The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: orgs/american/adl/hamas/hamas-islamic-jihad

Anti-Defamation League, "Hamas, Islamic Jihad and The Muslim
Brotherhood: Islamic Extremists and the Terrorist Threat to
America," 1993, ADL New York


     Holy War: Now or Later? .

     Refuge in Mosques
     Support From Abroad: Money No Object
     Haven in the Land of the Free
     "Positive Works" in America
     "Our Battle Is With the Jewish Enemy Today"
     Support for HAMAS' Jailed Leader
     Brother Nosair: Victim of an International Political Conspiracy
     "Ramadan is the Month of Sacrifice"
     Advocating Violence: "The Intifada Must Be Rejuvenated"
     Preaching Holy War From Brooklyn
     The "Brooklyn Jihad Office"
     Afterword: Terror at the Twin Towers
     Appendix of Organizations


       'Israel will exist and will continue to exist until
   Islam will obliterate it, just as it obliterated others
                         before it.'
   The Martyr Imam Hasan al-Bana, of blessed memory." [1]

     Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement, HAMAS

    "Kill so many Jews that they will eventually abandon

    Ibrahim Sarbal, Leader of Islamic Jihad Movement in.
                Palestine - Al-Aqsa Brigades

       "Six million descendants of monkeys [i.e., Jews] [3]
  now rule in all the nations of the world, but their day,
   too, will come. Allah! Kill them all, do not leave even
                          one!" [4]

 Imam Sheik Ahmad Ibrahim, HAMAS leader, in a sermon at the
                  Palestine Mosque in Gaza.

      Throughout the Middle East, from North Africa to Iran,
extremist  voices  are being raised in the  name  of  Islam,
demanding  political  power and the destruction  of  Israel.
Inside of Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, the echoes of this
phenomenon  have  produced  two  movements,  HAMAS  and  the
Islamic  Jihad Movement in Palestine, both of which seek  to
undermine the Jewish State from within.

      HAMAS,  the  Arabic acronym of the Islamic  Resistance
Movement in Palestine, officially came into being in  August
of  1988. Founded as an alternative to the secular Palestine
Liberation  Organization,  HAMAS offers  its  activists  the
total rejection of Israel together with absolute salvation.

      The  acronym HAMAS, taken from the Arabic Harakat  al-
Muqawama   al-lslamiya   -  Islamic   Resistance   Movement,
literally   denotes  "zeal"  or  "enthusiasm."   The   HAMAS
Covenant, however, interprets its name to mean "strength and

       HAMAS  is  an  offshoot  of  the  Muslim  Brotherhood
movement, which was founded in Egypt in 1928 by Sheik  Hasan
al-Bana; and subsequently spread throughout the Arab  world.
The  Brotherhood shares with HAMAS a complete  rejection  of
Western values and Communism and calls for the establishment
of  a pan-Islamic state founded on the basis of shari'a,  or
Islamic  law.  To  attain  this objective,  the  Brotherhood
promoted the concept of an ideal Muslim state to be ruled by
a  Caliph,  the  title bestowed upon the successors  of  the
Prophet Muhammad at the beginning of the Islamic empire.

      The two movements similarly share the view that Israel
is   the  theological  archenemy  of  Islam;  and,  in  this
capacity,  Israel  acts as the agent  of  the  West  in  the

     Throughout its history, the Muslim Brotherhood has been
supportive  of the Palestinian cause. During the anti-Jewish
riots  in  British Mandatory Palestine of 1936 and 1939  the
Brotherhood supported Haj Amin al-Husseini,[5] the Mufti  of
Jerusalem   and   leader  of  the  Arab  Higher   Committee.
Brotherhood  members were sent from Egypt to participate  as
fighters together with the Palestinian Arabs, an effort that
was  repeated during the 1948 war.[6] Volunteers  from  both
the  Egyptian  Muslim  Brotherhood movement  and  its  newly
formed counterpart among Palestinian Arabs fought to prevent
the establishment of the
State of Israel.

Holy War: Now or Later?

      As  the  precursor of the HAMAS movement,  the  Muslim
Brotherhood  in  Gaza  promoted the  long-term  strategy  of
creating  the  foundations  of a  Muslim  state  that  would
eventually   become  powerful  enough  to  destroy   Israel.
According to the doctrines of the Brotherhood, part  of  the
process  in  bringing  about  the  ideal  pan-Islamic  state
includes   the   spiritual   phenomenon   of   an   "Islamic
reawakening"  throughout  the   entire  Muslim  world.  Only
subsequent  to  the  "Islamic  reawakening"  and   the   re-
establishment  of Islamic political power as  the  Caliphate
could  the  destruction  of the  Jewish  state  begin  as  a
divinely-sanctioned war between Islamic forces and those  of
Israel. In other words, holy war later.

     Taking this position one step further, HAMAS' spiritual
leader  Sheik  Ahmad  Yasin  formulated  the  concept   that
'Palestine'  should become the central battlefield  for  the
creation  of  a nationalist Islamic state. In  other  words,
holy war now.

       For   HAMAS,   the  question  of  Israel's   eventual
eradication is central and absolute. HAMAS differs  in  view
from   the   Muslim  Brotherhood  in  asserting   that   the
establishment of an Islamic state in 'Palestine' will  serve
as the tool for achieving their ultimate goal of creating  a
pan-Islamic state across the Middle East.

      HAMAS'  redeveloped outlook came about shortly  before
the   Palestinian   uprising  in  1987  and   the   parallel
development  in  Gaza of a third organization,  the  Islamic
Jihad  Movement in Palestine (IJMP). Inspired by the Islamic
revolution  that  swept  Iran in  1979,  the  Islamic  Jihad
challenged the Brotherhood by staging spectacular attacks on
Israeli soldiers.

      Following the doctrine that Islamic land must be ruled
only by Muslim 'believers', the IJMP's war
on  Israel  differs from that of HAMAS only in its immediate
goal-that  a  pan-Islamic empire must be created  throughout
the Middle East with its foundations on the ruins of Israel.
It  perceives itself as the vanguard of an internationalist-
oriented  movement  of  'believers'  who  have  taken   upon
themselves the responsibility of repulsing Western influence
from  the  Islamic world. The evil of Western  influence  is
personified  by the United States, which Ayatollah  Khomayni
termed "the Great Satan." Consequently Israel, as the  agent
of the U.S. in the region, is termed "the Little Satan."

