The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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I will quote a further excerpt from the statement of the
Dutch doctor, De Vind, which has also been submitted
previously to the Tribunal as Exhibit USSR 52. I quote that
part of the statement in which he speaks of experiments
carried out by a certain Professor Schumann on fifteen young
girls. This excerpt is on Page 204 of the document book,
third paragraph:-

  "Professor Schumann (a German). These experiments were
  carried out on fifteen girls of 17 to 18 years of age,
  including Shishni, Bella, Buena and Dora, from Salonica
  (Greece). Only a few of them survived, but unfortunately
  they are still in German hands, and we have consequently
  no objective data on these brutal experiments. However,
  the following has been established beyond doubt: The
  girls were placed between two plates within the field of
  ultra-short waves; one electrode was place in the abdomen
  and the other on the buttocks. The focus of the rays was
  directed on the ovaries which were consequently burnt
  out. As a result of the irregular dosage, serious burns
  appeared on the stomach and on the buttocks. One girl
  died of these terrible burns, the other girls were sent
  to Birkenau to the medical unit or to working commandos.
  A month later they were returned to Oswiecim, where they
  were subjected to two operations for checking the
  results; one, a longitudinal, the other a horizontal
  incision. The reproductive organs were removed for study.
  As a result of the destruction of hormones, the girls
  completely changed in appearance and resembled old

Experiments in sterilisation of women and castration of men
were carried out in Oswiecim on a mass scale beginning in
1942, and some time after the sterilisation, the men were
castrated for a special study of the tissues.

You can find a confirmation of this fact in the Report of
the Extraordinary State Commission on Oswiecim, where
numerous statements of individual internees

                                                    [Page 9]

who underwent such operations have been quoted. The Tribunal
will find the excerpt which I wish to read on Page 197 of
the document book, second paragraph.

I quote two paragraphs:-

  "Vilagora, who was subjected to such experiments, stated:-
  'A few days after I had been brought to Birkenau, I
  believe, it was in the first days of December, 1942, all
  the young men from 18 to 30 years of age were sterilised
  by X-raying the scrotum. I myself was among those
  sterilised. Eleven months later, that is to say, on the
  1st of November, 1943, I was castrated. Together with me
  on that same day two hundred persons were sterilised.'
  Witness David Suritz, from the town of Salonica (Greece),
  stated the following:-
  'Toward July 1943 1 myself and ten other Greeks were
  placed on some kind of list and sent to Birkenau. There
  we were stripped and subjected to sterilisation by X-
  rays. A month later we were summoned to a central section
  of the camp where all those sterilised underwent an
  operation for castration.' "

I believe that it was not by accident that the experiments
on people began with sterilisation and castration. This was
a quite natural result of the theories of German Fascism,
interested in lowering the birth-rate of those people whom
they considered to be vanquished. It was a part of Hitler's
"depopulation technique" and in confirmation of this, I
would now like to quote a very short excerpt from
Rauschning's book, "The Voice of Destruction", which has
already been submitted to the Tribunal. This extract has not
yet been read into the record, and the Tribunal will find it
on Page 207 of the document book.

Hitler said to Rauschning:-

  "And by 'destruction' I do not necessarily mean
  extermination of these people - I shall simply take
  systematic measures to prevent their procreation."

I omit the next three sentences and quote one more sentence:-

  "There are many means by which a systematic and
  comparatively painless extinction of undesirable races
  can be attained, at any rate without blood being shed."

This excerpt is on Page 137 of the book, "Voice of

Sterilisation and castration became a criminal practice of
the Hitlerites in the occupied territories in Eastern
Europe. I beg the Tribunal's permission to draw its
attention to two of these documents.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Smirnov, perhaps that would be a
convenient time to break off.

The Tribunal would like to know how long you think you will
take before you conclude your statement.

COLONEL SMIRNOV: I believe, Mr. President, that I will
finish my statement today.

I would like the Tribunal to allow me to question three more
witnesses today and I still have about one hour of reading.
But it is very difficult for me to determine the time
exactly, as that sometimes depends on other factors known to
you, which may force me to change my intentions.

