The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Now, let me state what Himmler conceived that this organisation was to be
used for. I quote from his address to the officers of the S.S. Leib
standarte "Adolf Hitler" on the " Day of Metz," our Document 19i8-PS,
Exhibit USA 304. I quote from Page 12 of the original document, the middle
of the page; from the translation Page 3, last paragraph. I will begin the
translation with the third sentence of that paragraph:

"The ultimate aim for these 11 years during which I have been the
Reichsfuehrer S.S. has been invariably the same. To create an order of good
blood which is able to serve Germany, which unfailingly and without sparing
itself can be made use of because the greatest losses can do no harm to the
vitality of this order, the vitality of these men, because they will always
be replaced. To create an order which will spread the idea of Nordic blood
so far that we will attract all Nordic blood in the world, take away the
blood from our adversaries, absorb it so that never again, looking at it
from the viewpoint of the grand policy, Nordic blood in great quantities
and to an extent worth mentioning will fight against us. We must get it and
the others cannot have it. We never gave up the ideas and the aim,
conceived so many years ago. Everything we have done has taken us some
distance further on the way. Everything we are going to do will lead us
further on the way."

Now, one further quotation from the same document, which shows very
explicitly why there was the building up of this order of Nordic blood,
appears on Page 3 of the translation, the same document from which I have
just quoted, about the middle of the first paragraph. It appears on Page 11 
of the original speech, about the middle of the page. That is the speech
to the officers of the S.S. Leibstandarte "Adolf Hitler."

"Please understand we would not be able to hold the great Germanic Reich
which is about to take shape. I am convinced that we can hold it, but we
have to prepare for that. If once we have not enough sons, those who come
after us will have to become cowards. A nation which

                                                                 [Page 142]

has an average of four sons per family can venture a war; if two of them
die, two transmit the name. The leadership of a nation having one or two
sons per family will have to be faint-hearted in any decision, on account
of their own experience because they will have to tell themselves: We
cannot afford it. Look at France, which is the best example. France had to
accept from us a dictate." .

Domination of Europe through a Nazi elite required more, however, than a
positive side of racialism.

THE TRIBUNAL (MR. BIDDLE): Is that one of the crimes you allege, domination
of Europe through an elite ?

MAJOR FARR: One of the crimes alleged is a 'conspiracy to dominate Europe,
preparation for aggressive war, leading to the ultimate colonisation of
Europe for the benefit of the conspirators. One of the instruments, we
submit, used for carrying out that policy, was the S.S. The conspirators
began, at the very beginning, the creation of the S.S., to build it up so
that it would be the elite through which Germany would be able to dominate
and rule the conquered territories.

We think that this conception of the S.S. has played a vital part in the
conspiracy. It has bearing on the whole programme of the conspirators. Now,
this certainly, in itself-

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, but, Major Farr, what you have to show is not the
criminality of the people who used the weapon; the criminality of the
people who composed the weapon.

MAJOR FARR: I think I have to show two things, certainly the criminality of
the persons who composed the weapons, but it seems to me I must also show
that that weapon played a part in the conspiracy because the Indictment

THE PRESIDENT: I should have thought you had shown that over and over
again, that the S.S. were a part of the weapon. If there was a criminal
conspiracy, then the S.S. were one of the weapons which were used by the
conspirators. But what you have got to show in this part of the case is
that the persons who formed that weapon were criminal and knew of the
criminal objects of the S.S.

MAJOR FARR: I quite agree I have to show that. I suppose I have to show,
before showing that the persons involved knew of the criminal aims of the
Organisation, what those criminal aims were. I was simply attempting to
show the Tribunal that one of those aims which I submit as criminal was a
plan to dominate Europe, and that the S.S. was one of the means by which
that was to be done.

Now, this is just one aspect of the S.S. criminality. I am quite ready not
to proceed any further with the point if the Court already has the point,
and thinks that the evidence of that aspect of its criminality is
sufficient. I certainly do not want to labour the point too hard.