     From this perspective, the Islamic Jihad sees itself as
fighting a worldwide war against the West, following in  the
footsteps  of the Prophet Muhammad. The IJMP regards  itself
as  one  part  of  the larger Iran-sponsored  Islamic  Jihad
movement,  which  is most well known for  its  abduction  of
American and other Western hostages in Lebanon.

     To compete with what was perceived as the more activist
approach  of  the Islamic Jihad, Sheik Ahmad Yasin,  then  a
Muslim   Brotherhood  leader,  adjusted  his  own  doctrine,
leading  to  the formation of HAMAS. In 1987 he nationalized
the  war  of  the IJMP, and spoke of an Islamic  Palestinian
state as a stage towards his movement's final goal.

      Rather than insisting on the establishment of  a  pan-
Islamic  state as the prerequisite for waging  holy  war  on
Israel, Yasin changed the strategy of the Muslim Brotherhood
in  Gaza  to  that of "partial" holy war.' In  this  manner,
Muslim Brotherhood and HAMAS activists could participate  in
the  Palestinian uprising while at the same  time  remaining
faithful  to  their notion of a cataclysmic  holy  war  that
would  eventually be waged by their Caliphate. HAMAS  joined
Islamic  Jihad in deciding that the time for  its  jihad  is

Refuge in Mosques

     With funds provided by Saudi Arabia,[8] the Brotherhood
has  created centers for the propagation of its doctrine  by
providing  for the communal needs of Palestinian Muslims  in
Gaza.  Adhering to the doctrine of providing for the  social
needs  of fellow Muslims, over the past 65 years the  Muslim
Brotherhood  created  a  network of social,  charitable  and
educational institutions linked to the local mosques,  which
came  to  be known as al-Mujamma' al-Islami, or the  Islamic
Congress.[9]  As  the leader of the Islamic Congress,  Sheik
Ahmad Yasin oversaw its transformation into HAMAS.

      The establishment of HAMAS by Sheik Yassin altered the
structure of the organization and paved the way for HAMAS to
become an effective competitor with the PLO. Presently HAMAS
consists of two wings: an underground terrorist organization
that uses the name "Izz al-Din al-Qassam Battalions" and its
older support structure that continues to revolve around the
mosques, charitable organizations and schools.

      In  an  effort  to  curb a wave of  terrorist  attacks
against  Israelis that took place in late  1992,  the  Rabin
government deported 413 Islamic extremists. Three hundred of
them  comprised the command structure of HAMAS in  the  West
Bank  and  Gaza. The remainder consisted of members  of  the
organization's support structure within the mosques, as well
as   members  of  the  Islamic  Jihad.[10]  Those  who  were
responsible for HAMAS' support structure filled the roles of
propagandists, spokesmen, treasurers and suppliers of refuge
for the organization's covert activists."

In  effect, the violent activists of HAMAS took advantage of
the  mosques' status as inviolate houses of worship to  plan
their unholy acts of terror.

Support From Abroad:

Money No Object

      Over the past year, HAMAS and the PLO factions opposed
to  the peace process have formed the "Front of Ten" for the
purpose of coordinating their efforts.[12] The organizations
comprising  the  Front include: the Popular  Front  for  the
Liberation  of  Palestine  -  General  Command,  Palestinian
National Liberation Movement - Fatah (Abu Musa faction), the
Islamic  Jihad Movement in Palestine, Al-Saiqa  Forces,  the
Popular   Front  for  the  Liberation  for  Palestine,   the
Democratic  Front  for  the  Liberation  of  Palestine,  the
Revolutionary  Palestinian Communist  Party,  the  Palestine
Popular Struggle Front, the Palestine Liberation Front,  and

      In June of 1992, the United States warned Saudi Arabia
via  diplomatic channels to stop undermining the Middle East
peace  process by funding HAMAS. A similar warning was  made
to  Kuwait.[14]  HAMAS  reportedly  maintains  a  "permanent
presence"  in  Saudi  Arabia  and  receives  money  for  its
operations through the World Islamic League.';

     Responding to the pressure that HAMAS has created among
Palestinians,  the  PLO itself has contributed  aid  to  the
organization. According to PLO chief Yasir Arafat,  the  sum
of  $1000  is paid to the family of each HAMAS member  taken
prisoner by Israel, since HAMAS activists are considered  to
be the "sons of the PLO." [16]

     Of no less importance is the financial support provided
to  the  organization by Iran. Iran has provided  HAMAS  for
1993  with  a  budget  of  "nearly  $30  million"  for   its
activities.[17] According to recent press reports,  American
banks  are being used as conduits to transfer the  funds  to
West  Bank and Gaza moneychangers. HAMAS activists in  those
areas are then able to withdraw the funds in cash.

      The  Iranians' logistical support for HAMAS activities
includes training by the Iranian Revolutionary Guard  Corps,
Western intelligence sources say.[18]

      In October of 1992, the Iranian government agreed to a
request  by  HAMAS to open an 'embassy' for the organization
in  Tehran.  The  HAMAS  'embassy'  will  also  continue  to
maintain  the "contacts and coordination" with the  Lebanese
Hizballah    organization,   also   located    in    Tehran.
Additionally,  the  Iranian government promised  to  provide
training for 3000 HAMAS terrorists.[19]

      The  leader of a recent HAMAS delegation visiting Iran
was   Musa   Abu  Marzuk,  who  serves  as  chief   of   the
organization's  political bureau.[20] Until  very  recently,
Abu   Marzuk  was  living  in  the  United  States  in   the
Washington, DC suburb of Arlington, Virginia. Subsequent  to
Israel's  expulsion  of  the 413  HAMAS  and  Islamic  Jihad
activists,  Abu  Marzuk acted as HAMAS' chief representative
in  negotiations  held  with the PLO  in  Tunis.[21]  He  is
currently reported to be in Damascus, Syria.[22]

      Five days after the bombing of the World Trade Center,
the  State Department revealed that U.S. diplomats have  had
"contacts"  with  HAMAS. State Department spokesman  Richard
Boucher acknowledged that contacts between the United States
and  HAMAS had existed for "some time," but were severed "in
the last week or so." [23] No explanation for the initiation
of  the  contacts  was  provided. At the  same  time,  press
reports   indicated   that  the  FBI   was   "probing"   the
organization   as   part   of  its  investigation   of   the

Haven in the Land of the Free

      As the result of Israel's arrest of three Palestinian-
Americans  who are allegedly tied to the HAMAS organization,
attention  has  been  drawn  to  the  activities   of   that
organization's supporters in the United States. Recent press
reports  indicate that the political command  of  HAMAS  was
relocated  to the United States over the last two years  due
to   Israel's  success  in  fragmenting  the  organization's
underground structure.[25]

      The reported transferal of the HAMAS command structure
to the United States came in response to a series of arrests
of  HAMAS  activists by Israel in 1990. A similar series  of
arrests  which  ended  with  the  December  17  deportations
brought  an  apparent attempt on the part of American  HAMAS
supporters to rebuild the movement in January of 1993.

