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THE PRESIDENT: Captain Sprecher, I do not think I made it
quite clear that the Tribunal is not really interested in
these details by which the defendant von Schirach acquired
his power over the German youth. You have told us sufficient
to establish in our minds, so far at any rate, that he
managed to get absolute command over the German youth. The
only thing that seems to me to be material, at the present
stage, is whether or not you can show us any direct evidence
that the defendant Schirach was a party to the aggressive
aims of the Reich leaders, or to any War Crimes or to any
Crimes against Humanity. Unless you can show us that, your
address to us is really not useful to us at this stage.

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: I plan to take up directly, your Honour,
the question of the militarisation of youth. I did want to
make one reference at this point to the relation of the
Hitler Youth to the League for Germandom Abroad, if that is
satisfactory to your Honour.

THE PRESIDENT: The League for Germandom Abroad?

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: Yes, Sir.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, that may bear on the aggressive aims of
the Reich Leaders.

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: Schirach extended the influence of the
Hitler Youth beyond the borders of Germany, by means of co-
operation between the Hitler Youth and the League of
Germandom Abroad, the V.D.A. This is proved by an agreement
made in 1933 between Schirach and leaders of the V.D.A.
which is contained in Document L-360-H, document book Page
3. This is offered in evidence as Exhibit USA 671.

Now, Schirach discusses in his book, "The Hitler Youth,"
under the chapter heading "Work Abroad" (that is Chapter 4
of the book, Pages 34 to 38 of the document book) some of
the connections of the Hitler Youth with such Nazi ideas as
Lebensraum - colonial policy - as an ideological weapon.

I will not read from that, since it also covers to a certain
extent

THE PRESIDENT: Did it talk about "Lebensraum"?

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: It actually used the word, "Lebensraum."
At Page 36 of the document book there is reference made to
the "Ostraum," space in the East -

THE PRESIDENT: I thought the document you were dealing with
was L-360 on Page 3.

I CAPTAIN SPRECHER: I am sorry. I had gone on from there to
speak about Schirach's book.

                                                  [Page 285]

Document 1458-PS, and I had mentioned that at Pages 34 to 38
of that book there were references concerning the Nazi ideas
of colonial policy and "Lebensraum," and that this book by
Schirach indicated that the Hitler Youth was charged with
spreading those ideas.

He uses the word "Ostraum" in speaking of space in the East,
and he discusses German Youth organisations abroad and the
German schools in these countries. And then I wish
particularly to point out on Page 37 the following sentence:

   "It will be taken into consideration concerning this
   schooling that the guiding line of German population
   policy which aims at the utilisation of the space in the
   East will not be violated."

Now, in concluding the question of the ideological
significance of the Hitler Youth, I would like to ask your
indulgence while I make a short quotation from that master
Nazi ideologist, the defendant Alfred Rosenberg. This is
Document 130-PS, your document book, Page 122, which is
offered as Exhibit USA 672. Rosenberg was making an answer
to some inquiries of the defendant Bormann about the
expediency of initiating some legal proceedings against the
Churches in 1939. Rosenberg replied, apparently, by
enclosing an article which he had written the year before,
and it is from this article that I wish to quote:

   "We have made quite good progress in carrying the N.S.
   ideology to German Youth. What there is still left of
   Catholic Youth are only small groups, which will be
   absorbed as time goes on. The Hitler Youth is the
   absorbing sponge which nobody can resist. Furthermore,
   our programme for education in all categories of our
   schools has been built up already, with such an anti-
   Christian and anti-Jewish tendency, that the generation
   growing up now will be safe from the black 'swindle'."

I use that extract, your Honour, in connection with the
expectancy of these conspirators themselves with respect to
the Hitler Youth and what it was to do to the mind of young
Germans.

Now, the conspirators devoted a great deal of energy to the
perpetuation of their scheme of things by selecting and
training successors for Nazi leadership, selecting and
training and acquiring active Nazis for the rank and file of
the N.S.D.A.P. and its affiliated organisations, including
the S.A. and the S.S. which are alleged here to be criminal
organisations.

A number of orders issued by the Party Chancellery under the
heading, "Successor Problems," show the dominant part
assumed by Schirach and his Hitler Youth in this field. Our
Document 3348-PS, "Selections from Volume I of the Decrees,
Regulations and Announcements of the Party Chancellery,"
already marked in evidence as Exhibit USA 410, contains some
of these orders, which I will not take the time to read.
But, they are all contained on one page - 113 - of your
document book.

