The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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                                                  [Page 114]
In connection with the persecution of the Jews, we again
find the S.A. performing its function of propaganda agency
for the Nazis. In this connection it was the function of the
S.A. to create and foster among the people an anti-Jewish
spirit and sentiment, without which the terrifying Crimes
against Humanity perpetrated against the Jewish race
certainly would not have been tolerated by any civilised
peoples. Substantial and convincing evidence of this
function is to be found in these bound volumes of Der S.A.-
Mann. Throughout the period covered by these volumes there
appeared in this publication article after article
consisting of the most cruel and vicious sort of anti-
religious propaganda, designed to engender and foster hatred
and hostility toward the Jewish race.

I will refer to only a few of the titles appearing. On 27th
July, 1935, at Page 4, the title is "Finish up with the
Jew." That is shown, if your Honour pleases, in Document
3030, Pages 16 to 18 there listed. In the issue of 2nd
February, 1935, Page 5, "The Jewish World Danger"; on 20th
July, 1935, Page 4, "Jewish Worries"; on 1st June, 1935,
Page 1, "Jews Are Not Wanted Here." And then follows a
statement: "Then, also, outside of the last German village
the sign will stand, 'Jews Are Not Wanted Here'; and then,
finally, "no German citizen will again cross the threshold
of a Jewish store. To achieve this goal is the mission of
the S.A. man as the political soldier of the Fuehrer. Next
to his word and his explanations stands his example."

Then further on 17th August, 1935, Page 1, "God Save the
Jew." Then another under 5th October, 1935, Page 6, the
title "The Face of the Jew" (with a portrait of a Jew
holding the hammer and sickle).

I will just refer to one or two more of them. Here is one on
23rd November, 1935, Page 2. The title, "The Camouflaged
Benjamin -- Jewish Cultural Bolshevism in German Music."

Here is one of 2nd January, 1937, Page 6, a hideous-looking
picture, the title being "Roumania to the Jews?"

                                                  [Page 115]
I give the final quotation, the last one, 3rd February,
1939, Page 14, the title being "Friends of World Jewry --
Roosevelt and Ickes."

The impressive thing about all these articles is the fact
that it was not intended that the philosophies expressed in
them should be confined to members of the S.A.; on the
contrary, the plan was to educate the members of the S.A.
with this iniquitous philosophy, and for the S.A., in turn,
to be employed for its dissemination into the minds of the
German people. This fact is demonstrated in the introduction
to a series of anti-Jewish articles in the paper of 5th
December, 1936, at Page 6. I will just read the title. It is
found on Page 28 of the same document and the title is as
follows: "Grave-Diggers of World Culture." Also on that same
page, 28, I quote this statement:--

     "We suggest that the comrades especially take notice of
     this series of articles and see that they are further

In addition, intensive campaigns were conducted to persuade
the public to purchase and read Der S.A.-Mann and the
various issues were posted in public places so that the
general public might read them. Der S.A.-Mann itself
contained several photographs which show particular issues
posted upon street bulletin boards; and there are several
photographs showing advertising displays, one of which, for
example, reads as follows -- this is in the issue of 31st
October, 1936:--

      "Der S.A.-Mann belongs in every house, every hotel,
     every inn, every waiting room, and every store."

Also in the issue of 24th August, 1935, at Page 3, there was
a group picture of S.A. men on trucks and in front of the
trucks were large signs, one of which read:--
      "Read the `Stuermer' and you will know the Jew."

On the same page of the publication I mentioned there is a
photograph of what appears be a public rally, at which there
is displayed a large poster reading: "He who knows the Jew,
knows the Devil!"

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, the Tribunal expressed its
view yesterday that they did not desire to hear cumulative
evidence. Is this not rather cumulative?

COLONEL STOREY: I agree with your Honour that possibly it
is. I am trying to draw the line on it. I will omit the rest
of them.

Now we will pass to the final phase of the function of the
S.A. in the conspiracy.

THE PRESIDENT: Perhaps we had better adjourn now for 10

                    (A recess was taken.)

COLONEL STOREY: If your Honour pleases, I have just started
on the function of the S.A. in the conspiracy, that is its
participation the programme for preparation for warfare.

