The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Last-Modified: 1999/10/05

THE PRESIDENT Counsel for Sauckel, I think, was addressing
the Tribunal.

DR. SERVATUS: I had pointed out the difference between the
Arbeitsdienst and the Arbeitseinsatz. The French prosecuting
attorney apparently confused the two, for he said that the
Arbeitsdienst was connected with Sauckel. That is not so.
The former was an organisation for pre-military training, in
which young people had to render a labour service. These
young people were to some extent used for military purposes.
The Arbeitseinsatz was concerned solely with the recruiting
of labour to be used in factories or other places of work.
It follows, therefore, that Sauckel cannot be associated
with the accusations that were made in this connection. That
is what I wanted to say.

M. DUBOST: The two German words were translated in an
identical manner in French. A verification having been made,
the remarks of the defence are correct and Sauckel is not
involved, only the Army is.


M. DUBOST: When we were interrupted by this technical
difficulty we were about to present a few examples of
terrorist exterminations in Holland, in Belgium, and in
other countries of the West.

In Holland, as one example out of a thousand, there were the
massacres of Putten of 30 September 1944. They are included
in Document F-719, which we submitted as Exhibit RF 409, and
which is to be found on Page 46 of the, document book before
the Tribunal. On 30 September 1944 an attack was attempted
by members of the Dutch resistance against a German
automobile. The Germans concluded that the village was a
refuge for partisans. They searched the houses of the
inhabitants; they gathered the population together.

A wounded German officer had been taken prisoner by the
Dutch resistance. The Germans declared that if the officer
was released within twenty-four hours there would be no
reprisal exercised. The officer was released, after having
received medical care from the soldiers of the Dutch
resistance who had captured him. However, in spite of the
pledge given, reprisals were inflicted upon the village of
Putten, whose inhabitants were all innocent.

Paragraph 2 of the Dutch report which I now cite:

   "The population, which had gathered together in the
   church, was informed that the men would be taken away;
   that the women had to leave the village and that the
   village would be destroyed. One hundred and five houses
   were burned. It is estimated that the centre of the
   village comprised 2000 houses. Eight persons, among whom
   was one woman, who sought to escape were shot and

In the third paragraph:

   "The men were transported to the concentration camp of
                                                  [Page 323]
   There they found many people who, in passing through had
   entered the penned-in village and could not leave it
   again. At Amersfoort they released about fifty men.
   About twelve had jumped from the train during the
   convoy. Finally, 622 men were transported to Auschwitz.
   The greater part of them had died at the end of the
   first two months. Of the 622 men who were taken away
   only 32 inhabitants of Putten and ten from other towns
   returned after the liberation."

In Belgium, we will cite only a few facts which are related
in Document F-685, already submitted to the Tribunal as
Exhibit RF 394. This document is to be found on Page 48 in
your document book. The penultimate paragraph describes the
murder of a young man who had sought refuge in a dug-out. He
was killed by the Germans, who were looking for soldiers of
the Belgian Secret Army.

At Herve - the last paragraph of that page - the Germans
fired on a lorry filled with young people and killed them.
The same day some civilians were killed by a tank.

On Page 49, paragraph 1 and 2 are described the summary
executions of members of the secret army. Paragraph 3; I
quote :

   "At Anhee, shots having been fired upon them, the
   Germans crossed the Meuse River. They set fire to fifty-
   eight houses and killed thirteen men. At Annevoie, on
   the 4th, the Germans came across the river and burned
   fifty-eight houses."

The five paragraphs which follow report useless destruction
from the military point of view. Let us now proceed to the
last paragraph.

   "At Arendonck, on the 3rd, eighty men were killed; five
   houses were burned. At St. Hubert, on the 6th, three men
   killed and four houses burned. At Hody, on the 6th,
   systematic destruction of the village; forty houses
   destroyed ; sixteen people killed. At Marcourt, ten
   people were shot; thirty-five houses were burned. At
   Nerosteren, on the 9th, nine people were killed. At Oost-
   Ham, on the 10th, five persons were killed. At Balen-
   Neet, on the 11th, ten persons were shot."