Only Hitler Youth members who distinguished themselves were
to be admitted to the Party. Nazi leaders were directed to
absorb full-time Hitler Youth Leaders into their staffs, so
as to offer them practical experience and thus secure
necessary successors for the Leadership Corps, which is also
alleged as a criminal organisation. This pivotal and central
function of the Hitler Youth in the domination of German
life by the Party is also shown at Pages 80 and 81 of the
1938 Party Manual, Exhibit USA 430, found at Page 74 of the
document book.

THE PRESIDENT: That last page, Page 113, does that refer to
any of the matters to which I drew your attention? It is
simply the organisation of the youth; it has nothing to do
with any criminal aims.

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: Your Honour, it certainly is the
contention of the prosecution that any man who took an
active part in furnishing, for these criminal organisations,
young members, committed a crime.

                                                  [Page 286]


THE PRESIDENT: I quite understand that, and that is why I
told you that we were satisfied that so far you had shown
that he had acquired absolute control over and was the
leader of the German youth. The only thing we want to hear
about at this stage is whether he was a party to the schemes
for aggressive war, to War Crimes, or to Crimes against
Humanity. That is what we want to hear, and we do not want
to hear anything else.

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: Your Honours, may I pass, then, to the
connection of Hitler Youth to the S,S. Document 2396-PS,
which is found at Page 69 of the document book and which is
offered as Exhibit USA 673, has a quotation in it concerning
the "Streifendienst" of the Hitler Youth, the
"Streifendienst" being the patrol Service, a type of self-
police organisation of the Hitler Youth. The quotation which
I intend to read will indicate how this organisation became
the principal supplier of the S.S.

Are your Honours interested in hearing that quotation
concerning the Hitler Youth as the main source of the S.S.?

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, perhaps; I have not read it.

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: This document is an agreement between
Schirach and Himmler. It was concluded in October, 1938. It
bears, I think, partial quoting:

   "Organisation of the 'Streifendienst.'
   
   1. Since the 'Streifendienst' in the Hitler Youth has to
   perform tasks similar to those of the S.S. for the whole
   movement, it is organised as a special unit for the
   purpose of securing recruits for the General S.S.
   However, as much as possible, recruits for the S.S.
   Special Troops, for the S.S. Death Head Units, and for
   the officer candidate schools, should also be taken from
   these formations."

I am passing down now to 4-a, the second part, which is
underlined in red in your book:

   "The selection of 'Streifendienst' members is made
   according to the principles of racial selection of the
   Schutzstaffel. The competent officials of the S.S.,
   primarily unit leaders, race authorities, and S.S.
   physicians, will be consulted for the admission tests."

Passing to 5:

   "To ensure from the beginning a good understanding
   between Reich Youth Leadership and Reich S.S.
   Leadership, a liaison office will be arranged from the
   Reich Youth Leadership to the S.S. Main Office starting
   1st October, 1938. The appointment of other leaders to
   the S.S. sections is a subject for a future agreement."

Then, going down to what I think is the most striking
quotation, your Honour, 6:

   "After the organisation is completed, the S.S. takes its
   replacement primarily from these Streifendienst members.
   Admission of youths of German blood, who are not members
   of the Hitler Youth, is then possible only after
   information and advice of the competent Bann Leaders."

Now, the Bann leader referred to there was the local leader
of the Hitler Jugend, and without his consent no one could
go into the S.S. after that agreement was made, which was in
October, 1938.

Now, the second agreement which Schirach made with Himmler
was made in December, 1938. It is Document 2567-PS, Page 98
of the document book. It is offered in evidence as Exhibit
USA 674. It states that the Farm Service of the Hitler Youth

   "is, according to education and aim, particularly well
   suited as a recruiting agency for the S.S., General S.S.
   and the armed section of the S.S., S.S. Special Troops,
   and S.S. Death Head battalions."

                                                  [Page 287]

The agreement concludes by stating that Farm Service members
of the Hitler Youth who pass the S.S. admission tests will
be taken over by the S.S. immediately after leaving the
Hitler Youth Farm Service.

I might point out to your Honours that this meant that,
after that time, any Hitler Youth member who was in the Farm
Service was obliged to go into the S.S.

And now, to come directly to the point you have been
inquiring about, your Honour:

Throughout the six years of Nazi political control over
Germany before the launching of aggressive war, Schirach was
actively engaged in militarising German youth. From the
beginning, the Hitler Youth was set up along military lines
with uniforms, ranks, and titles. It was regimented and led
in military fashion under the leadership principle.