THE PRESIDENT: We will adjourn now for ten minutes.

(A recess was taken.)

COLONEL SMIRNOV: I ask the permission of the Tribunal to
draw its attention to two very short German documents, which
we are submitting as exhibit USSR 400 in photostats
certified by the Extraordinary State Commission. They are
two reports submitted by Lieutenant Frank, head of a
Security Police division regarding the conditions under
which a gypsy woman, Lucia Strasdinsch had the right to
reside in the town of Libau.

                                                   [Page 10]

  "To the prefect of the town of Libau.
  Security Police Post, Town of Libau.
  Libau, 10th December, 1941.
  It has been decided that the gypsy Lucia Strasdinsch will
  be allowed to take up residence here again only on the
  condition that she submits to being sterilised. She is to
  be informed accordingly and a report on the result to be
  rendered to this office.
  Frank Lt., Security Police and O.C. Security Police

The second document is a memorandum from the Prefecture of
Libau to the head of the Security Police Post.

  "I herewith return your letter of 10th December, 1941
  regarding the sterilisation of the gypsy Lucia
  Strasdinsch and beg to report that this person was
  sterilised in the local hospital on 9th January, 1942.
  Pertinent letter No. 850 of 12.1.42 from the hospital is

In order to show the extent of the experiments which were
performed on live persons, I would ask your Honour to turn
to the Report of the Extraordinary State Commission. The
extract which I should like to quote, the members of the
Tribunal may find on Page 197 of the document book, second
paragraph. It is stated there that a statistical report by
the commandant of the camp has been discovered in the
archives of the camp, This report is signed by the deputy
commander of the camp Gella. It has a column under the
heading "Internees nominated for Experiments." This column
reads as follows:-

  "Women subject to experiments: on 15th May, 1944 - 400
                            on 15th June - 413
                            on 19th June - 348 " and so on.

I would like to conclude this chapter on experiments on live
persons, with the following: I would like to quote the
memorandum of the report on Oswiecim camp. The members of
the Tribunal may find the passage on Page 197 of the
document book, paragraph 5. I omit the part which refers to
sterilisation and castration because I think that this
question has been sufficiently elucidated. I will quote only
points 4, 6 and 7 of the memorandum, which speak of the
researches carried out in Oswiecim with various chemical
preparations at the request of various German firms.
According to the testimony of one German physician, Dr.
Valentin Erwin, there was one case where the representatives
of a German chemical firm, Dr. Glauber, a gynaecologist from
Konigshhutte, and Chemist Gebel, bought from the
administration of the camp a hundred and fifty women for
such experiments. I omit paragraph 5 and I quote paragraph

  "Experiments on men by applying irritant chemical
  substances on the skin of the calf in order to create
  ulcers and phlegmons."
  Paragraph 7:- "A series of other experiments - artificial
  infection with malaria, artificial insemination and so

I omit the three next pages of my statement which give the
particulars of these experiments. I would only like to draw
the attention of the Tribunal to other crimes perpetrated by
the German doctors, and, in particular, to the extermination
of patients in mental hospitals. I am not going to quote all
the examples which the Tribunal will find in the Report of
the Extraordinary State Commission, but will dwell on one
crime only, which was perpetrated in the city of Kiev. I
quote a paragraph from the Report of the Extraordinary State
Commission on the city of Kiev, which the members of the
Tribunal will find on Page 212 of the document book,
paragraph 6:-

  "On 14th October, 1941 an SS detachment under the
  leadership of the German garrison physician Rikowsky,
  entered the mental hospital. The Hitlerites drove three
  hundred patients into one building, kept them there
  without food and water, and then shot them in a gully of
  the Kirilovsky wood. The remaining patients were
  exterminated on 7th January, 27th March, and 17th
  October, 1942."

