Archive/File: imt/tgmwc/tgmwc-05/tgmwc-05-40.06 Last-Modified: 1999/10/05 Thus, this gold was delivered to the Reichsbank and was requisitioned by [Page 64] order of the Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan. The documents relative to this question are submitted as Exhibit RF 240. I shall simply add that after the liberation, the Provisional Government of the French Republic transferred to the National Bank of Belgium a quantity of gold equal to that which the Belgian Bank had entrusted to the Bank of France in the month of May 1940. To conclude the gold question I shall indicate to the Tribunal that Germany was unable to obtain the gold resources of France, since these had been put in safe keeping in good time. Finally, still according to the last secret report of Hemmen, Page 29, and Page 49 of the French translation, at the moment of their retreat the Germans seized, without any right, the sum 6,899,000,000 francs from branches of the Bank of France in Nancy, Belfort and Epinal. I note for the record that in the course of the occupation the Germans seized great quantities of gold which they arranged to be bought from private citizens by intermediaries. I cannot give figures for this. I simply touch on the question for the record. If we summarise the question of the means of payment which Germany unduly raised in France, we shall reach - still taking the calculation most favourable to the defendants, and taking the maximum amount for the cost of maintaining occupation troops - a minimum total of 745,833,392,550 francs, in round figures 750,000,000,000 francs (Page 43). M. GERTHOFFER: Gentlemen, I pass over the remarks in my written presentation in order not to take up the time of the Tribunal. I have quoted some passages from Hemmen's report, but I think it is superfluous, since the fact is known and indisputable. I now come to Page 50, which refers to the use which the Germans made of these considerable sums, and first of all, to the black market organised by the occupying power. Here again I do not want to take advantage of your kind attention. I have had the honour of presenting to you the mechanism of the black market in all the occupied countries. I have indicated how it arose, how the Germans utilised it, how, under the orders of the defendant Goering, it was organised and exploited. I do not wish to revert to this, and I shall pass over the whole section of my written expose which was devoted to the black market in France. I come to Page 69 of my written expose, Chapter 3: Ostensibly legal acquisitions appear. Under the pressure of the Germans, the Vichy Government had to consent to reserve for them a very high quota of products of all kinds; in exchange the Germans undertook to furnish raw materials, the quantities of which were determined by them alone. But these raw materials, when they were delivered, which was not always the case, were for the most part absorbed by the industry which was forced to furnish them the finished products. In fact, there was no compensation, since the occupying power recovered, in the form of finished products, the raw materials delivered, and did not in reality give anything in return. In the report of the Economic Control which has already been quoted, submitted as Exhibit RF 1075 the following example may be noted: "An agreement permitted the purchase in the free zone of 5,000 trucks destined for the German G.B.K. whereby the Reich furnished five tons of steel per vehicle, or a total of 25,000 tons of steels destined for French industry. In view of the usual destination of the products of our metal industry at that time, this was obviously a one-sided bargain, indeed if our information is exact, the deliveries of steel to be made in return were never made, and they were partly used for the defence of the Mediterranean coast rails, anti-tank defences, etc." [Page 65] It is appropriate to call attention to the fact that a considerable part of the levies in kind were the object of no regulation whatever, either because the Germans remained debtors in these transactions or because they considered, without justification, that these levies constituted war booty. In regard to this there are no documents available; however, the United States Army has discovered a secret report of one Kraney representing the R.O.G.E.S., an organisation which was charged with collecting both war booty and acquisitions from the black market. It appears from this report that in September, 1944, the R.O.G.E.S. had resold to Germany for 10,858,499 Mark, or 217,169,980 francs, goods seized in the Southern zone as war booty. I submit this document as Exhibit RF 244. As a result of the means of payment exacted by Germany and of requisitions, whether regulated or not, France was literally despoiled. Enormous quantities of articles of all kinds were removed by the occupying power. According to information given by the French statistical services preliminary estimates of the minimum of these levies have been made. These estimates do not include damage resulting from military operations, but solely the German spoliations computed, in cases of doubt, at a minimum figure; they will be summarised in the eight following sections. 1. Levies of agricultural produce. I submit as Exhibit RF 245, the report of the Ministry of Agriculture, and a statistical table drawn up by the Institute for Statistics, summarising the official German levies, which included neither individual purchases nor black market purchases, both of which were considerable. It is not possible for me to read to the Tribunal a table of such length, so I will confine myself to giving a brief resume of it. Here are some of the chief agricultural products which were seized, and their estimated value in millions of francs: (I am indicating the totals in round figures). Cereals 8,900,000 tons; estimate: 22,000,000 francs Meat: 900,000 tons; 30,000,000 Fish: 51,000 tons; 1,000,000 Wines liquors:13,413,000 hectolitres; 18,500,000 Colonial products:47,000 tons; 805,900 Horses and mules:690,000 heads; Wood: 36,000,000 cubic metres Sugar: 11,600,000 tons I shall pass over the details. The Germans regulated by way of clearing and occupation costs 113,620,376,000 francs, the balance, that is 13 billions, was not subject to any regulation. Naturally, these estimates do not include considerable damage caused to forests as a result of abnormal cutting, and the reduction of areas under cultivation. There is no mention, either, of the reduction in livestock or damage caused by soil exhaustion. This is a brief summary of the percentage of official German levies on agriculture in relation to the total French production Wheat : 13% Oats: 75% Hay and straw: 80% Meat: 21% Poultry: 