If your Honours will take any edition whatsoever of the
Organisation Book, the Party Manual, and turn to the table,
beginning with Tables 54 and 90, through the book, you will
see the very striking insignia of the Hitler Youth, and how
much it resembles the normal military insignia. You will
further notice that one of the most prominent insignia is an
"S" of the same type that the Nazis used with respect to the
S.S. You will notice that part of the uniform was a long
knife.

THE PRESIDENT: Is not that all a part of what they are
pleased to call the Nazi ideology? I mean, the Fuehrership
principle, military training?

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: There is a relation between all of these
things, perhaps, and the leadership principle, because the
leadership principle dominated absolutely every aspect of
German life. However, your Honour, I suggest that showing to
you, in this graphic way, the similarity between the uniform
of the Hitler Youth and military uniforms, has some bearing
upon the preparation for aggressive wars, about which I am
further to speak in just a moment.

Now, Document 2654-PS, found at Page 102 of your document
book is a whole book given over to just this question of the
organisation and the insignia of the Hitler Youth.

The Tribunal will see how the Hitler Youth was divided into
branches or divisions which were very similar to military
divisions.

That document is offered as Exhibit USA 675. I will refer no
further to it.

Now, in a speech in February, 1938, when the conspirators
had already dropped some of the camouflage which surrounded
their earlier military preparations for the wars, which we
have recently suffered, Hitler discussed the military
training of the Hitler Youth in the "Volkischer Beobachter"
of 21st February, 1938. This is our Document 2454-PS, found
at Page 97 of the document book. It is offered as Exhibit
USA 676.

Hitler there said that thousands of German boys had received
specialised training through the Hitler Youth in naval,
aviation, and motorised groups, and that over 7,000
instructors had trained more than one million Hitler Youth
members in rifle shooting. That was February, 1938, shortly
before the Anschluss. Note the progress of military training
within the Hitler Youth between then and August, 1939, just
one month before the invasion of Poland.

At that time the defendant Schirach and the defendant
Keitel, as Chief of the High Command, entered into another
one of those informative agreements, which many of these
defendants liked to make among themselves. It is Document
2398-PS, your document book Page 72. It is offered as
Exhibit U.S.A. 677. It is taken from "Das Archiv" which, in
introducing the actual agreement, declared that this
agreement was "the result of close co-operation" between
Schirach and Keitel. The agreement itself states, in part:

   "While it is exclusively the task of the Hitler Youth to
   attend to the training of their units in this direction,
   it is suitable, in the sense of a uniformed training
   corresponding to the demands of the Wehrmacht, to

                                                  [Page 288]

   support the leadership of the Hitler Youth for their
   responsible task as trainers and educators in all fields
   of training for defence by special courses."

And then, passing down towards the end, you will note this
quotation within the agreement: "A great number of courses
are in progress."

Your Honour, if I may take about five minutes, I can finish
this one section on the aggressive war phase.

THE PRESIDENT: Very well.

CAPTAIN SPRECHER: Whereas Hitler, in February, 1938,
mentioned that 7,000 Hitler Youth leaders were engaged in
training German youngsters in rifle shooting, Schirach and
Keitel, in their agreement of August, 1939, note the
following:

   "Thirty thousand Hitler Youth leaders are already being
   trained annually in field service. The agreement with
   the Wehrmacht gives the possibility of roughly doubling
   that number. The billeting and messing of the Hitler
   Youth leaders is done, according to the regulations for
   execution already published, in the barracks, drill
   grounds, etc., of the Wehrmacht, at a daily cost of 25
   pfennigs."

Just as Schirach dealt with the head of the S.S. in
obtaining zealous recruits for organised banditry and the
commission of atrocities, so also he dealt with the head of
the Wehrmacht in furnishing young men as human grist for the
mill of aggressive war.

The training of German youths runs through the Nazi
conspiracy as an important central thread. It is one of the
manifestations of Nazism which has shocked the entire
civilised world. The principal responsibility for the
planning and execution of the Nazi youth policy falls upon
this defendant.

I wish to take merely one' sentence from his own affidavit,
paragraph. 5, Document 3302-PS, so that there can be no
doubt before this Tribunal or before the world, indeed, as
to this defendant's own feeling of responsibility:

   "I feel myself responsible for the policy of the Youth
   Movement in the Party and later within the Reich." I
   underline the phrase "I feel myself responsible."

Your Honour, that is a convenient breaking point before
coming to a discussion of Schirach's connection to War
Crimes and Crimes against Humanity.

THE PRESIDENT: Very well.

(The Tribunal adjourned until 10.00 hours on l6th January,
1946.)

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