The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Buschenhagen further tells us how, in February, 1941, he
left for Helsinki, where, together with the representatives
of the Finnish Army, he worked out a definite plan for the
attack on the U.S.S.R. On 2nd or 3rd March, 1941, upon his
return to Oslo, he compiled and submitted to the O.K.W. a
report on his mission:

     "On the basis of these documents" -- states
     Buschenhagen -- "the operational plan `Blue Fox' was
     drawn up, envisaging an attack on the Murmansk railroad
     from the area of Kuusamo, Rovaniemi and Petsamo. The
     plan of operations in the area of Kirkenes-Petsamo was
     called `Reindeer,' that in the area of Rovaniemi --
     `Silver Fox.'"
Further, as narrated by Buschenhagen, towards the end of
April or the beginning of May, 1941, he flew again to
Helsinki where, " the Finnish General Staff,
negotiations took place with Generals Heinriks and Airo and
Colonel Tapola, in the course of which we ascertained that
the Finnish General Staff was fully prepared to participate
in the coming war against the Soviet Union."

In his personal, written testimony given to the
investigating authorities of the Soviet Union, which will be
presented to the Tribunal, Marshal Ion Antonescu gives an
account of his meetings with Hitler in November, 1940,
January, 1941, and May, 1941, at which were discussed the
questions with regard to the preparation of war against the
Soviet Union.

During the first conference between Antonescu and Hitler, in
which Ribbentrop and Hitler's personal interpreter, Schmidt,
took part, problems directly concerning the preparation of
the German aggression against the U.S.S.R. and the Roumanian
participation therein were discussed.

In reply to the question put by the Soviet investigating
authorities to Antonescu, as to whether his first conference
with Hitler should be considered as his initial step towards
an understanding with the Germans for the preparation of
aggressive war against the Soviet Union, he stated:

     "I reply in the affirmative. Hitler undoubtedly had
     this in mind when working out the plans for attacking
     the Soviet Union."

At the second meeting between Antonescu and Hitler, which
took place in January, 1941, the defendants Ribbentrop,
Keitel and Jodl were present. Hitler requested Antonescu to
permit the German armies concentrated on Hungarian territory
to pass through Roumania in order to enable them to assist
the Italians in the war against Greece.

                                                  [Page 177]

Antonescu testifies:

     "I expressed my apprehension that the movement of
     German troops through Roumania might serve as a pretext
     for military action by the Soviet Union against that
     country, thus placing her in a very difficult position,
     as the Roumanian Army was not mobilised: to this Hitler
     replied that he will give an order for part of the
     German troops intended for operations against Greece to
     remain in Roumania.
     Hitler also emphasised that, according to the
     information at his disposal, the Soviet Union had no
     intention to fight either against Germany or Roumania.

     Satisfied with this statement of Hitler's, I agreed to
     allow the German troops to pass through Roumanian
     General Jodl, who was present at this conference,
     described to me the strategic situation of the German
     Army, emphasising the necessity of an attack on Greece
     through Bulgaria."
Speaking of the third meeting with Hitler in May, 1941, in
the city of Munich, at which the Defendant Ribbentrop was
present, Antonescu declared:

     "At this meting...we had already definitely agreed upon
     our joint assault on the Soviet Union.
     Hitler stated that he had decided to attack the Soviet
     Union. 'Having prepared this attack,' said Hitler, 'we
     must launch it unexpectedly along the entire frontier
     of the Soviet Union from the Black Sea to the Baltic.
     `The suddenness of this military attack,' continued
     Hitler, 'will enable Germany and Roumania to overcome
     in a very short time one of our most dangerous
     In connection with his war plans, Hitler asked me to
     place Roumanian territory at his disposal for the
     concentration of German troops and in conjunction with
     this to take a direct part in carrying out the attack
     on the Soviet Union."
By entering the conspiracy on the side of Germany and
preparing to attack the Soviet Union, Roumania in her turn
pursued aggressive aims.

Antonescu in the same statements spoke of Hitler's promises
as follows:

     "Hitler emphasised that Roumania should not remain out
     of this war, as in order to get back Bessarabia and
     northern Bukovina, she had no other way but to fight on
     the side of Germany. He added to this that in return
     for our help in the war Roumania could occupy and
     administer other Soviet territories up to the Dnieper."
Antonescu further testified:

     "As Hitler's proposal to start jointly the war against
     U.S.S.R. was in line with my aggressive intentions, I
     declared my readiness to participate in the assault on
     the Soviet Union, and undertook to prepare the required
     number of Roumanian troops and at the time to increase
     the deliveries of oil and farm produce for the needs of
     After my return to Bucharest from Munich I began
     energetic preparations for the coming war."
These facts are likewise confirmed by the documents from the
archives of Antonescu, which will also be submitted to the

I draw the attention of the Tribunal to the records of a
conversation which took place between Antonescu and
Dernberg, head of the Protocol Department of the German
Foreign Office, on 10th February, 1942, a conversation after
meeting at the frontier:

     "...I declared," remarks Antonescu, "that Roumania
     entered into an alliance with the Axis not for the
     purpose of altering the Treaty of Versailles but in
     order to fight the Slavs...."
                                                  [Page 178]
It will be seen from this record that hatred towards the
Slav peoples united Hitler and Antonescu in their
preparation and realisation of a war of aggression.

Documents which are to be presented to the Tribunal will
show quite incontestably the complicity of Hungary in the
conspiracy to violate peace and in the preparation of an
aggressive war against the Soviet Union.

Hungary was assigned the definite role of attacking the rear
of the Red Army through the Carpathian Mountains at the very
moment when the German and the Roumanian Armies were to open
military operations against the Soviet Union.

Thus the criminal block of aggressors against the peace-
loving nations was set up with Fascist Germany in the van.

Reverting to the so-called "Case Barbarossa," I wish to
dwell on the more important points of this document.

"Case Barbarossa" consists of three parts. The first sets
forth its general aims; the second indicates allies of
Germany in the war against the Soviet Union, and the third
is devoted to the execution of military operations on land
and sea. This document has the highly pertinent feature of
having been issued, in view of its top-secret contents, in
nine copies only, to comply fully with the demand for
absolute secrecy on Germany's preparations for the attack on
the Soviet Union.

The first part of the plan reads as follows:

     "Troops of the Russian Army massed in the western part
     of Russia must be destroyed.
     ... The retreat into the vast expanses of Russian
     territory of combat units must be prevented. Then, by
     rapid pursuit, a line must be reached from which the
     Russian air force will not be able to carry out attacks
     against German territory..."

The document further states that the ultimate objective of
this plan was to consolidate the line Archangel-Volga,
paralyse the last remaining industrial area in the Urals by
air operations, put the Baltic fleet out of commission, and
prevent the possibility of active interference on the part
of the Russian Air Force.

In the third part of the document we find the directive: "To
seize Leningrad and Kronstadt and to continue offensive
operations with the objective of taking the most important
center of communications and war-production -- Moscow. "

"The seizure of this city" --according to the plan -- "will
mean a decisive success both politically and economically."

Such was the plan to invade the U.S.S.R.; conceived, worked
out, and prepared long in advance by Hitlerite Germany.

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