I will now proceed further with the point as to the building up of the S.S.
as a racial elite to take over ; but I do think one other thing is
important, and that is the negative side of that racialism: the hatred of
other races. Himmler made some very striking points along that line as to
what the S.S. was to be in relation to it. I quote from his Posen speech,
that is, our document igig-PS. The passage in question appears on Page 23
of the original speech, middle of the page, and will be found on Page I of
the English translation, third paragraph.
                                                                 [Page 143]

"One basic principle must be the absolute rule for the S.S. man. We must
be honest, decent, loyal, and comradely to members of our own blood and to
nobody else. What happens to a Russian, to a Czech, does not interest me in
the slightest."

The next few sentences from that same paragraph have already been read into
evidence, and I shall not repeat them. But I do want to quote, in the same
paragraph, the conclusion that Himmler draws from what he just said. This
sentence is about seven lines from the bottom of the paragraph, beginning:-

"That is what I want to instil into this S.S. and what I believe I have
instilled in them as- one of the most sacred laws of the future."

Now these principles-that is, the concepfion of being an elite which was to
take over Europe, and the conception of hatred toward inferior races, which
was instilled in the S.S.-these were principles which were publicly
reiterated over and over again so that the newest recruit was thoroughly
steeped in them.

I quote from Himmler's Kharkov speech, which appears in the same document

THE TRIBUNAL (MR. BIDDLE): Can you not just give us the meaning of the
speech without quoting from it; can you just refer to it ? I
MAJ 0 R FARR: I will be very glad to do that, if the Court will take
judicial notice of it. I will refer you to the passage I have in mind. The
passage in question appears on Page 14 of the translation, about fiheen
lines from the bottom of the page; it appears on Page 17 of the original,
at about the middle of the page.

In that passage, after having talked at great length about the racial
struggle, Himmler tells his commanding officers -- and he is making this
speech to the commanding officers of three divisions of the Waffen S.S.-he
tells his officers that the thing which he wants so thoroughly instilled
into every recruit in the Organisation, so that he becomes saturated with
it, is the necessity of the S.S. standing firm and carrying on the racial
struggle without mercy.

On the same point one further quotation-if the Tribunal will bear with
me-and I think this is important because this, again, is a public
quotation, found in the Organisation Book of the Party. That is our
document 2640-PS. It is a very short passage, appearing on Page V8 of the
original, and Page i of the English translation, the third paragraph from
the end of the page in the translation:

"He openly and unrelentingly fights the most dangerous enemies of the
State: Jews, Freemasons, Jesuits, and political clergymen."

Now these were the fundamental principles of the S.S.: racial superiority
and blind obedience. A necessary corollary of these two principles was
ruthlessness. The evidence that we will introduce on these activities will
show how successfully the S.S. learned the lesson it was taught.

The S.S. had to, and did, develop a reputation for terror which was
Farefully cultivated. Himmler himself publicly attested it as early as 1936
in his pamphlet, " The S.S. as an Anti-Bolshevist Fighting Organisation "
our document 185I-PS, which has already been introduced into evidence as
exhibit USA 44o. I quote two sentences which appear at page 29 Of the
original pamphlet, and on page 4 of the translation, the first two

"I know that there are some people in Germany who become sick

                                                                 [Page 144]

when they see these black coats. We understand the reason for this and do
not expect that we shall be loved by too many."

The role which the S.S. was required to play demanded that it remain
constantly the essence of Nazism and that its elite quality should never be

As evidence that even in 1943 the S.S. standards were still being main
tained, I offer in evidence a letter written to the defendant Kaltenbrunner
by Himmler. This letter is our Document 2768-PS. It is a letter from the
Reiclisfuehrer S.S., written at his field command post and bearing the date
24th April, 1943, 1 offer it as Exhibit USA 447. 1 quote from the first
paragraph of that letter:

"Referring again to the matter which we discussed some time agothat is,
the admission of Sipo officials into the S.S.-I wish to clarify again: I
want an admission only if the following conditions are fulfilled:

I. If the man applies freely and voluntarily.

2. If, by applying strict and peace-time standards, the applicant fits
racially and ideologically into the S.S., guarantees according to the
number of his children a really healthy S.S. stock, and is neither in,
degenerate, nor worthless."
Then, continuing with the third paragraph:

"I beg not only that you will act accordingly in the future, but
especially also that numerous admissions into the ranks of the S.S. in the
past be re-examined and revised according to these instructions."

