The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Incidentally, 1 might call to the Tribunal's attention the  fact  that
S.S. Obergruppenfuehrer Pohl, who was head of the W.V.H.A., was also a
General  of  the "Waffen S.S.," which goes to show that  there  is  no
manner in which you can characterise functions in the S.S.

The extent to which the number of prisoners was increased through S.S.
efforts  is  illustrated by our Document 1166-PS, which I  offered  in
evidence yesterday as Exhibit USA 458. This document is a report  from
Office  Group D of W.V.H.A., dated the 15th of August, 1944.  I  shall
read the first page of that report, beginning:

     "With  reference to the above-mentioned telephone  call,  I  am
     sending herewith a report on the actual number of prisoners for 1
     August,  1944 and of the new arrivals already announced, as  well
     as the clothing report for 15 August, 1944.
     "1. The actual number on 1 August 1944, consisted of:
     (a) Male prisoners          379,167
     (b) Female prisoners      45,119
     In addition, there are the following new arrivals:
     1. From the Hungary programme (anti-Jewish action)     90,000
     2. From Litzmannstadt (Police prison and Ghetto)          60,000
     3. Poles from the Government General..
     4. Convicts from the Eastern Territories
     5. Former Polish officers
     6. From Warsaw (Poles)
     7. Continued arrivals from France, approx.         15,000 -
     Most of the prisoners are already on the way and will be received
     into the concentration camps within the next few days,"

                                                            [Page 158]

This  intensive drive for manpower to some extent intertered with  tne
programme which W.V.H.A. had already undertaken to exterminate certain
classes of individuals in the camps. I offer a photostatic copy  of  a
letter from W.V.H.A., dated 27th April, 1943, our Document 1933-PS. It
is   Exhibit  USA  459.  The  letter  is  addressed  to  a  number  of
concentration  camp  commanders, is signed by  Gluecks,  S.S.  Brigade
Fuehrer and Major General of the "Waffen S.S." I read it:

     "  The  Reichsfuehrer-S.S. and Chief of  the  German  Police  has
     decided after consultation, that in the future only mentally sick
     prisoners  may  be  selected for action 14-F-13  by  the  medical
     commissions appointed for this purpose.
     All  other prisoners incapable of working (tubercular cases, bed-
     ridden  cripples,  etc.) are to be basically excepted  from  this
     action. Bed-ridden prisoners are to be drafted for suitable  work
     which they can perform in bed.
     The order of the Reichsfuehrer S.S. is to be obeyed strictly in
     Requests for fuel for this purpose are therefore out of the

The action "14-F-13 " is not defined in the letter but it is perfectly
apparent  what  it means. Every human being, bedridden,  crippled,  no
matter what his physical condition, from whom any work at all could be
extracted,  was to be excepted from the action. Only the insane,  from
whom  nothing could be expected, were to suffer the action. What could
the   action   be  ?  It  is  perfectly  apparent.  The   action   was

The  S.S.,  however, was to some degree enabled to achieve both  goals
that  of increased production and of elimination of undesirables.  The
Tribunal  will  recall  the  agreement  between  Minister  of  Justice
Thierack  and  Himmler on 18th September, 1942, our  Document  654-PS,
which  was read in evidence by Mr. Dodd as Exhibit USA 218. 1  am  not
going  to quote again from that document, but will remind the Tribunal
that  the  agreement provided for the transfer of anti-social elements
from  the  prison  to the Reichsfdhrer S.S. for extermination  through

The  conditions under which such persons worked in the camps were well
calculated to lead to their death. Those conditions were regulated  by
the  W.V.H.A. As an illustration of W.V.H.A. management,  I  call  the
Court's  attention to our Document 2189-PS, which I offer in  evidence
as  Exhibit  USA  46o.  It  is  an order directed  to  commandants  of
concentration  camps,  dated  11th  August,  1942,  and  bearing   the
facsimile  signature,  which does not appear on the  translation,  but
does  appear on the original, of S.S. Brigade Fuehrer and  General  of
the  Waffen S.S. Gluecks, who was Chief of Office Group D of  W.V.H.A.
That is Document 2189-PS. 1 read the body of that letter:

     "  The  Reichsfuehrer  S.S. and Chief of the  German  Police  has
     ordered   that  punishment  by  beating  will  be   executed   in
     concentration camps for women by prisoners under supervision,  as
     In  accordance with this order the Main Office Chief of the  Main
     S.S. Economic Administration Office, S.S.-Obergruppenfuehrer  and
     General  of  the Waffen S.S. Pohl, has ordered, to  be  effective
     immediately, that punishment by beating will also be executed  by
     prisoners in concentration camps for men.
     It  is  forbidden  that  foreign  prisoners  should  execute  the
     punishment on German prisoners."

                                                            [Page 158]

Even after their death, the prisoners did not escape the management of
W.V.H.A. I refer the Court to our Document 2199-PS, a letter to
commanders of concentration camps, dated 12th September, 1942, and
signed by the Chief of the Central Office of Office Group D of
W.V.H.A., S.S. Obersturmbannfuehrer Leibehenschel. I offer this as
Exhibit USA 461. I shall read the body of that directive, which
appears on Page 1 of the translation of 2199-PS. I quote:

     "According to a communication of the Chief of the Security Police
     and the S.D., and conforming to a report of the Chief of Security
     Police and S.D., in Prague, urns of deceased Czechs and Jews were
     sent for burial to the home-cemeteries within the Protectorate.
     In  view  of  different events (demonstrations,  placing  posters
     inimical to the Reich on urns of deceased inmates in the halls of
     the  home  town  cemeteries,  of pilgrimages  to  the  graves  of
     deceased inmates, etc.) within the Protectorates, the delivery of
     urns with the ashes of deceased nationals of the Protectorate and
     of  Jews is henceforth prohibited. The urns shall be kept  within
     the  concentration camps. In case of doubt about keeping the urns
     oral instructions shall be obtained from this agency."