                                                   [Page 11]

In the subsequent part of the Extraordinary State
Commission's report statements is quoted, a statement made
by Professor Kapustianski, by a woman doctor Dsevaltovski
and the nurse Troepolski, and investigated, duly verified
and confirmed. I submit to the Tribunal as Exhibit USSR 249
the photostat of this testimony, and I request that it be
included in the files of the case as evidence. I am quoting
some of the extracts from this document:-

  "During the German occupation of the city of Kiev, the
  Kiev Psychiatric Clinic had to experience some very
  tragic days, which culminated in the complete ruin and
  destruction of the hospital. A crime was committed
  against the unfortunate mentally sick people, the like of
  which had not been known in history up to this time."

I omit the next part and I quote further on:-
  "In the course of the years 1941-1942, eight hundred
  patients were killed."

I omit the next two paragraphs and I read on:-

  "On 7th January, 1942, the Gestapo men came to the
  hospital. They posted guards everywhere in the grounds of
  the hospital. To enter or leave the hospital was
  forbidden. A representative of the Gestapo requested the
  selection of the chronically sick people to be sent to

I omit the next sentence.

  "What was in store for the sick people was carefully
  concealed from the medical staff. After that, special
  vehicles arrived at the hospital. The sick people were
  pushed into them, some sixty to seventy persons into each
  one. Everyone could see these atrocities, which were
  perpetrated in front of the ward windows. The patients
  were pushed into the vehicles and were murdered. Their
  corpses were thrown out on the spot. This awful deed went
  on for two days, and three hundred and sixty five
  patients were exterminated. The patients who could think
  soon realised the truth. There were heartrending scenes.
  For example, a young girl, patient Y., in spite of all
  the efforts of the doctor, understood that death was
  awaiting her. She came out of the ward, embraced the
  doctor, and quietly asked him, 'Is this the end?' Pale as
  death, she went to the vehicle and, refusing any
  assistance, climbed inside. The entire staff was told
  that any criticism or any expression of displeasure would
  be completely out of place and would be regarded as

I shall quote one more sentence from this report:-

  "It is a characteristic detail that these unprecedented
  murders were committed on Christmas Day, when Christmas
  trees were being distributed to the German soldiers, and
  the inscription 'God with us' sparkled on the belts of
  the executioners."

I think it possible to omit the following four pages of my
speech because they deal with similar cases of the murder of
mental patients in other parts of the country. Similar
methods were used for these murders as those used in Kiev. I
will request the Tribunal to accept as evidence the
photostats of three German documents, certified by the
Extraordinary State Commission, which testify to the fact
that special official formulas were worked out for the
murder of the insane by the German fascists.

I submit these documents. The first document is submitted as
Exhibit USSR 397. The members of the Tribunal may find it on
Page 218 of the document book. I am quoting the text of the

  "To the Registrar's office in the town of Riga:"

I omit the next paragraph.

  "I hereby certify that 368 incurable mental patients,
  whose names appear on the annexed list died on 29th
  January, 1942.
  (Signed) Kirste, SS Sturmbannfuehrer."

                                                   [Page 12]

The second document is submitted as exhibit USSR 410. This
is a report by the head of the Security Police and SD in
Latvia, No. 357/42g, dated 23rd May, 1942. I am quoting one
paragraph from this document:-

  "I hereby certify that 243 incurable mental patients,
  whose names appear on the enclosed list, died on 14th
  April, 1942.
  (Signed) Kirste, SS Sturmbannfuehrer."

The third document is submitted as exhibit USSR 398. This is
a report by the head of the Security Police and SD, Latvia,
dated 15th March, 1943. I will read into the record one
paragraph of this document:-

  "I hereby certify that 98 incurable mental patients whose
  names appear on the enclosed list, died on 22nd October,
  (Signed) Kirste, SS Sturmbannfuehrer."

I think I can also omit the next one and a half pages of my
statement, but I would request the Tribunal to accept as
evidence the following document without reading it, as proof
of the experiments carried out on live persons. I submit as
Exhibit USSR 406 the data about the experiments carried out
in another camp, the Ravensbruck camp. It contains the
results of the investigation by the Polish State Commission.
The photographs contained therein are very characteristic
and I need not comment on them, they are self-evident.

I would now request the Tribunal's permission to summon as
witness a Polish woman, Shmaglevskaia, to testify regarding
the attitude of the German fascists toward the children in
the concentration camps.

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