Now I have appended this, to indicate to the Tribunal the normal manner in
which a man became a member of the S.S. This is discussed by Himmler in our
Document 1992-A-PS, at Page 142 of the original, and Page 5 Of the
translation. If the Court thinks that it can take judicial notice of that
passage, I shall not trouble to read it. What it does is to describe how a
young man comes into the S.S. normally, at the age of 18, serves an appren
ticeship and receives his instructions in S.S. ideology, takes the S.S.
oath, receives the S.S dagger, and how long he remains in the General S.S.
I will not trouble to read that paragraph, since I assume that the Court
will take judicial notice of it.

I do think it may be worth quoting the very brief oath which the S.S. man
takes. That oath is quoted in the Waffen S.S. recruiting pamphlet,
entitled, "The S.S. Calls You," our Document 3429-PS, which I offer in
evidence as Exhibit USA 446. The oath appears on Page 18 of that pamphlet,
and on Page 2 of the translation, in the middle of the page. I quote the

     The Oath of the S.S. Man:
     swear to you, Adolf Hitler, as Fuehrer and Reichschancellor, loyalty
     and bravery, I vow to you, and to those you have named to command me,
     obedience unto death, so help me God."

I turn now to a consideration of the activities of the S.S., the manner in
which it carried out the purposes of the conspirators and performed its
function of guarding the internal security of the Nazi regime. The proof of
the elite Nazi quality and thorough reliability of the S.S.-the test by
which it won its spurs--occurred on the 3oth of June, 1934, when it partici
pated in the purge of the S.A. and other opponents or potential opponents
of the Nazi regime. That was the first real occasion for the use of this

                                                                 [Page 145]
specialised Organisation, which could operate with the blessing of the Nazi
State, but outside the law.

I offer in evidence an affidavit by the defendant Wilhelm Frick, signed and
sworn to herein Nuremberg on the i 9th of November, 1945 - It is our
Document 2950-PS- I offer it as Exhibit USA 448. 1 shall quote a portion of
that affidavit, beginning about the middle of the first paragraph of the
affidavit, the tenth line in the original.

     "Many people were killed -- I do not know how many -- who actually did
     not have anything to do with the `putsch.' People who just were not
     liked very well, as for instance, Schleicher, the former Reich
     Chancellor, were killed. Schleicher's wife was also killed, as was
     Gregor Strasser, who had been the Reich Organisation Leader and second
     man in the Party after Hitler. Strasser, at the time he was murdered,
     was not active in political affairs any more. However, he had
     separated himself from the Fuehrer in November or December of 1932.
     The S.S. was used by Himmler for the execution of these orders to
     suppress the 'putsch'."

It was in recognition of its services in this respect that the S.S. was
raised to the status of a component of the Party equal in rank to the S.A.,
and other similar ranking. I ask the Court to take judicial notice of a
passage which appears on Page i of the V614scher Beobachter of z6th July,
1934- It is our Document 1857-PS, Exhibit USA 412. 1 shall read the
translation of that passage, which is very brief:

     "The Reich Press Office announces the following Order of the Fuehrer.
     In consideration of the greatly meritorious service of the S.S.,
     especially in connection with the events Of 3oth June, 1934, 1 raise
     it to the standing of an independent Organisation within the
     N.S.D.A.P. The Reiclisfuehrer S.S., like the Chief of Staff, is,
     therefore, directly subordinate to the highest S.A. leader."

By its action on 30th June, the S.S. proved itself. It was, therefore, the
type of Organisation which the conspirators wanted for the first necessary
step in their programme, the acquisition of control over the police,
because one of the first steps essential to the security of any regime is
control of the police. The aim of the conspirators was to fuse the S.S. and
the police, to merge them into a single, unified repressive force.