In this connection, your Honour asked this morning a
question about the arresting and police activities of the
S.A., and I mentioned that they had declined after 1934. For
fear there was some misapprehension, I would like to state
that as a police organisation and as an arresting agency
they declined steadily after 1934.

We go now into the phase where they went into military
preparations, the next phase, and that is the phase with
which I deal now. If your Honour pleases, I have here an
official government publication issued by

                                                  [Page 116]

the British Government in 1943, the title being, "The Nazi
Party and Organisations," and I should like to quote as to
the organisation and membership of the S.A. from that
publication. It is the most authoritative that I have been
able to find, and I would like to quote briefly from it:--

     "The S.A. was founded in 1921 as a para-military
     organisation to protect Nazi meetings and leaders, to
     throw out interrupters and hecklers, to fight political
     enemies, and to provide pre-military training at a time
     when the legal 'Reichswehr' vas limited to 100,000 men.
     Their highest leader is Hitler himself; his deputy is
     called the Stabschef (Chief of Staff of the S.A.; from
     1930 to June, 1934, it was Roehm; from then onwards
     till his death in May, 1943, Victor Lutze; since
     August, 1943, Wilhelm Schepmann.) In January, 1933, the
     S.A. had only 300,000 members. After the seizure of
     power, its strength increased quickly; at present it
     has a membership of 1,500,000 to 2,000,000" Now, the
     date of this is 1943.

We again find the S.A. employed to inculcate a particular
Nazi ideology into the minds of the people of Germany. At
this point it was the function of the S.A. to prepare
Germany -- mentally --  for the waging of a vicious and
aggressive war.

At all times, and especially during the period from 1933 to
1939, S.A. leaders emphasised to S.A. members the duty and
responsibility of creating and fostering a militaristic
spirit throughout Germany. In 1933 Hitler established the so-
called S.A. sports programme, and at that time, according to
Sturmfuehrer Bayer, in his pamphlet "The S.A.," which I have
previously introduced in evidence as Document 2168-PS, the
S.A. at that time was "commissioned to obtain and increase
the preservation of a warlike power and a warlike spirit as
the expression of an aggressive attitude."

In 1937 Hitler renewed the so-called sports programme and,
as recited in Document 3050-PS, which is the English
translation of these newspaper articles, on Page 12, he made
a statement: "for the fostering of a military spirit."

The Organisation Book of the Party is to the same effect, in
Document 3220-PS, which is Exhibit USA 323. I quote from a
portion of that document -- paragraphs 1 to 3 on Page 1 of
the English translation, beginning at the first paragraph:--

     "While the political organisation of the N.S.D.A.P. has
     carried out the political leadership, the S.A. is the
     training and education instrument of the Party for the
     realisation of  the world philosophical soldier-like
     In conformity with the directives of the Fuehrer given
     at the time of the Reich Party Meeting of Freedom, the
     S.A. is, as the voluntary political soldiery, the
     guarantor of the National Socialist Movement, of the
     National Socialist Revolution, and of the resurgence of
     the German people.
     Consequently, the young German in the S.A. is being
     inculcated in the first instance from the standpoint of
     world philosophy and character, and trained as the
     bearer of the National Socialist armed will.

     Equally important is a suitable education and training
     of the yearly age groups which the S.A. has to
     accomplish after they have served their time in the
     Army. It is the task to keep them for their lifetime in
     all their spiritual, mental and physical powers on the
     alert to work for the Movement, the People and the
     State. They should find their
                                                  [Page 117]
     best home in the S.A. All that which could divide them
     economically, culturally, professionally, or socially
     is being overcome in the S.A. by the spirit of
     comradeship and manly dignity.
     In that manner the S.A. is forming a decisive factor on
     the path to a popular community. Its spirit should
     radiate with soldierly tradition and the possibility of
     application on all existing units outside the movement.
     To guard them is thus an important mission of the S.A."

A number of the articles which were obviously designed to
serve as war propaganda material have been translated; in
other cases it has been deemed sufficient to translate
merely the titles of articles, the titles in themselves
being so descriptive that they disclose the nature and
substance of the articles. I should like to refer to a few
of these titles on this subject. They are shown on the
English translation -- Document 3050-PS, and they are listed
on Page 1.

