 1989 Marietta, Cobb County Robert Q. Smith, American Front organizer, stated that he intended to hold a "Robert Matthews vigil" on private property because he was unable to get a permit for a public rally. Robert Matthews, an Order member wanted for robbing banks and armored cars and for shooting an FBI agent, died in a gun battle with Federal Agents in Oregon several years ago. February 1990 Marietta, Cobb County Early in the year, Ed Fields announced that his "Emergency Committee to Suspend Immigration" would begin having regular meetings in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Fields is a life-long nazi and editor of The Truth At Last (formerly known as The Thunderbolt). Later in this year, Fields angered local racist skinheads by asking them not to wear skinhead garb to the meetings. Source: Klanwatch. February 1990 Cobb County Robert Q. Smith, area director of the American Front (a national nazi skinhead organization) allegedly assaulted a fifteen-year-old former American Front member. The boy was beaten and needed reconstructive surgery. Smith, who had been jailed in December 1989 for telephoning threats to the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), was also reportedly facing charges brought by the parents of juvenile girls. He was convicted of similar charges in Douglas County in 1989. The youth beaten by Smith was mentioned in an American Front phone message line, which suggested that people call up the youth and tell him what they thought of traitors. Source: Victim report. March 1990 Marietta, Cobb County A bomb threat was called into City Auditorium 25 minutes before gubernatorial candidate Andrew Young was scheduled to speak there. Source: Rome News-Tribune. March 26, 1990 Marietta, Cobb County David Craig, former Imperial Wizard of the True Knights, was convicted of killing fellow Klansman Billy Joe Veitch. After he was convicted, Craig shouts "White Power" and gave the nazi salute. Many area white supremacists attended the trial to show support for Craig. Source: Marietta Daily Journal. May 30, 1990 Marietta, Cobb County Prevented from entering the county, British nazi John Tyndal failed to appear at a meeting of Dr. Ed Fields' Emergency Committee to Suspend Immigration. Tyndal, the leader of the British National Party, was barred from the country due to his numerous criminal convictions. Flyers announcing the rally were found by the Neighbors Network in Cobb County. Source: Klanwatch, Neighbors Network monitors. August 9, 1990 Marietta, Cobb County Neva Veitch, a former officer of the True Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, pleaded guilty to murder. Former Grand Dragon David Craig had already been convicted in the murder of Veitch's husband. Source: Marietta Daily Journal. November 1990 Cobb County During this month, a flyer reproduced from the National Democratic Front's newsletter was being distributed in Cobb County. It purported to be seeking "volunteers" to go to Saudi Arabia and "die for Israel." The National Democratic Front is a nazi organization based in Knoxville. December 29, 1990 Cobb County Three nazi skinheads handed out copies of Racial Loyalty at the Cobb County shopping mall. Racial Loyalty is a publication of the Church of the Creator (COTC), whose headquarters was then in North Carolina, since relocated to Florida. The COTC is a nazi religious cult which rejects Christianity "because Jesus was a Jew," and professes a religion based on "salubrious living" and advancement of the white race. Their motto is "Our Race Is Our Religion." January 18, 1991 Marietta, Cobb County Eight students were suspended following a fight precipitated by nazi organizing at McEachern High School. A student received a broken or dislocated jaw when she tried to stop the fight. January 1991 Cobb County Early in the year, nazi skinheads physically attacked a young woman in her home because she was dating a black man. The beating resulted in a miscarriage. Source: Witness report February 8, 1991 Acworth, Cobb County Thirteen members of the Georgia National Socialist Alliance (GNSA) and the National Socialist Youth of Georgia (NSYOG) leafletted on Main Street in Acworth. Source: Neighbors Network monitors April 14, 1991 Marietta, Cobb County A number of persons were arrested at a nazi skinhead gathering. John Edwards, assistant director of the National Socialist Youth of Georgia, was charged with obstruction of an officer. Source: Neighbors Network monitors April 16, 1991 Marietta, Cobb County Two men who shared an apartment on Lakewood Drive were found "riddled with bullets" in their home, which had been broken into. One of the men's stepsons, who had allegedly threatened to kill the men for being gay, was later arrested. Source: Lesbian and Gay Rights Chapter of the ACLU