The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: orgs/american/adl/skinhead-international/skins-holland

Newsgroups: alt.skinheads,alt.politics.white-power,alt.politics.nationalism.white,soc.culture.netherlands
Subject: ADL: Skinhead International; The Netherlands
Summary: The ADL's "Skinhead International: A Worldwide Survey
         of Neo-Nazi Skinheads"
Followup-To: alt.skinheads

Archive/File: pub/orgs/american/adl/skinhead-international/skins-holland
Last-Modified: 1995/08/10

                         The Netherlands

The Netherlands' neo-Nazi Skinheads have assaulted and killed
perceived enemies. They also dot the ranks of a broader Dutch racist
movement: several belong to a small neo-Nazi organization and to two
far-right political parties.

After a period of domrmancy, the Skinhead movement in the
Netherlands has undergone a revival in the last two years. Experts
there put the number of Skinheads today at 300 to 600.

The western Netherlands - Rotterdam, the Hague, and Amsterdam -
boasts the largest concentration of Skins, with a smaller number in
Groningen in the North.

A Skinhead magazine, _Hou Kontakt_ (Keep in Touch), has played a
role in the Dutch neo-Nazi Skinhead revival. The magazine is
published by Martin van der Grind, and can only be obtained by those
who can give the name of a known neo-Nazi Skin as a reference. _Hou
Kontakt_ has articles on Skinhead bands, bars which Sins favor, and
runic symbols (with interpretations harking back to those of
Hitler's SS). It also carries advertisements for other Skinhead
groups, sales outlets for records and tapes, and material from
"Oi-stuff," a mail-order house in Utrecht which sells T-shirts and
stickers emblazoned with Nazi symbols. The slogans include "Adolf
Hitler, our Fu"hrer," "Liberate Europe from the Jews," and "In
heaven there are no niggers, that's why we molest them here."

                       Dutch Youth Front

Until 1990 most Dutch neo-Nazi Skins belonged to the Dutch Youth
Front (JFN) and the Action Front of National Socialism (ANS), a
small neo-Nazi group linked to a banned German organization,
Gesinnungsgemeinschaft der Neuen Front (Like-minded Association of
the New Front). The ANS is virulently anti-Semitic and has
distributed Holocaust-denying propaganda.

After the JFN was banned in 1990, followers switched to the Center
Party '86, whose leaders include Tibor Mudde, formerly treasurer of
the JFN.

Some Skins are members of the Center Democrats (CD), another
far-right party which has three seats in Parliament. CD member
Monique Bosman owns the post office box from which "Oi-stuff" sends
its catalogs of Nazi wares.

Finally, the Netherlands are not immune from a disturbing trend
crossing Europe: soccer hooliganism with an anti-Semitic and
neo-Nazi flavor. In November 1992 police arrested 20 people at a
soccer match after they broke into anti-Semitic and racist catcalls
and made hissing sounds to imitate Nazi gas chambers.

In January 1993 riot police prevented 1,000 fans singing
anti-Semitic songs and shouting Nazi slogans from attending a soccer
match in an Amsterdam suburb. The visiting team, Ajax of Amsterdam,
is regarded as Jewish by many of its own supporters as well as rival
fans. Spectators have also shouted racist epithets at black members
of the team, thrown bananas and made "jungle" noises.

Such bigotry-tainted hooligans provide fertile ground for Skinheads
looking to swell their ranks.

                    "He Looked Like a Hippie"

The record of violence of Dutch Skinheads began with a May 1982
assault on leftist "squatters" in Amsterdam, to celebrate the
victory of a right-wing Parliamentary candidate. Skinheads graduated
to murder the following year, when Kerwin Duinmeijer, a 15-year-old
black youth from the Netherlands Antilles, was stabbed to death. In
1986 Franky Kattenberg was convicted and jailed for four years for
murdering Michael Poye, because "he looked like a hippie." Since
then, there have been many Skinhead assaults against "foreigners,"
blacks and gays. In 1992, assaults were committed in Amsterdam, the
Hague, Utrecht, Rotterdam, Leeuwarden, Purmerend and Tilburg.

Eight armed Skinheads were arrested on weapons charges in Arnhem in
October 1992. They allegedly intended to disrupt a meeting of an
anti-Nazi group, in retailiation for the banning of a Skinhead
concert in Rotterdam.

                        Foreign Links

Dutch Skinheads are linked to hate groups in the United States and
Britain through the importation of propaganda materials, and
repeated attempts to arrange concerts by British Skinhead bands. The
printed material, distributed by the "Oi-stuff" mail order firm,
comes from such groups as the various Ku Klux Klans, Gary Lauck's
Nebraska-based NSDAP-AO and the British Blood and Honour enterprise.


No Remorse, a British group, first performed in the Netherlands in
June 1992. The event drew an audience of 250. Four months later, a
concert organized by _Hou Kontakt_, which was to have featured the
British groups Squadron and Skullhead, was banned by Dutch
authorities. The traffic appears to run in only one direction, since
there do not appear to be any Dutch Skinhead bands. As mentioned
above, Dutch Skins keep abreast of news on the music front through
_Hou Kontakt_. The skinzine also carries advertisements for record
and tape outlets.

Finally, although the Skinheads are comparatively modest in number,
they may succeed in recruiting among the growing number of soccer
hooligans who have a taste for neo-Nazi rhetoric. Regardless of
size, Dutch Skinheads pose a threat of violence against a society
which, from the end of World War II until recently, had remained
remarkably free of serious bigotry-spawned violence. This threat
appears to have been taken seriously by police authorities and
private watchdog groups alike. (Anti-Defamation League, 53-55)

                          Work Cited

Anti-Defamation League. The Skinhead International: A Worldwide
Survey of Neo-Nazi Skinheads. New York: Anti-Defamation League,
1995. Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY

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