      Recent reports indicate that the political command  of
HAMAS  in  the  United  States  is  located  at  the  United
Association   for  Studies  and  Research  in   Springfield,
Virginia. The head of the association is named Ahmad Yussef,
who  is  also  known  by  the code  name  "Abu  Ahmad."  The
political  chief  of the organization is  Musa  Abu  Marzuk,
whose  code  name  is "Abu 'Umar." Muhammed Qassam  Sawalha,
code  named  "Abu  Badr,"  is  the  military  chief  of  the
organization who travels to the United States frequently and
reportedly  lives  in  London.  In  this  capacity,  Sawalha
recently   directed   the  travels  of  Palestinian-American
Muhammed Abd al-Hamid Saleh through the West Bank and Gaza.

      Two  alleged HAMAS activists, Saleh and Muhammad Hilmi
Jarad,  from Bridgeview and Chicago, Illinois, respectively,
were arrested in Israel on January 25 for attempting to  re-
structure  the  organization.[26] In preparation  for  their
travel, $230,000 was transferred from a Chicago bank account
to a Palestinian moneychanger. In Israel, Dr. Mahmud Rumahi,
a  physician  from the town of Al-Birah who was arrested  on
December 16, allegedly served as a conduit for the funds  by
opening  bank accounts for the two men.[27] Jarad and  Saleh
obtained  cash  from  the  moneychanger  and  proceeded   to
distribute  the  funds throughout the West  Bank  and  Gaza:
$100,000  to  a "key military operative" in the Gaza  strip,
and   60,000  to  the commander of HAMAS'  military  arm  in
Ramallah. Upon their arrest, Jarad and Saleh were  found  in
possession  of $100,000. Subsequent to a search  of  Saleh's
room at the YMCA in East Jerusalem, written reports that the
two  had  collected detailing HAMAS activities in  the  West
Bank and Gaza were found.[26]

       After   his  arrest,  Muhammed  Saleh  told   Israeli
investigators that he gave a total of $130,000  in  cash  to
agents  of HAMAS in one week. $110,000 of that was  intended
for  "arms  purchases,  the building  of  new  safe  houses,
recruitment  of  new members and assistance  to  fugitives."
[29]  Saleh further recounted that he was authorized by  his
superiors  in  the organization to spend up to  $650,000  on
this  trip  alone.  In  order to obscure  the  money  trail,
$600,000 was deposited for him in various bank accounts.  On
a previous trip in August 1992, Saleh was reportedly ordered
by  Muhammad  Qassam  Sawalha, HAMAS' London-based  military
commander, to prepare attacks on Israelis. At that  time  he
gave  a  HAMAS agent $48,000 to obtain arms that were  later
used in attacks on Israeli soldiers in Hebron.[30]

      Due  to his activities, Israeli officials believe that
Muhammad  Saleh is a senior figure in HAMAS' military  wing.
In  his  conversations  with  Israeli  investigators,  Saleh
provided a glimpse into his attitude and that of his cohorts
vis-a-vis  terrorist attacks. Describing  the  goal  of  his
trips   to   the   West  Bank  and  Gaza  as  building   the
organization's   structure  for  "positive   works,"   Saleh
explained,  "It's  a  code  term.  Killing  your  enemy   is
positive.  And  on the telephone, that's how they  can  talk
about it." [31]

      Muhammed  Jarad and his family continue  to  deny  any
connection  to  the  HAMAS organization. Yet,  according  to
press   reports,  Jarad's  Holy  Land  Bakery  and   Grocery
regularly   advertised   in  Al-Zaytuna,   one   of   HAMAS'
publications  in  the United States.[32]  A  journalist  who
visited Jarad's place of business described it as follows:

      "The store - Holy Land Bakers and Grocery - is located
on  North  Kedzie Street in downtown Chicago. Its walls  are
covered  with  PLO flags, intifada texts, HAMAS communiqu,s,
pictures  of   Jerusalem  and reliefs  of  the  the  Al-Aqsa
Mosque.  Intifada  slogans adorn every  possible  comer.  An
entire  wall  is  dedicated  to  the  display  of  extremist
Palestinian   propaganda  material:   posters,   videotapes,
leaflets and newspapers."[33]

"Positive Works" in America

"The   universality  of  the  Islamic  Resistance  Movement:
Article Seven:

     By way of the distribution of the Muslims who adopt the
system  of the Islamic Resistance Movement in all  parts  of
the world, they work towards aiding it, accepting its stands
and  amplifying its jihad. Therefore it is an  international
movement and it is prepared for this (task) because  of  the
clarity of its ideology, lofty goal and the sanctity of  its
objectives. [U]pon this basis it should be considered, given
a fair evaluation and admission of its role . . . The reward
is for those who are early." [Emphasis in original]

      Charter of the Islamic Resistance Movement (HAMAS)  in
Palestine,   published  by  the  Islamic   Association   for
Palestine in Dallas, Texas.[34]

      According  to  law enforcement sources, activists  who
support  the  HAMAS  organization are raising  "hundreds  of
thousands  of dollars in Muslim communities across America."

