The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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                                                  [Page 282]

Q. Considering now actions in Greece about which you have
personal knowledge, will you tell the Tribunal of the
actions there in a chronological sequence?

A.  In January, 1943, I was summoned by Eichmann to Berlin,
where he told me that I was to proceed to Salonika, there to
solve the Jewish problem there in co-operation with the
German Military Administration in Macedonia. Eichmann's
permanent representative, Sturmbannfuehrer Wolf, had
previously been to Salonika. My departure had been scheduled
for February, 1942. At the end of January, 1942, I was told
by Eichmann that Hauptsturmfuehrer Brunner had been
nominated by him for the technical execution of all
operations in Greece, and that he was to accompany me to
Salonika. Brunner was not subordinate to me; he worked
independently. In February, 1942, we went to Salonika and
there contacted the Military Administration. As first

Q. With whom in the Military Administration did you deal?

A.  War Administration Counsellor (Kriegsverwaltungsrat) Dr.
Merten, Chief of the Military Administration with the
Commander of the Armed Forces in the Salonika-Aegean

Q. I believe you used 1942 once or more in reference; did
you at all times refer to 1943 in dealing with Greece?

A.  That is an error. These events occurred in 1943.

Q. What arrangements were made through Dr. Merten and what
actions were taken?

A.  In Salonika the Jews were first of all concentrated in
certain quarters of the city. There were, in Salonika, about
50,000 Jews of Spanish descent. At the beginning of March,
after this concentration had taken place, a teletype arrived
from Eichmann to Brunner, ordering the immediate evacuation
of all Jews from Salonika and Macedonia to Auschwitz. Armed
with this order Brunner and I went to the Military
Administration; no objections were raised by the
Administration and measures were prepared and executed.
Brunner directed the entire action in Salonika in person.
The trains necessary for the evacuation were requisitioned
from the Transport Command of the Armed Forces. All Brunner
had to do was to indicate the number of railway cars needed
and the exact time at which they were required.

Q. Were any of the Jewish workers retained at the request of
Dr. Merten or the Military Administration?

A.  The Military Administration had requisitioned about
3,000 Jews for construction work on the railroad, which
number was duly delivered. Once the work was ended, these
Jews were returned to Brunner and were, like all the others,
dispatched to Auschwitz. The work in question was carried
out within the programme of the Todt Organisation.

Q. What was the number of Jewish workers retained for the
Organization Todt?

A.  Three to four thousand.

Q. Was there any illness among the Jews that were
concentrated for transport?

A.  In the camp proper, i.e., the concentration camp, there
were no incidence of disease to report. However, in certain
quarters of the city inhabited by the Jews there was a
prevalence of typhus and other contagious diseases,
especially tuberculosis of the lungs.

                                                  [Page 283]

Q. What, if any, communication did you have with Eichmann
concerning this typhus?

A.  On receipt of the teletype concerning the evacuation
from Salonika, I drew  Eichmann's attention over the
telephone to the prevalence of typhus. He ignored my
objections and gave orders for the evacuation to proceed

Q. Altogether, how many Jews were collected and shipped from

A.  There were over 50,000 Jews; I believe that about 54,000
were evacuated from Salonika and Macedonia.

Q. What is the basis for your figure?

A.  I myself read a comprehensive report from Brunner to
Eichmann on completion of the evacuation. Brunner left
Salonika at the end of  May 1943. I personally was not in
Salonika from the beginning of April until the end of May,
so that the action was carried out by Brunner alone.

Q. How many transports were used for shipping Jews from

A.  From 20 to 25 transport trains.

Q. And how many were shipped in each transport?

A.  There were at least 2,000, and in many cases 2,500.

Q. What kind of railway equipment was used for these

A.  Sealed freight cars were used. The evacuees were given
sufficient food to last them for about ten days, consisting
mostly of bread, olives and other dry food. They also
received water and various sanitary facilities.

Q. Who furnished this railway transportation?

A.  Transport was supplied by the Rail Transport Command of
the Armed Forces, i.e., the cars and locomotives. The food
was furnished by the Military Administration.

Q. What did the Subsection IV-A-4 have to do with obtaining
this transportation, and who in that sub-section dealt with

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Brookhart, you need not go into this
in such great detail.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL BROOKHART:  If Your Honour pleases, this
particular question, I believe, will have a bearing on the
implications involving the military; I can cut down on the
other details.

THE PRESIDENT:  Well, you spent some considerable time in
describing how many of them were concentrated. Whether it
was 60,000, or how many were kept for the Todt Organisation
-- all those details are really unnecessary.


THE PRESIDENT: I mean, you must use your own discretion
about how you cut down. I do not know what details or what
facts you are going to prove.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL BROOKHART:  If Your Honour pleases, this
witness, as he has testified, is competent to cover
practically all details in these Balkan countries. It is not
our wish to add cumulative evidence, but his testimony does
furnish a complete story from the Head Office of the
Reichssicherheitshauptamt through the field operations to
the "final solution."

THE PRESIDENT:. Well, what is he going to prove about these
50,000 Jews?

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL BROOKHART:  Their ultimate disposition at
Auschwitz, as far as he knows.

PRESIDENT:  Well, you can go on to what ultimately happened
to them then.

                                                  [Page 284]


Q. What was the destination of these transports of Jews from

A.  In every case to Auschwitz.

Q. And what was the ultimate disposition of the Jews sent to
Auschwitz from Greece?

A.  They were without exception destined for the so-called
"final solution."

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