of Georgia, Etcetera, Marietta Daily Journal. April 30, 1991 Acworth, Cobb County Approximately seventy people, many of them nazi skinheads, took part in a Hitler's birthday celebration on a piece of lakefront property in Acworth. Among the participants were members of the GNSA and NSYOG. Source: Neighbors Network monitors. May 18, 1991 Marietta, Cobb County Approximately 150 people came to the Northwest Marriott Marquis Hotel to hear a speech by British White supremacist leader John Tyndal. Tyndal, a leader of the British National Party, had been previously barred from the United States because of an extensive criminal record. The audience, including nazi skinheads, repeatedly interrupted Tyndal's speech with enthusiastic applause. Tyndal toured the United States with Marietta nazi Ed Fields. Source: Neighbors Network monitors. Spring 1991 Marietta, Cobb County A young woman who had previously associated with nazis reportedly received threats. The woman also reported an incident in which a young white supremacist came to her home and assaulted another young woman whom he found there. Source: Neighbors Network monitors. June 1991 Cobb County At Town Center Mall, two members of the Committee for Scene Safety, an anti-racist youth group, were confronted and threatened by two nazi punks who also stated that they were organizing a group to "come down and get the Neighbors Network." One of the nazis identified himself with the National Socialist Youth of Georgia, while the other identified himself with the White Aryan Resistance. Source: Committee for Scene Safety. October 19, 1991 Atlanta, Fulton County Miles Dowling, Cobb County resident and a leader of the National Socialist Youth of Georgia, accompanied ten other nazi skinheads to the Atlanta premier of "Blood in the Face," a documentary about the nazi youth movement in America. The screening took place at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta. October 25, 1991 Marietta, Cobb County The Populist Party of Georgia held a "state meeting" at a Marietta hotel. Long-time nazi activist Ed Fields attended the meeting and collected money for David Duke's Louisiana gubernatorial campaign. Source: Neighbors Network monitors. October 1991 Kennesaw, Cobb County Racist and nazi graffiti were spray-painted on a bridge. This graffiti was quickly painted over. Source: Witness report. October 1991 Cobb County During this month, Dr. Ed Fields of Marietta, publisher of The Truth At Last, called for a National Unity Convention of the "over 200 small independent local Patriotic groups in America." He also called on individual and unafifiliated Klan groups to join Thom Robb's Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. December 7, 1991 Marietta, Cobb County Two weeks after the dedication of Temple Kol Emeth, a person or persons unknown spray-painted "Attention, Jews Are Not Desired Here" in German on a stone wall near the building's entrance. During the prior year and a half, at least four other incidents of vandalism were reported at the proposed site. Source: Atlanta Jewish Times; Marietta Daily Journal. January 1992 Cobb County During this month, the National Alliance, a West Virginia based nazi group, distributed materials in Cobb County, including a bumper sticker which reads "Stop Murdering Palestinian Children." January 1992 Cobb County A white student who dated an African American youth was threatened with a fork by a nazi skinhead at Pope High School. (Source: Neighbors Network) March 4, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County Some Atlanta area residents received Pat Buchanan campaign literature in envelopes bearing the return address of The Truth At Last, a tabloid newspaper published by Marietta nazi Ed Fields. Both the Buchanan campaign and Fields, a Buchanan supporter, denied responsibility. (Source: Neighbors Network) April 18, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County A birthday party honoring Adolf Hitler was held at SS of America leader Miles Dowling's home. Approximately twenty-five people took part in the celebration, which included a birthday cake. (Source: Neighbors Network) April 23, 1992 Cobb County A group of young people were threatened by SS of America members at a Dunkin Donuts on Johnson Ferry Road. At one point, the SS members left and returned with reinforcements. Among those present were Tony Butler and Miles Dowling. (Source: Neighbors Network) May 1992 Clifton, New Jersey Marietta nazi Ed Fields and British nazi John Tyndal spoke at a meeting attended by approximately one hundred supporters, including nazi skinheads. (Source: Klanwatch) May 10, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County Several African American youths allegedly challenged several white youths for "being in a black