      One organization which promotes the views of HAMAS  is
the  Islamic Association for Palestine in North America. The
IAP was founded in the United States in 1981 and is based in
Dallas,  Texas.[36]  It  publishes  several  newspapers  and
magazines:  The Palestine Monitor, Al-Zaytuna  (The  Olive),
and lla Filastin (To Palestine), and distributes Filistin al-
Muslimah  (Palestine is Muslim).[37] Additionally,  the  IAP
has  distributed  the Charter of HAMAS  and  official  HAMAS
intifada communiqu,s issued from Gaza.[38]

      HAMAS'  attitude regarding Jews is paralleled  in  the
Islamic Association for Palestine's bi-monthly newspaper The
Palestine Monitor, which has featured anti-Semitic  cartoons
reprinted  from  the  Saudi  press.[39]  Articles   in   the
Palestine  Monitor also highlight news items describing  the
Islamic  movement in different countries, such  as  Algeria,
Tunisia, Jordan and Egypt.

     An example of the publication's usual fare depicted the
suffering  of  Palestinians under Israeli rule  in  a  piece
entitled,  "The  Arrest, Detention  and  Physical  Abuse  of
Palestinian  Children." [40] The article  employed  excerpts
from  previously published reports by pro-PLO  organizations
such as the the Palestine Human Rights Information Center in
Washington  DC.  The  Palestine Monitor  has  also  featured
articles reprinted from Al-Fajr, a pro-PLO newspaper printed
in  East  Jerusalem that is sympathetic to the Fatah faction
of  the  PLO,  and  the  Washington Report  on  Middle  East
Affairs,  an  anti-Israel monthly that has been  tainted  by
anti-Semitism,  published by the American Educational  Trust
in Washington, DC.

"Our Battle is With the Jewish Enemy Today"

      Since the beginning of the intifadha in 1988, the  IAP
has  continued to distribute HAMAS communiqu,s together with
their English translations. The most recent example of  such
literature was the 90th Communiqu, of HAMAS, dated September
5 1992, which was distributed in October 1992.[41]

      In  early  1990  a  HAMAS communiqu,  translated  into
English and distributed by the IAP declared, "HAMAS  .  .  .
asserts  its announced position that our battle is with  the
Jewish  enemy  today and [internal] conflicts serve  no  one
except the enemy." [42]

      The same communiqu, praised a terrorist attack against
Russian Jewish immigrants to Israel, emphasizing that  "This
way, Russian Jews can be prevented from entering Palestine."
Instructions  encouraging further  attacks  against  Russian
Jewish immigrants were detailed later in the pamphlet,  with
the words, "Consider February 17 - February 20, 1990 as days
of  escalation  and ambushes in protest against  the  Soviet
Jews' immigration." The communiqu, was signed,

DEPEND ON.' Koran.


Islamic Resistance Movement in Palestine - HAMAS"

      In  previous  years, the IAP has distributed  its  own
translation of the Charter of HAMAS,[43] which calls for the
annihilation of Israel and its replacement with  an  Islamic
state  from  the "[Mediterranean] Sea to the Jordan  River."
The Charter further defines HAMAS' battle against Israel  as
a  theological  one,  in which Palestinians  inspired  by  a
reawakening  of  their identity as Muslims wage  a  divinely
ordained  war against Jews. The HAMAS Charter describes  the
Day of Judgment in the following terms:

      "The  Last  Hour  would not come until  Muslims  fight
against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them, and  until
the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree, and
a  stone or a tree would say, 'Muslim, or Servant of  Allah,
there is a Jew behind me - come and kill him!' but the  tree
of Gharqad would not say it, for it is the tree of the Jews.
" [44]

Support for HAMAS' Jailed Leader

     The Palestine Monitor's reportage on the trial of HAMAS
leader Sheik Ahmad Yasin in January of 1990 for 15 counts of
murder  45 involving Israeli civilians and soldiers provided
a  platform for the ideology of HAMAS. Reflecting the ideals
of  the  IAP  in the February 23 1990 issue of the  Monitor,
Bashir Omar, one of the newspaper's editors, wrote:

      "Yasin,  confined  to  wheelchair  since  a  childhood
accident, appeared in court in an orange prison uniform.  He
sat  impassively as as [sic] relatives of the slain soldiers
shouted  curses  at him in Hebrew and Arabic.  'I  deny  all
charges,' Yasin whispered to reporters in the courtroom. But
his  lawyer,  Abd al-Malik Bahansee,  told  the  court  that
Yasin  founded  HAMAS,  and  helped  to  transfer  tens   of
thousands of dollars to the organization. 'My client says it
is   not   his  right  but  his  duty  to  establish   these
organizations to battle the occupation,' Bahansee said."

      Since  the 1989 imprisonment of Sheik Ahmad Yasin  for
his  part  in fomenting terrorist attacks against  Israelis,
the  IAP observes its anniversary in honor of the movement's

      In  May of 199O, the IAP published posters bearing the
likeness  of  Sheik  Yasin  in commemoration  of  the  first
anniversary of his imprisonment. The poster was also printed
as a half page advertisement in the Palestine Monitor.[46]

      In  October of 1992, an IAP communiqu, called upon the
group's American supporters to protest the prison conditions
of Sheik Yasin and the Middle East peace negotiations:

      "We  hereby  call upon you ... to demand  that  proper
medical  attention  be provided to sick  prisoners  such  as
Sheik  Ahmad  Yasin [leader of HAMAS] . . .[C]all  upon  the
Palestinian delegation to halt negotiations with Israelis in
protest   to   the  inhumane  conditions  endured   by   the
detainees." [47]

      The  same  communiqu, directed IAP members to  express
their  solidarity with convicted Palestinian  terrorists  in
Israeli  prisons who declared a hunger strike  on  September
27.  The  flyer  was addressed to "Our Muslim Brothers"  and
requested  the  support of American Muslims for  the  hunger
strikers, denouncing the Middle East peace negotiations  and
the  participation  of the Palestinian delegation  with  the
words, "While you negotiate, we die!"

      Paralleling the hunger strike in the Israeli  prisons,
the  IAP  announced a nationwide fast day to take  place  on
October 15: "[W]e urge all Muslims to fast and pray to Allah
...  to strengthen the will of the detainees in their  stand
against   the  brutal  treatment  they  receive  in  Israeli
prisons."  The  IAP  further  requested  that  donations  be
collected  for the families of the prisoners. The flyer  was
signed  by the Islamic Association for Palestine Information
Office, located in Dallas, Texas.