Page 50 contains the description of German exactions at the
time of the temporary stabilisation of the front. Next to
the last paragraph:

   "At Hechtel, the Germans having withdrawn before the
   British vanguard, the inhabitants hung out our flags.
   Then fresh German troops came to hold back the British
   vanguard and reprisals were exercised. Thirty-one people
   were shot; 80 houses were burned, and general looting
   took place. At Helchteren under similar circumstances,
   thirty-four houses were set on fire and ten people were
   killed." The same events at Herenthout.

Paragraph 2 of Page 50;

   The circumstances in which these men were executed are
   always identical. The Germans search the cellars, bring
   the men out, line them along the highway and shoot them,
   after having given them the order to run. In the
   meantime grenades are thrown into the cellars, wounding
   the women and the children."

Last paragraph:

   "At Lommel, the unexpected return of the German soldiers
   found the village with flags out. Seventeen persons who
   had sought refuge in a shelter were noticed by a German.
   He motioned to a tank which ran over the shelter
   backwards and forwards until it crushed it, killing
   twelve people."

In the case of Norway we shall read an excerpt from a
document already placed before you as Exhibit RF 325, page
51 and 52 of your book:

   "On 13 April, 1940, two women aged thirty were shot at
                                                  [Page 324]
   On 15 April, four civilians, among them two boys aged
   fifteen and sixteen, were shot at Aadal. One of the
   victims received a shot in the head and was wounded in
   the abdomen. On 19th April, four civilians, among whom
   were two women and a little boy thirteen years old, were
   shot at Ringsaker."

The last paragraph on that Page - Page 51:

   "To avenge the death of two German policemen killed on
   26 April 1942 at Televaag, the entire town was
   destroyed; that is to say, more than eighty premises
   with 334 buildings, causing damage to the value of
   4,200,000 crowns."

On Page 52 the Tribunal will find the continuation of the
descriptions of German atrocities committed in Norway
without any military character, simply to maintain the reign
of terror.

In France, massacres, destruction without military purpose,
were extremely numerous, and all of them were closely
associated. We place before you F-243 as Exhibit RF 412. The
Tribunal will find this document on Page 178 of the document
book. It is a long list drawn up by the French Service for
Inquiry into War Crimes on the towns that were destroyed and
looted without any military necessity. These enumerations go
from Page 179 to Page 193 of the document book placed before
the Tribunal. The Tribunal will undoubtedly be enlightened
by the reading of this document. We shall give but a few
examples. Document F-909, Exhibit RF-413, shows the
conditions under which a whole section of Marseilles was
destroyed - Pages 56, 57, and 58 of the document book which
the Tribunal has in hand.

Page 57, if you please, eighth line of the paragraph before
the last. It is estimated that around 20,000 people were
evacuated. This evacuation was ordered on the 23rd of
January. It was carried out without warning during the night
of the 23rd to the 24th. I quote:

   "It is estimated that 20,000 persons were evacuated.
   From Frejus some of them were shipped by the Germans to
   the concentration camp of Compiegne."

On Page 58, paragraph 2:

   "The demolition operations began on the 1st of February
   at about 9 o'clock in the morning. They were carried out
   by troops of the German Engineer Corps."

The last three lines of this paragraph:

   "The area destroyed is equivalent to fourteen hectares
   that is to say, approximately twelve hundred buildings."

Inquiry was made to find those who were responsible for this
destruction. After the liberation of Marseilles the German
consul in Marseilles, von Spiegel, was interrogated. His
testimony is incorporated in Document F-908, which we place
before you as Exhibit RF 414, Page 53 of your document book.
We will read only the last paragraph on Page 54; Spiegel

   "I know that a very short time after the evacuation of
   the old port, the rumour was prevalent that this measure
   had been brought about by financial interests. I am in a
   position to affirm that such a hypothesis is erroneous.
   The order came from the higher echelons of the Reich
   Government which pointed out only two motives: Security
   of troops, dangers of epidemics."

We do not intend to give you a complete description of the
attacks committed by the Germans, but merely a few examples.
Document F-600, Page 59, which we submit as Exhibit RF 415.