I turn now to the consideration of the development whereby the S.S. and the
police became intermingled. Shortly after the seizure of power the
conspirators began to develop, as a part of the State machinery, secret
political police forces, originating in Prussia in the Gestapo established
by decree of the defendant Goering in 1933, and this development will be
dealt with in the case against the'Gestapo. By 1934, the Reichsfuehrer S.S.
had become the chief of these secret political police forces in all the
States of Germany except Prussia, and deputy chief of the Prussian Gestapo.
In that capacity he infiltrated these forces with members of the S.S. until
a virtual identity of membership of the S.S. and the Gestapo was achieved.

On 17th June, 1936, by the Decree on the Establishment of a Chief of the
German Police, published in the Reichsgesetzblatt for 1936, Part 1, Pages
487 and 488, our Document 2073-PS, of which I assume the Court will take
judicial notice, the new post of Chief of the German Police was created in
the Ministry of the Interior. Under the terms of the decree

                                                                 [Page 146]

Himmler was appointed to this post with the title of "Reiclisfuehrer S. S.,
and Chief of the German Police in the Ministry of the Interior."

The combination of these two positions, that of leader of the S.S., and
head of all the police forces in the Reich, was no accident, but was
intended to establish a permanent relation between the two bodies, and not
a mere 44 transitory fusion of personnel." The significance of this
combination of these two positions was referred to by Hitler in his secret
order of 17th August, 1938, on the organisation and mobilisation of the
S.S., our Document 647-PS, which I introduce in evidence as Exhibit USA
443, from which I will now quote just the preamble, which will be found on
the first page of our Document 647-PS, and at the beginning of the original
order. I quote:

     "By means of the nomination of the Reichsfuehrer S.S. and Chief of the
     German Police in the Ministry of the Interior on June 17th, 1936,
     (Reichsgesetzblatt I, Page 487), 1 have created the basis for the
     unification and reorganisation of the German Police. With this step,
     the Schutzstaffeln of the N.S.D.A.P., which have been under the Reichs
     fuehrer S.S. and Chief of the German Police up to now, have entered
     into close connection with the duties of the German Police."

Upon his appointment, Himmler immediately proceeded to reorganise the
entire police force, designating two separate branches. (i) The regular
uniformed police force (Ordnungspolizei or Orpo as they were called by
their abbreviated title) ; and (2) the so-called Security Police, or as
they became to be known by their abbreviated title Sipo. The Security
Police was composed of all the Criminal Police in the Reich and all the
Gestapo. This reorganisation was achieved by the decree assigning functions
to the Office of the Chief of the German Police, published in the
Reichsministerialblatt for 1936, Pages 946-948, our Document 155I-PS- Of
that decree I assume the Court will take judicial notice.

To be head of the Sipo, that is, of the Criminal Police and the Gestapo,
Himmler appointed Reinhard Heydrich, who was at that time the Chief of the
S.D., the S.S. Intelligence Agency to which I have already referred. Thus,
through Himmler's dual capacity as Reichsfuehrer S.S. and as Chief of the
German Police, and through Heydrich's dual capacity as head of the S.D. and
of the Security Police, a unified personal command of the S.S. and Security
Police Forces was achieved.

. But further steps towards unification were taken. In 1939 the Security
Police and the S.D., which up to that time had been only an agency of the
S.S., were both combined in a single department: the Reich Security Main
Office, commonly referred to as R.S.H.A. An important point to be observed
is this: This newly created department, R.S.H.A., was not a mere department
of the Government. It was a dual thing. It was simultaneously an agency of
the Government, organisationally placed in the Ministry of the Interior,
and, at the same time, one of the principal departments of the S.S.,
organisationally placed in the Supreme Command of the S.S. This division in
the S.S. is shown by the chart before you, R.S.H.A. being indicated by the
sixth block from the left of the chart. But it was not merely the Gestapo
and Criminal Police which came under the sway of the S.S. The regular
uniformed police as well were affected. Like the R.S.H.A., the department
of the Regular Police, the Ordnungspolizei, was also not merely a
department in the Ministry of the Interior, but also simultaneously in the

                                                                 [Page 147]

Command of the S.S. Its position in the S.S. is indicated by the seventh
block on the chart, on the left.

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