Brother   Nosair:  "Victim  of  an  International  Political

      A  front  page  article in the November-December  1991
Palestine Monitor called the trial of El-Sayyid Nosair,  the
Egyptian  convicted of crimes connected to the assassination
of Rabbi Meir Kahane as a "frame-up." Portraying Nosair as a
victim  of the American legal system, the article  weaves  a
web  of  distortions around the facts leading to the violent
death  of  Rabbi  Kahane.  Appealing  to  its  readers,  the
Palestine  Monitor  characterized Nosair  in  the  following

      "Brother Nosair, facing life imprisonment if convicted
of  these  charges is in dire need of support of the  Muslim
Community and all those interested in truth and justice.  He
is  a  devout and religious person, committed to his  family
and to Islam. He is being viciously portrayed as a terrorist
by  the  government, the JDL Jewish Defense League] and  the
news  media,  when he is in fact an innocent  victim  of  an
international political conspiracy." [48]

      At  the  close  of  the article, the  address  of  the
Brooklyn-based  El  Sayyid  Nosair  Defense  Committee   was
provided,  along  with  a telephone  number.  The  Palestine
Monitor  warned its readers, "[I]f]f we don't stand up  now,
in  support of Brother Nosair, it will only happen again  to
another one of us."[49]

"Ramadan is the Month of Sacrifice"

     One month after the end of hostilities in the Gulf War,
the  Islamic  Association for Palestine observed  its  tenth
anniversary  during the Muslim month of Ramadan,  which  the
organization characterized as "the month of sacrifice,"  and
is  the  historical  period in which "most  of  the  Islamic
battles  took place." In an appeal bearing the seal  of  the
IAP, which depicts a map of "Palestine" (what is now Israel,
the  West  Bank and Gaza) surrounded by olive branches  with
the Arabic name of the organization - al-Itihad al-Islami  -
the  IAP  declared its goals during the month of Ramadan  as
the following:

      "Nowadays  the  Islamic World is facing  quite  a  few
challenges in many places. Alhamdu-lillah (praise to Allah),
the  intifadha, which is a real jihad, is still going on and
struggling  against the occupation. Although the mass  media
is ignoring this jihad and trying to hide its continuity and
strength,  we,  at IAP, believe that this  intifadha  is  an
important  and  essential  step towards  the  liberation  of
Palestine.  The goal of the IAP is to help our Brothers  and
Sisters  inside Palestine as well as calling all Muslims  in
North  America to participate in a way [sic] or  another  in
this  help.  We are ready to cooperate with all Muslims  who
would  like  to serve this sacred goal and work for  Muslims
inside Palestine."

The appeal continued:

      "We are calling all Imams/Directors/Presidents of  all
mosques,  Islamic institutions or centers, to  dedicate  the
Khutba  [Friday  sermon] on the third Jumm'ah  [Friday,  the
Muslim  day of rest] of Ramadan to talk; about the  intifada
in  Palestine. We are also calling to Collect Donations that
will help our Brothers and Sisters inside Palestine."'

      The  IAP  recommended that donations be  sent  to  the
Occupied Land Fund (OLF) in Los Angeles,
California, and asked "Allah to reward all Muslims who  work
for  this  Islamic cause." The Occupied Land Fund has  since
changed its name to the Holy Land Foundation for Relief  and
Development  (HLF) and moved to Richardson, Texas,  not  far
from the offices of the Dallas-based IAP.[51]

     A Ramadan appeal sent to the Holy Land

Foundation's  members  in March of 1993  denounced  Israel's
deportation  of  the 413 HAMAS and Islamic Jihad  activists.
Shukri Abu Bakr, the Executive Director of the HLF wrote:

      .  "None  of those arrested and expelled were charged,
tried or convicted of any violent act. On the contrary, they
embody  the  cream  of  the Palestinian  society.  They  are
physicians,  educators,  religious scholars  and  other  key
community leaders. Their only 'crime' has been their ongoing
effort   to   establish  Palestinian  social,   health   and
educational institutions that are independent of Israel." 52

      Describing the beneficiaries of its efforts,  the  HLF
provided a photograph of two Palestinian
children with the caption:

      "Cold  . . . Hungry . . . Sick . . . Sad . .  .  words
that  are not normally associated with Ramadan! But this  is
the case for many Palestinian families. They have lost their
bread-winners who are now dead, detained, or deported.  They
are  hurting so much now. So won't you help ease their  pain
if you can?"

      The HLF pledge card declares: "Yes. I can and want  to
help  needy  families of Palestinian martyrs, prisoners  and
deportees." [53]

Advocating Violence: "The Intifadha Must Be Rejuvenated"

      At the height of the Gulf crisis in late December 1990
an  international convention of major figures in the Islamic
Jihad and Muslim Brotherhood movements took place in Chicago
under  the  aegis  of the Islamic Committee  for  Palestine.
Titled "Islam: The Road to Victory," the invited dignitaries
included  Sheik  Abd al-Aziz 'Odeh of the Islamic  Jihad  in
Gaza,  Khalil  Shikaki  of Al-Najah  University  in  Nablus,
Hassan  al-Turabi, leader of the Islamic National  Front  of
Sudan,  Sheik Rashid Ghanushi, leader of the Islamic Revival
Movement  of  Tunisia, Layth Shbilat, a  Muslim  Brotherhood
member  of the Jordanian Parliament, and Sheik Said Sha'ban,
of  the  Islamic Unity Movement in Lebanon.[54] Two African-
American Muslims spoke at the convention: Imam Jamil al-Amin
of Atlanta, (the former H. "Rap" Brown) and Imam Warith Deen
Muhammad, leader of the American Black Muslim movement,  and
self-described as the "Muslim American Spokesman  for  Human

      At the conference, participants discussed the "rise of
Europe  and  the  deliberate effort designed  to  split  the
Muslims   all  over  the  world  through  colonization   and
Westernization." 5o Islamic Jihad leader Abd  al-Aziz  'Odeh
described the intifada as "the turning point in the struggle
between  good and evil." 5' According to the Muslim Journal,
publication   of   the  American  Black   Muslim   movement,
participants  at  the  conference were  unanimous  in  their
rejection of a territorial compromise with Israel,  claiming
that Islamic texts support their position:

       "One   suggestion   that  was  not   disputed   among
participants was the source of the solution to  the  present
plight of Muslims all over the world. This was agreed to  be
reliance on the solution given by the Qur'an and the Sunrulh
Islamic traditions. Since land cannot be compromised  in  Al
Islam   [Islam]  it  means  that  the  Intifadha   must   be
rejuvenated  and  encouraged.  This  is  the  only  way  the
liberation of Palestine could be achieved." [58]

      Literature distributed at the convention included  the
publication of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine,  Al-
Mujahid - The Holy Warrior. Indicative of the violent nature
of  the  IJMP's  agenda is the symbol  of  the  organization
portrayed  on  the cover of the newsletter.  The  IJMP  seal
features  a  pair of crossed rifles over Al-Aqsa  Mosque  in
Jerusalem.  On either side of the mosque is a fist  pointing
outward, and enclosing the symbol in a circle are the  words
"Allah Akbar" - Allah is the Greatest - and the name of  the
organization in Arabic.[59]

      Fundraising at the convention to "aid the  victims  of
Israeli  occupation"  included the donations  of  the  women
participants  who expressed their fervor for  the  cause  by
donating their gold and diamond jewelry. [60]

Preaching Holy War From Brooklyn

      "I  send recordings to Cairo in which I call  upon  my
people  to attack tourists. I explain to them that  we  must
stop  tourism to Egypt. Tourism is a plague. [Western] women
come dressed in provocative clothing in order to arouse  the
believers. Tourists use drugs, they party all night  in  the
clubs  and casinos, and feel up the belly dancers.  And  our
people [the Egyptians] their eyes are popping out from  envy
in trying to imitate the infidel tourists." [61]

      Sheik  'Umar Abd al-Rahman, also known as Omar  Abdel-
Rahman, spiritual leader of Al-Jihad
in Egypt.[62]

      "The  lands  of Muslims will not become bordellos  for
sinners of every race and color."

Sheik  'Umar Abd al-Rahman, on an audio tape sent  from  the
U.S. to Egypt.

       In  Egypt,  the  cradle  of  the  Muslim  Brotherhood
movement, a more militant offshoot of the organization  made
newspaper  headlines  worldwide on October  6,  1981.  At  a
military procession commemorating Egypt's successes  in  the
1973 Yom Kipur War, President Anwar Sadat was gunned down by
members of Al-Jihad while sitting in a reviewing stand.  The
spiritual  leader of the group, Sheik 'Umar  Abd  al-Rahman,
issued a fatwa, or edict, sanctioning the assassination  but
was  acquitted  of direct involvement. Twelve  years  later,
"Sheik  'Umar"  -  as  he is called by his  adherents  -  is
directing  his  war  against  the  Mubarak  government  from
American  shores. His followers, who refer to themselves  as
the  "Islamic Group," receive guidance from him in the  form
of audio cassettes recorded in the United States.

      Several months ago, Sheik Rahman promised that a fatwa
against Egyptian President Husni
Mubarak is "[o]n the way."

The sheik continued:

      "It  is  the duty of all good Muslims to rebel against
tyrants.  The Egyptian people will not accept being  whipped
and raped and robbed by the corrupt Mubarak regime." [63]

      In  May of 1990 Sheik Rahman entered the United States
on  a tourist visa in spite of the fact that his name was on
the  official  U.S.  terrorist list.  The  State  Department
claims  that  the  American  Embassy  in  Khartoum,  Sudan's
capital, erroneously issued the visa. After Sheik Rahman was
already  residing  in  this  country,  the  Immigration   an
Naturalization Service made a second error by  granting  him
permanent resident status as a religious leader on April  9,

      In  March  of 1992, Rahman was stripped of  his  green
card, and on January 20 of this year he was
summoned  to  a  federal hearing in  Newark  to  respond  to
charges that he "lied on his visa application, that he is  a
polygamist and that he has committed unspecified 'crimes  of
moral  turpitude."[65] At his own request, the  hearing  was
closed  to the public.[66] No decision was reached  at  that
time.[63]'  On  March 16, an Immigration and  Naturalization
Service  administrative judge ruled  that  Sheik  Rahman  be
deported  from the United States since he had not  told  INS
officials  that  he is a polygamist and  that  he  had  been
convicted of falsifying a check while he was still living in
Egypt in 1987.66 The full text of the decision was not  made
public  at  the request of Rahman's lawyer, Barbara  Nelson,
who stated, "He has no intention of leaving . . . He intends
to stay and pursue his claim for permanent residency." [69]

      During the time that he has been in the United States,
Sheik  Rahman  has,  through his fiery sermons  on  cassette
tapes,  directed his followers from afar. His  organization,
known both as Al-Jiluld (Holy War) and Al Jama'a al lslamiya
-  the  Islamic  Group has assassinated Egyptian  government
officials such as the late speaker of the Parliament,  Rifat
al-Mahjub, in its efforts to establish an Islamic  state  in
that  country.[70] Members of the group have  also  targeted
Coptic   Christians  in  Upper  Egypt.[70]  More   recently,
American  and  other Western tourists have been  marked  for
assassination  by  Sheik Rahman, severely  damaging  Egypt's
tourism industry in the process.'

      Paralleling the fatwa pronounced on Salman Rushdie  by
the Ayatollah Khomeini, Faraj Fodha,
a   writer  and  severe  critic  of  the  Egyptian   Islamic
extremists,  was  murdered by followers of Sheik  Rahman  in
June   of  1992.  Members  of  the  organization  who   were
interviewed  by  the  Lebanese newspaper Al-Safir  justified
their  actions by invoking their interpretation  of  Islamic

      "[Fodha]  was killed in accordance with  the  shari'ah
[Islamic legal] ruling against apostates. A group of  Muslim
'ulema [scholars], including At-Azhar Mosque scholars, ruled
that  he  reneged  on Islam and shari'ah entitles  a  devout
Islamic  group to implement its provisions since  the  ruler
[i.e. President
Mubarak] is an atheist. Killing Faraj Fodha was our  Islamic
duty . "[73]

      Recent  reports indicate that, according to  the  U.S.
intelligence  community,  Sheik Rahman  has  been  receiving
funding  for  some  of his activities from Iran.[74]  Rather
than  receiving  the money directly, one of  Rahman's  wives
acts as an intermediary, sending him funds from Egypt, where
she and his other wife reside.[75]

     Within the United States, Sheik Rahman has maintained a
relationship   with  El  Sayyid  Nosair,  the  Egyptian-born
individual  convicted of crimes related  to  the  murder  of
Rabbi  Meir  Kahane.  Subsequent to  Nosair's  imprisonment,
Sheik  Rahman  has ensured that his wife and family  receive
financial   support  until  his  release.[76]  Additionally,
followers  of the sheik at the Abu Bakr mosque  in  Brooklyn
offer a $45 bus trip to visit "Brother El Sayyid Nosair"  at
Attica state prison."[77] Nosair has been described in press
reports  as  a  "frequent worshipper" at  the  mosque  where
Rahman preaches in Brooklyn,[78] and is currently serving  a
term of seven to 23 years for his crimes.