   "At Ohis (Aisne) a civilian sought to give something to
   drink to an American soldier. The Germans returned. The
   American soldier was
                                                  [Page 325]
   taken prisoner and M. Hennebert was also taken away by
   the Germans to a spot designated as the "black mountain"
   in the village of Origny en Thierarche where his body
   was later discovered partly hidden under a stack of
   wood. The body bore the trace of two bayonet wounds in
   the back."

At Lagnieu - Document F-604, submitted as Exhibit RF 416,
Page 61 of the document book.

   "A civilian was killed in his vineyard. Young people,
   young women were killed on the highway."

At the bottom of Page 61, before the certification formula,
the motive is given as "Presence of Maquis in the Region."

All these victims were completely innocent.

At Culoz, Document F-904, which I submit as Exhibit RF 417,
Page 62 of your document book :

"Young boys were arrested because they had run away at the
sight of the Germans. They were deported."

This is three paragraphs before the end of the page. I am
quoting the next to the last paragraph:

   "Not one of them belonged to the Resistance."

At St. Jean Maurienne, Document F-906, submitted as Exhibit
RF 418, Page 63 of your book of documents, paragraph 3:

   On 23 July the Gendarmes - I am now quoting - "Chavanne
   and Empereur, dressed in civilian clothes, were arrested
   by German soldiers without reasonable motives. The
   lieutenant who was in charge of the Kommandantur
   promised the officer of the Gendarmes to liberate these
   three men. This German later surreptitiously ordered his
   men to shoot these prisoners."

Page 64, paragraph 4, the 1st of September:

   "Mademoiselle Perraud, twenty-one years of age, who was
   a maid at the Caf‚ Dentroux, was raped by a German
   soldier under threat of a pistol."

I merely mention all the atrocities described in the
document, up to Page 68 of your book.

I come to the Vercors. This region was undeniably an
important assembly centre for French Forces of the Interior.
Document F-611, which we submit as Exhibit RF 419 describes
the atrocities committed against the innocent population of
this region as reprisals because of the presence of the
Maquis men. This document appears in your book under Page
69, et seq.

Paragraph 3 of Page 69 is an enumeration of police
operations in this area on 15 June, carried out in the
region of St. Donat, first: rapes and looting; second:
execution at Portes-Les-Valence on 8 July of thirty hostages
taken from the political prisoners interned at Fort Montluc
at Lyons; third: police raids carried out against the Maquis
of the Vercors Region from 21 July to 5 August 1944, rape
and looting in the region of Crest, Soillant, and St. Die;
fourth: Aerial bombing by aircraft of numerous villages in
the Vercors and in particular Chapelle and Vassieux in
Vercors; fifth: summary execution of inhabitants of these
towns; sixth: looting, execution after summary judgement of
about a hundred young men at St. Nazaire-en-Rayons; Seventh
deportation to Germany of three hundred others from this
region; and lastly murder of fifty gravely wounded persons
in the Grotto of La Luire.

Page 70, paragraph 1, on 15 June 1944; Attack by German
troops at St. Donat - I am quoting - "Which the Maquis had
evacuated several days earlier."

                                                  [Page 326]

Paragraph 5, Page 54: I am quoting:

   "Fifty-four young women from thirteen to fifteen years
   of age were raped by the maddened soldiers."

The Tribunal will forgive me if I avoid citing the atrocious
details which follow.

Page 71, the last paragraph: Bombing of the villages of
Combovin, La Baume-Cornillanne, Durches, et cetera - I am
now quoting:

   "The losses caused by these bombings among the civilian
   population were rather high, for in most cases the
   inhabitants, caught by surprise, had no time to seek

Page 72, third paragraph: "Two women were raped at Crest "
This in paragraph 3, and in the same connection, three women
in Saillans. Page 73, Paragraph 4, I am quoting:

   "A young girl of twelve, who was wounded, and pinned
   down between beams, awaited death for six long days
   without being able either to sit down or sleep and
   without receiving any food, and that under the eyes of
   the Germans who were occupying the village."

I proceed: F-612, submitted as Exhibit RF 420, Page 77:

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