neighborhood." One of the African American youths knocked down and kicked one of the white youths and threw rocks at another white youth. (Source: Marietta Daily Journal) June 14, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County Several nazi skinheads, including Robert Q. Smith, allegedly "pushed around" and threatened a young Hispanic woman. (Source: Neighbors Network) July 1992 Smyrna, Cobb County C. Ray Harrelson, Chair of the Committee to Save Our Flag, former Chair of the Georgia National Populist Party, and klan rally participant, resigned his position as Chair of the Committee "for health reasons." R. Lee Collins replaced Harrelson as Chair of the Committee to Save Our Flag. (Source: Neighbors Network) September 30, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County For the fourth time in two weeks, Glover Park in the Marietta Square was heavily vandalized. As in previous incidents, racist slogans and swastikas were painted on a statue and on walkways and benches. On October 12, 1992, Rebecca Barnett of Marietta and Vanessa Barlow of Woodstock were charged with criminal damage to property in connection with the vandalism. Both women were also present on October 7, 1992 when two nazi skinheads, Bryan Shaw and Jason Rainwater, were arrested for threatening and assaulting several African-American youths. One of the women told police that she committed the vandalism to "fit in" with Shaw. Shaw was seen speaking on a telephone near the square at approximately the time when the vandalism took place. (Source: Marietta Daily Journal) October 7, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County Two nazi skinheads, Bryan Shaw of Marietta and Jason A. Rainwater of Power Springs, were arrested for allegedly threatening several African American youths. Shaw was charged with inciting to riot, simple assault, and disorderly conduct. Rainwater was charged with aggravated assault, carrying a concealed weapon, and inciting to riot. Nearby, according to police, a white woman ordered her dog to attack several African American teenagers riding their bicycles. When one of the teenagers raised his bike to defend himself from the dog, Shaw and Rainwater allegedly made racial threats and displayed a knife. (Source: Atlanta Journal-Constitution.) October 20, 1992 Smyrna, Cobb County David Irving, a British "historian" who maintains that the nazi Holocaust never occurred, spoke at the Smyrna Community Center. The event was sponsored by Sam Dickson, a Marietta lawyer and the head of the Atlanta Committee for Historical Review. The forty spectators consisted largely of nazi skinheads, Populist Party members, and klan members. Among those present were nazi Ed Fields, nazi Frank Shirley, C. Ray Harrelson of the Populist Party, Cliff Warby of Thunor Services, nazi Josh Buckley, and Dave Holland of the Southern White Knights. November 1992 Marietta, Cobb County A flyer signed by Marietta nazi Ed Fields was placed in a number of mailboxes in Cobb County. The flyer contained anti-Semitic comments and attacked Sixth Congressional District candidate Tony Center for being "a secret Jewish candidate." (Source: Witness report) November 18, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County The Cobb County Community Relations Council sponsored a panel forum to discuss proposed changes in the design of the Georgia state flag. A number of hate group supporters were present at the event, including Populist Party activist C. Ray Harrelson, who photographed people entering the forum and photographed vehicles in the parking lot. Populist Party activist Greg Davis spoke in favor of retaining the current state flag. (Source: Neighbors Network) December 1992 Mableton, Cobb County A number of racial fights occurred at Lindley High School. A contributing factor was the presence of African American and white gangs. (Source: Neighbors Network) December 15, 1992 Marietta, Cobb County Acting on a tip from an undercover source, Marietta police headed off a rumored "rumble" between nazi skinheads and an African American gang. The fight was scheduled to occur near Schlotzsky's Restaurant on Roswell Road in Marietta. Uniformed and undercover police were sent into the area where they dispersed a group of "several supposed skinheads." (Source: Atlanta Journal-Constitution) January 9, 1993 Pulaski, Tennessee On January 9, a rally and march organized by Richard Ford's Florida-based Fraternal White Knights drew close to 200 participants, the majority nazi/skinheads in their teens and twenties. The event drew participants from across the country, including Cobb County residents Brian McDaniel, Cliff Warby, John Edwards and John Armstrong. Also present was Smyrna resident C. Ray Harrelson, former Executive Director of the Georgia Populist Party and former Chair