The "Brooklyn Jihad Office"

      Several  years after the December 1979 Soviet invasion
of Afghanistan, an Egyptian named Mustafa Shalabi founded  a
charitable  organization in Brooklyn to assist  the  Afghani
Muslim  counterinsurgents.  Aid to  the  Afghani  mujahideen
("wagers  of  jihad") consisted of cash and  supplies,  but,
more   significantly,  the  recruitment  of  young  American
Muslims  who were willing to join the ranks of the Afghanis.
In order to prepare the American recruits for their struggle
against   the  Soviets,  some  were  sent  for  paramilitary
training  at a private camp in Connecticut. The organization
is known simply as the "Brooklyn jihad office.[79]

      Mustafa  Shalabi  and  a Syrian friend,  Abd  al-Qader
Kallash, sponsored Sheik Rahman upon his arrival in New York
in 1990, providing him with an apartment, a telephone and  a
car  and driver. Not long afterward, a dispute broke out  in
the Muslim community. The sheik and his followers wanted  to
transform  the jihad office into a conduit for  Al-Jihad  in
Egypt,  while  their  opponents wanted the  organization  to
remain as it was.

      Responding  to  his opponents, Sheik Rahman  denounced
Shalabi  as "dishonest" and a "bad Muslim." The area mosques
had letters signed by the sheik posted in them pronouncing a
ban on any dealings with Shalabi. Fearing for the safety  of
himself  and his family, Shalabi sent his wife to Egypt  and
made  preparations for himself to go to Afghanistan. Several
days  after seeing his wife off to Egypt, Shalabi was  found
shot  and  knifed  to death. Sheik Rahman  asserts  that  he
"never knew" Shalabi.[80]

     More recently, Ezzat al-Sheemy, a founder of Brooklyn's
Abu Bakr Mosque, decided to establish
an alternative summer Arabic language and culture program as
a  counterweight to the educational program provided by  the
mosque.  El-Sheemy asserts that the mosque's school is  "run
by  radicals  bent on 'brainwashing' children into  becoming
militants."  In July of 1992, Al-Sheemy was  warned  by  the
sheik's  followers  in  the mosque  that  Sheik  Rahman  had
"approved  the  use  of  violence against  him  and  certain
teachers  - unless he ceded control  of the program  to  Abu
Bakr  at  once." Justifying his reaction to the threats,  Al
Sheemy  explained,  "They told me l'd end  up  like  Mustafa
Shalabi,  so  I  gave  in." Sheik  Rahman  also  denies  any
connection to this incident [81]

More  recently, Sheik Rahman has denied that he was  in  any
way  involved in the World Trade Center bombing.  He  denied
knowledge  of  any  of  the suspects, including  Mahmud  Abu
Halima, who once served as his driver.[82]

When  asked about his long-term goals in the United  States,
Sheik  Rahman  assured a reporter that he  uwill  "show  all
Americans  that they'll never be happy if they don't  follow

Terror at the Twin Towers

      On February 26 1993, a powerful explosion tore through
the   foundations  of  the  World  Trade  Center  in   Lower
Manhattan,  killing six people, including a  woman  who  was
seven  months  pregnant, and injuring over  1000.[84]  Fifty
thousand  people were evacuated from the damaged  buildings.
The  blast  left  a  crater 200 by 100 feet  wide  and  five
stories deep, and caused the ceiling of the mezzanine of the
adjacent Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) train station to

     An FBI expert on explosives described the blast as "the
largest improvised explosive device that's been in the  U.S.
since we started doing forensic explosive investigations  in
1925." [86]

      Explosives experts estimate that the bomb which caused
the  explosion  weighed approximately 1000 pounds,  and  the
price  of  the chemicals used to make it cost slightly  more
than $400.[87]

      Several days after the explosion occurred, police  and
federal  officials  made their first  arrest  in  the  case.
Tracing the VIN (vehicle identification number) found  on  a
piece  of  metal at the site of the explosion, investigators
were  led  to Mohammed Salameh, a 25-year-old illegal  alien
from  Jordan who allegedly rented the yellow Ford  Econoline
van which was used in the bombing.[88]

      Salameh, together with the two other suspects who were
arrested  -  Nidal  Ayyad  and  Ibrahim  Elgabrowny  -   all
participated  in  demonstrations  on  behalf  of  El  Sayyid
Nosair.  A fourth suspect who fled this country, Mahmud  Abu
Halima,  is  believed to be head of a HAMAS terrorist  cell.
[89] Halima is believed to have fled to Pakistan.[90]


      The  bombing of the World Trade Center marks a turning
point  in  the  United States' confrontation with  terrorist
organizations. Previously, American citizens  overseas  have
been  targets of terror groups, particularly Middle  Eastern
ones,  leaving  U.S. territory virtually unscathed  -  until
now.  The challenge to the United States and other countries
which  face  this  threat is twofold. It  must  protect  the
security  of  its  citizens from terrorists  who  abuse  the
rights  granted to them in a free society. At the same  time
it  must preserve those same rights which democratic nations


1. Hasan al-Bana was the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood
movement in Egypt who was hung by the Nasser regime for his
attempts to overthrow the government.

2. Jerusalem Post. December 19 1990.

3.  HAMAS communiqu,s and literature regularly refer to Jews
as the "descendants of monkeys and swine,." quoting from the
Hadith. the Islamic oral tradition.