On the question of the Nazi "Lebensraum" philosophy: there
is, first, in the issue Of 5th January, 1935, Page 13, the
article "The German Living Space." The issue of 10th
October, 1936, Page 15, "Our Right, Our Colonies." Another,
of 14th October, 1938, Page 3, the title "Space and Folk";
"Colonies for Germany," 2nd January, 1937, Page 4. I should
like to quote briefly from that article. I believe that it
is on Page 1 of the English translation, Document 3050-PS:--

     "The German Ambassador in London, Herr von Ribbentrop,
     recently, on occasion of a reception in the `Anglo-
     German Fellowship' has renewed, in a speech which
     aroused great interest, the indubitable claim of
     Germany for the restitution of its colonies which had
     been snatched away.
     Shortly thereafter the Reichsbank president and Reich
     Minister of Economics, Dr. Schacht, published in the
     English magazine, `Foreign Affairs' a detailed article
     on the German colonial problem."

That is on Page 2, I believe, of the English translation.

     "For the rest, Dr. Schacht laid out the categorical
     demand that Germany must, in order to solve the problem
     of its raw materials, get colonies, which must be
     administered by Germany, and in which the German
     standard currency must be in circulation."

Now, the next group are articles dealing with the Versailles
Treaty, and I will only quote from a few of them on Page 3
of that same translation. Here is one of 7th April, 1934,
Page 14, "What is the Situation regarding our battle for
Equal Rights?" Another is entitled "The Dictate of
Versailles," 30th June, 1934, Page 15. Here is a part of it:-

     "The Dictate of Versailles established the political,
     economical, and financial destruction of Germany in 440
     artfully -- one could also say devilishly --  devised
     paragraphs; this work of ignominy is a sample of
     endless and partly contradictory repetitions in
     constantly new forms. Not too many have occupied
     themselves with this thick book to any great extent,
     for one could only do it with abomination."

Another title is 7th July, 1934, Page 15, "The Unbearable
Limitations on our Fleet." Another one: 19th January, 1935,
Page 13, "Versailles after 15 Years." I read a part of it:--

     "This terrible word 'Versailles', since a blind nation
     ratified it, has become a curse for all those who have
     comprehended the gist of this monstrous product of
     hatred. The Versailles dictate is Germany's
                                                  [Page 118]
     fate in the fullest sense of the word. Every German has
     been affected by this fate during the past 15 years.
     Therefore, every German down to the last man must also
     grasp the contents of this dictate so that one single
     desire, that for its absolute destruction, fills the
     whole German `Volk'."

I shall omit the other quotation. The last one I shall refer
to is "Versailles Will be Liquidated," 13th February, 1937.
If your Honour pleases this is the last paragraph on Page 4
of the English translation. I quote:--

     "The National Socialist Movement has again achieved a
     victory, for since the beginning of the fight there was
     written on their flags: The liquidation of the
     Versailles Treaty. For this fight the S.A. marched year
     after year."

A third group consists of articles describing preparations
for war, purportedly being carried on by other nations,
found on Page 5 of the same document and I shall refer to
just a few of them:

The issue of 26th January, 1935, Page 14, "Military Training
of English Youth," showing pictures of Eton students wearing
the traditional Eton dress -- tall hats and frock coats --
marching with rifles.

Another one is "The Army of the Soviet Union," dated 16th
March, 1935, Page 14.

Another one, 4th April, 1936, Page 15, "The Red Danger in
the East."

Another one, 29th August, 1936, Page 10, "Russia Prepares
for World War."

Another one, 19th June, 1937, Page 7, "Red Terrorism Nailed

I shall omit the rest of them.

Now, the next is the S.A. participation in the aggressive
war phase of the conspiracy -- the preparation by S.A. of
the youth of Germany for participation in aggressive
warfare. I hardly think I need emphasize that one of the
most important steps in carrying out the conspiracy was the
training of the youth of Germany in the technique of war,
and their preparation physically and spiritually for the
waging of aggressive war. To the S.A. was delegated this
most important responsibility. I have here Document 3215-PS,
Exhibit USA 426, which I offer in evidence, and it is an
excerpt from Das Archiv which contains Hitler's
characterisation of the task of the S.A. in this respect. It
is on Page 1 of the English translation of 3215-PS. I start
the reading where it says, "Already in 1920----":

     "Already in 1920 by the founding of the National
     Socialist Sports Troop (S.A.) the Fuehrer established
     the extensive mission of this S.A. at that time in
     which he declared in the protocol of its charter:
     The Sports Troop (S.A.) shall be the bearer of the
     military thought of a free people."