5% Eggs: 60% Butter: 20% Preserved fish: 30% Champagne: 56% Wood for industrial uses: 50% [Page 66] Forest fuels: 50% Alcohol: 25% These percentages, I repeat, do not include quantities of produce which the Germans bought up either by individual purchases or on the black market. I have had the privilege of presenting to you the fact that these operations were of a considerable scope, and amounted for France approximately to several hundred billions of francs. The quantities of agricultural produce thus taken from French consumers are incalculable. I shall merely indicate that wines, champagne, liquors, meat, poultry, eggs, and butter were the object of a very considerable clandestine traffic to the benefit of the Germans, and that the French population, aside from certain privileged persons, was almost entirely deprived of these products. In section 2 of this chapter I shall discuss the important question concerning levies of raw materials. THE PRESIDENT: This would be a good time for us to adjourn for ten minutes. (A recess was taken) M. GERTHOFFER: The summary of the levies on raw materials, from the statistical point of view, is contained in charts which I shall not take the time to read to the Tribunal. I shall submit them as Exhibit RF 246 and point out that the total amount of these supplies reaches the sum of 83,804,145,000 francs. On Pages 77 to 80 of the brief I had thought it necessary to make a summary of these charts, but I consider it impossible to read even the summary because the figures are too numerous. According to information provided by the French administration, of that sum the Germans regulated by way of occupation costs and clearing only 59,254,639,000 francs, charging the difference of 19,506,109,000 francs to the French Treasury. The percentage of the German levies in relation to the whole French production can be summarised in a chart which I have reproduced in my brief, and I shall ask the Tribunal for permission to read it. (Page 82.) The percentage of levies of raw materials in relation to French production, Coal 29% Electric power 22% Petroleum and motor fuel 80% Iron ore 74% Steel products crude and half finished 51% Copper 75% Lead 43% Zinc 38% Tin 67% Nickel 64% Mercury 50% Platinum 76% Bauxite 40% Aluminium 75% Magnesium 100% Sulphur Carbonate 80% Industrial soap 67% Vegetable oil 40% Carbosol 100% Rubber 38% Paper and cardboard 16% Wool 59% [Page 67] Cotton 53% Flax 65% Leather 67% Cement 55% Lime 20% Acetone 21% This enumeration permits us to consider that officially about three quarters of the raw materials were seized by the occupying power, but these statistics must be qualified in two ways: A great part of the quota of raw materials, which were theoretically left to the French economy, was in fact reserved for industries which had a priority on them; that is to say, those industries whose production was reserved for the occupying power. These levies and percentages include only the figures of official deliveries. We have seen that the Germans acquired considerable quantities of raw materials from the black market, especially precious metals; - gold, platinum, silver, radium, - or rare metals, such as mercury, nickel, tin and copper. In fact, one can say in general that the raw materials which were left for the needs of the population were insignificant. Now, I come to Section 3. Levies of manufactured goods and products of the mining industry. As I had the honour to point out to you in my general remarks, the Germans, using divers means of pressure, succeeded in utilising directly or indirectly the greater part of the French industrial production. I shall not go over these facts again and I shall immediately pass to a summary of the products which were delivered. I submit as Exhibit RF 248 a chart which includes statistical data listed according to industries, of levies of manufactured goods during the course of the occupation by the occupying power. I do not want to tax the patience of the Tribunal by reading this, I shall simply cite the summary of this chart, which is as follows: Orders for products finished and invoiced from 25 June 1940 until liberation. Mechanical and electrical industries 59,455,000,000 Chemical industry 11,744,000,000 Textiles and leather 15,802,000,000 Building and construction material 56,256,000,000 Mines, coal, aluminium and phosphates 4,160,000,000 Steel products 4,474,000,000 Motor fuel 568,000,000 Naval construction 6,104,000,000 Aeronautical construction 23,620,000,000 Miscellaneous industries 2,457,000,000 a total, then, of 184,640,000,000. These statistics may be commented upon as follows: (1) The information which is contained here, does not include the production of the very industrialised Departments of Nord and of Pas de Calais, attached to the German administration in Brussels, nor does it include the manufactures of the Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin and Moselle Departments, actually incorporated into the Reich. (2) Out of the total sum of 184,640,000,000 francs worth of supplies, the information which we have up to date does not as yet permit us to fix the amount regulated by the Germans by way of either occupation costs or clearing, or the balance which was not made the subject of any final settlement. (3) If one were to make, on the basis of contracts, an estimate of the industrial production levied by Germany in the Departments of Nord and Pas de Calais, [Page 68] one could obtain a figure for those two departments of 18,500,000,000, which would bring the approximate total up to more than 200,000,000,000 francs. The extent of the German levies on manufactured products is summarised in the following chart, which I submit to the Tribunal and which I have summarised on Page 87. I shall take the liberty of re-reading it to the Tribunal and it will show the proportion of the manufactured goods which were withdrawn from French consumption. Automobile construction 70% Electrical and radio construction 45% Industrial precision parts 100% Heavy castings 100% Foundries 46% Chemical industries 34% Rubber industry 60% Paint and varnish 60% Perfume 33% Wool industry 28% Cotton weaving 15% Flax and cotton weaving 12% Industrial leather 20% Buildings and public works 75% Wood work and furniture 50% Lime and cement 68% Naval construction 79% Aeronautic construction 90% The scrutiny of this chart leads me to make the following remarks: The proportion of entirely finished products is very large, for instance: Automobiles 70% Precision instruments 100% Heavy castings 100% The proportion of the products in the process of manufacture, however, is not as large, for example: Foundry 46% Chemical industry 34% etc.
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