4. Forward, January 1 1993.

5. During World War II, the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin ai-
Husayni  supported Nazi Germany in his efforts  against  the
Jewish presence in British-ruled Palestine. Until the  close
of the war, Husavni collaborated with Nazi Germany as one of
its  chief propagandists to the Arabs and as a recruiter and
organizer  of Muslim volunteers, supporting and  aiding  the
Nazi  program  for the extermination of the Jewish  people."
(Encyclopedia  Judaica, 1971 edition. vol.  8,  cols.  1132-

6. "HAMAS: Apocalypse Now ." Jerusalem Post, December 28

7. Jerusalem Post. December 28 1990

8. "The Secret to the Success - and Threat - of HAMAS." Long
Island Jewish World. January 15 1993.

9. "The Metamorphosis of HAMAS." Jerusalem Report, January
14 1993.

10. "A Safe Haven for HAMAS in America," New York Times
January 27 1993

11. Jerusalem Report. January 14 1993.

12.  Voice  of  the Oppressed Lebanese radio,  September  18
1992, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service. - Near  East
and South Asia (FBIS-NES), September 18 1992

13. FBIS-NES September 18 1992

14. Al-Hamishmar. Israeli daily June 15 1992, as translated
in Israel Line.

15. The Economist. December 18 1992

16. Al-Anba'. Kuwaiti daily. April 15 1990 in FBIS-NES April
18 1992.

17. Jerusalem Report, January 14 1993.

18. Jerusalem Report. January 14 1993.

19. Al-Sharq al-Ausat, Saudi daily. October 7 1992 in FBIS-
NES. October 8 1992

20. FBIS-NES October 8 1992

21. "America the Free." Jerusalem Report. February 25 1993.

22. Jerusalem Report. Fibrin 2; 1993.

23. "U.S. Admits Contact With Terrorist Group Before the
Bombing." New York Post. March 3 1993.

24. U.S. Admits," New York Post. March 3 1993.

25. Jerusalem Report. February 25 1993.

26. New York Times. February 1 1993.

27. Israel Defense Forces Radio, February 2 1993, in FBIS-
NES, February 3 1993

28. Washington Post, February 1 1993.

29. New York Times, February 17 1993.

30. New York Times, February 17 1993.

31. New York Times, February 17 1993.

32. "Little Palestine in Chicago," Ma'arit, Israeli daily
February 5 1993.

33. Ma'arit, February 5 1993.

34. Charter of the Islamic Resistance Movement - HAMAS,
Article 7.

35. Forward January 22 1993.

36. Palestine Monitor, August 1990.

37. Islamic Association for Palestine appeal letter, April

38. Palestine Monitor, August 1990.

39. Palestine Monitor, January-February 1992.

40. Palestine Monitor, January-February 1992

41. HAMAS Communiqu, #90, October 1992.

42. HAMAS Communiqu, #53, February 14 1 990. Translated and
distributed by the Islamic Association for Palestine in
North America (IAP).

43. Charter of the Islamic Resistance Movement - HAMAS,
published by the Islamic Association for Palestine.
Distributed March 1991.

44. Charter of the Islamic Resistance Movement - HAMAS,
Article 7. This passage regarding the Day of Judgment is
quoted from the Hadith, the Islamic oral tradition.

45. "Prosecutors Charge HAMAS Leaders With Plotting Murder
of Soldiers," Jewish Telegraphic Agency, November 13 1989.

46. Palestine Monitor, November-December 1991.

47. IAP flyer, October 1992.

48. Palestine Monitor, November-December 1991.

49. Palestine Monitor, November-December 1991.

50. Palestine Monitor, March 1991.

51. Palestine Monitor, May-June 1992.

52. Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development (HLF),
Ramadan appeal, March 1993.

53. HLF Ramadan appeal, March 1993.

54. Islamic Committee for Palestine Third Annual Conference
flyer, December 28-31 1990.

55. Muslim Journal, January 12 1990.

56. Muslim Journal, January 12 1990

57. Muslim Journal, January 12 1990.

58. Muslim Journal, January 12 1990.

59. Islamic Committee for Palestine Convention booklet.
January 1991.

60. Muslim Journal, January 12 1990.

61. "The Sheik Who Murdered Egyptian Tourism." Yediot
Ahronot, Israeli daily, January 1 1993

62. USA Today,  February 22 1993.

63. "Egyptian Jihad Leader Preaches Holy War to Brooklyn
Muslims," Wall Street Journal, January 6, 1993

64. "After Bombing, New Scrutiny for Holes in Immigration
Net." New York Times, March 12 1993

65. Wall Street Journal, January 6 1993.

66. New York Daily News,   March 18 1993.

67. New York Daily News, January 21 1993

66. New York Daily News,  March 18 1993.

69. New York Post, March 18, 1993

70. Facts on File, December 31, 1992. Mahjub was
assassinated in Cairo on October 12, 1990. Egyptian
government officials announced on October 28 1990 that four
members of the Al-Jihad organization who were arrested after
the murder confessed to the crime.

71. Jerusalem Report, August 27 1992

72. Yediot Ahronon, Israeli daily, January 1 1993

73. Al-Safir, Lebanese daily, July 21, 1992, in FBIS-NES
July 30 1992

74. "Rahman Plans Return to New York," New York Newsday,
March 13, 1993

75. Yediot Ahronon, Israeli daily, January 1 1993.

76. New York Times, January 7 1993.

77. Wall Street Journal, January 6 1993.

78. New York Times, March 11 1993.

79. Wall Street Journal, January 6 1993.

80. Wall Street Journal, January 6 1993.

81. Wall Street Journal, January 6 1993.

82. Wall Street Journal, March 22 1993.

83. Wall Street Journal, January 6 1993.

84. "An Eye For An Eye," New York Newsday, March 5 1993.

85. Time, March 8 1993.

86. Wall Street Journal, March 2 1993.

87. New York Times, March 11, 1993.

88. Salameh entered the United States on February 17 1988 on
a six-month visa that had been issued in 'Amman. Jordan in
December 1987. He remained in this country illegally after
the visa expired on August 16 1988. ("More Light is Shed On
a Shadowy Life," New York Times, March 5 1993.)

89 "FBI Reportedly Knows Who Masterminded Bombing,"  Houston
Chronicle, March 17 1993

90. "Suspect in Blast Believed to Be in Pakistan," New York
Times, March 18 1993.

~ Anti-Defamation League, "Hamas, Islamic Jihad and The Muslim
Brotherhood: Islamic Extremists and the Terrorist Threat to
America," 1993, ADL New York

Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

© The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.