In the same sense the Fuehrer said in his book, Mein Kampf:

     Give the German Nation six million bodies perfectly
     trained in sport, all fanatically inspired by the love
     of the Fatherland and trained to the highest offensive
     spirit, and a National Socialist State will, if
     necessary, have created an army out of them in less
     than two years."

The military character of the S.A. is demonstrated by its
organisational composition. I refer to the chart on the
wall, which is our Document 2168-PS, and it is taken from
this book, being the pamphlet of the S.A.-Sturmfuehrer, and
the chart is taken from the official book. I refer merely to

                                                  [Page 119]
chart and call to the attention your Honour that it was
organised into units closely corresponding to those of the
German Army. As the Tribunal will see, the organisational
scheme consisted of divisions. Going from the top in that
pyramidal structure, we see at the top the division; next
the brigade, then the regiment, the battalion, the company,
the platoon and at the bottom, the squad.

In addition, there were special units and branches,
including cavalry, signal corps, engineer corps, and medical
corps. There were also, as Bayer pointed out in his
pamphlet, three officer training schools. Similarly, S.A.
members wore distinctive uniforms adapted to military
functions, bore arms, and engaged in training, forced
marches, and other military exercises.

S.A. members, moreover, were governed by general service
regulations, which closely resembled service regulations of
an armed force. They are contained in Document 2820-PS,
Exhibit USA 427, which I offer in evidence. If your Honour
pleases, they are found at Page 3 of the translation of
Document 2820. I will merely refer to a few of them. They
provide for punishment, designating them as penal
regulations, for disobedience of orders and infractions. The
punishments which are provided demonstrate the militaristic
character of the S.A. and include the following:

Reprimand in private; reprimand in presence of superiors and
announcement thereof at formations; prohibition of the right
to wear service uniform; house arrest, arrest and
confinement in goal; demotion in rank, prohibition of right
to carry weapons.

Preparation for war through the S.A. training programme was
begun in Germany as early as 1933, but the scope of this
programme was not made public because of the fact that it
actually constituted a violation of the Treaty of
Versailles. The strict secrecy with which the programme was
surrounded is shown in Document D-44, Exhibit USA 428, which
I offer in evidence.

On Page 1 of the English translation -- this is from the
Supreme Command of the S.A., Chief of Staff, and it has to
do with publications on the S.A., is the following:

     "Further to my instruction Z II 1351Z33 dated 11th July
     33, I find cause to ask all S.A. authorities to
     exercise the greatest caution with regard to any
     publicity given to the S.A. service, not only in the
     Press, but also in the information and news sheets of
     the individual S.A. units.

     Only during the last few days, the Reich Ministry of
     the Interior, at the request of the Foreign Office, has
     given strict instructions to all Reich authorities
     according to which the most severe control is to be
     exercised on all publications which might give other
     countries an occasion to allege German infringements of
     the terms of the Versailles Treaty.

     As is known from the Geneva negotiations, our opponents
     have piled up material collected in Germany and
     submitted to them, which they use against us on every
     occasion during the conferences.

     From this point of view, the information sheets
     circulating among the subordinate S.A. units cause the
     liveliest concern. I hold all higher S.A. leaders
     responsible that any such internal information sheets,
     appearing in the district of their command, are
     submitted to the most stringent control before they go
     into print, and I feel compelled to draw
                                                  [Page 120]
     attention to the liability to prosecution for treason
     as pronounced in official instructions issued in the
     last few days in cases where such reports, printed no
     doubt in good faith, are published and therefore
     exposed to the danger of falling into the wrong hands.
     On principle, pictures of the special technical units
     of the S.A. and S.S., in particular of the motorised
     signals, and possibly also of the air squads which now
     exist outside these formations, are forbidden, such
     pictures enabling other countries to prove the alleged
     formation of technical troop units."

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