of the Committee to Save Our State Flag. The Pulaski rally is an annual klan/nazi event, but this year there was a split between the nazi groups who marched on January 9, and the klan groups who marched on January 23 (see next entry). January 23, 1993 Pulaski, Tennessee The second Pulaski march, sponsored by Thom Robb, leader of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, drew 170 participants from both the United States and Canada.. Cobb County resident Cliff Warby, who owns a mail-order business dealing in nazi paraphernalia, was among the marchers. The Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which has two klaverns in Cobb County, sent a contingent. Over the past two years, Robb has repeatedly angered nazi/skinheads by refusing to allow nazi emblems or chants at the public march. February 3, 1993 Marietta, Cobb County Ex-convict and veteran nazi activist Robert Q. Smith allegedly shot nazi/skinhead Bryan Shaw in the head at Shaw's Marietta home. Shaw survived and Smith is currently a fugitive. Reportedly accompanying Smith was Aryan Resistance League security chief John Bailey. Shaw and Smith are known to be members of Fyrdung. Smith was previously associated with the American Front. March 7, 1993 Atlanta, Fulton County Four nazi leaders were arrested for battery of a young male in the Little Five Points shopping and entertainment district of Atlanta. Among the four arrested were Cobb County residents Miles Dowling, Robert D. "Johnny" Argo, Jr. These four and two unidentified accomplices allegedly followed the victim out of a restaurant, knocked him down and kicked him in the head. The four arrested, all Members of the Aryan Resistance League, were charged with battery and bound over for trial in state court. May 1993 Marietta, Cobb County In early May, a federal fugitive warrant was issued for nazi activist Robert Q. Smith. Smith was wanted in connection with the shooting of Bryan Shaw in Marietta earlier this year. Later that same month, he was arrested in California. He was wanted in the Atlanta area on a variety of charges, including violation of parole and the shooting of a nazi activist in Marietta on February 3, 1993. August 1993 Cobb County, Georgia A leader of the Cobb Citizens Coalition, formed to organize voters against that County's anti-gay ordinance, has received a death threat. A former white supremacist in Cobb reports a number of attacks, including threats to his person and vandalism of his home. October 1993 Austell, Cobb County David Watkins of Austell, Georgia is producing leaflets for the Southern National Party. The Party, which calls for "a return to Constitutional Government" and "Southern independence," defines Southerners as descendants of European settlers and explorers. The group claims to be non-violent, but apparently is calling for a revival of dueling. October 1993 Marietta, Cobb County The Confederate Hammerskins is operating a voice mail service with a tape recorded message in Cobb County. Other attempts by Nazi skinheads to maintain phone message lines in Cobb County have been short-lived. Additionally, large quantities of literature produced by the Aryan National Front (ANF), the Aryan Resistence League (ARL) and Confederate Hammerskins have been left in mailboxes in Cobb. One piece of literature mentions a White Women's Association, using the same Post Office Box as John Edwards, who is with the ARL and the Christian Guard. Helen Arrington is reportedly head of the women's group. November 1993 East Cobb County, Georgia A number of violent anti-gay incidents have been reported in Cobb County recently. A number of incidents involving nazi skinheads have occurred in the Merchants Walk - Merchants Exchange area, including a lesbian bashing. January 1994 Kennesaw, Cobb County A comic book, "The Saga of White Will," produced by William Pierce's National Alliance has been sold at area gun shows and is available at Dent Myer's store in Kennesaw. The story, set in a suburban high school, describes how white students are supposedly oppressed by non-whites manipulated by Jews. ERRATA The Shadow of Hatred Hate Group Activity in Cobb County, Georgia 3/15/94 J. J. Daniel Middle School is mispelled in the report as J. J. Daniels. Lindley is a Middle School, not a High School. The Cobb Community Relations Council is incorrectly referred to as the Cobb Human Relations Commission. The Atlanta Marriott Northwest (located in Cobb County) was referred to as the Northwest Marriott Marquis. The last sentence of paragraph 6, page 13, should read "Following the attack, Neighbors Network arranged for a meeting between the mother, joined by representatives of the Cobb chapter of the NAACP, and then Superintendent of Schools Kermit Keenum."
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