The S.S. indeed regarded the inmates of concentration camps as its own
personal  property  to  be  used for its own economic  advantage.  The
Tribunal  will  recall  that  as early as 1942,  the  defendant  Speer
recognised that the S.S. was moved by the desire for further  profits,
when  he suggested to Hitler that the S.S. receive a share of the  war
equipment  produced  by concentration camp labour,  in  ratio  to  the
working hours of the prisoners. I refer to our Document R-124, at Page
136, which was read into evidence by Mr. Dodd as Exhibit USA 179.  The
Fuehrer  agreed that a 3 to 5 per cent. share should satisfy the  S.S.
commanders. Himmler himself frankly admitted his intention  to  derive
profits  for S.S. purposes from the camps, in his mass-speech  to  the
officers of the S.S. Leibstandarte " Adolf Hitler," our Document 1918,
Exhibit USA 364-the passage in question being found at the top of Page
3  of  the English translation and on Page 1o of the original  German,
seven lines from the bottom. The passage begins:

     "The apartment-building programme which is the prerequisite for a
     healthy  and social basis of the entire S.S., as well as  of  the
     entire Fuehrercorps, can be carried out only when I get the money
     for  it from somewhere. Nobody is going to give me the money.  It
     must  be  earned, and it will be earned by forcing  the  scum  of
     mankind,  the  prisoners,  the  professional  criminals,  to   do
     positive  work. The man guarding those prisoners serves  just  as
     hard  as the one on close-order drill. The one who does this  and
     stands  near  these  utterly negative people, will  learn  within
     three  to  four months, and we shall see: in peacetime,  I  shall
     form  guard battalions and put them on duty for three months only
     to fight the inferior beings, and this will not be a boring guard
     duty,  but if the officers handle it right, it will be  the  best
     indoctrination on inferior beings and inferior races.
     This  activity  is necessary, as I said: (i) to  eliminate  these
     negative people from German people; (2) to exploit them once more
     for  the  great folk community, by having them break  stones  and
     bake  bricks,  so  that  the Fuehrer can again  erect  his  grand
     buildings  ; and (3) in turn to invest the money, earned  soberly
     this way, in houses, in land, in

                                                            [Page 160]

     settlements,  so that our men can have houses in which  to  raise
     large  families,  and  have lots of children.  This  in  turn  is
     necessary  because  we stand or die with this  leading  blood  of
     Germany, and if the good blood is not reproduced, we will not  be
     able to rule the world."

One  final aspect of S.S. control over concentration camps remains  to
be  mentioned.  That is its direction of the programme  of  biological
experiments on human beings, which was carried on in the camps. Just a
few  days  ago, another military tribunal passed judgment on  some  of
those who participated in the experiments at Dachau.

THE  PRESIDENT: There is no date on that document you  just  read,  is

MAJOR  FARR:  There appears to be no date on the English  translation.
The original document bears the notation of a speech in April, 1943.

At a later stage in this case, evidence of some of the details of this
programme  of experiments will be presented. It is not my  purpose  to
deal  with those experiments from the substantive aspect. I shall show
only  that they were the result of S.S. direction, and that  the  S.S.
played a vital part in their successful execution.

The  programme seems to have originated in a request by a Dr. Signiund
Rascher to Himmler, for permission to utilise persons in concentration
camps  as  material for experiments with human beings,  in  connection
with  some  research he was conducting on behalf of the  Luftwaffe.  I
refer  to our Document 1602-PS, a photostatic copy of a letter,  dated
15th.  May, 1941, addressed to the Reichsfuehrer S.S., and signed  "S.
Rascher  ".  I  offer it as Exhibit USA 454. I shall  quote  from  the
second  paragraph  of  the translation, the fourth  paragraph  of  the
original letter. 1 quote:

     "For  the  time being 1 have been assigned to the Luftgaukommando
     VII,  Munich,  for  a medical course. During this  course,  where
     researches  on  high-altitude  flights  play  a  prominent   part
     (determined by the somewhat higher ceiling of the English fighter
     planes)  considerable regret was expressed at the  fact  that  no
     tests  with human material had yet been possible for us, as  such
     experiments are very dangerous and nobody volunteers for them.  I
     put, therefore, the serious question: can you make available  two
     or  three  professional  criminals for these  experiments  ?  The
     experiments   are   made  at  'Bodenstaendige   Phuestelle   fuer
     Hoehenforschung der Luftwaffe, Munich.' The experiments, in which
     the  subjects may, of course, die, would take place with  my  co-
     operation.  They  are essential for researches  on  high-altitude
     flight  and  cannot  be  carried out, as  has  been  tried,  with
     monkeys, who offer entirely different test-conditions. I have had
     a  very confidential talk with a representative of the Air Force,
     Burgeon,  who makes these experiments. He is also of the  opinion
     that  the problem in question could only be solved by experiments
     on  human  persons.  (Feebleminded could also  be  used  as  test

Dr. Rascher promptly received assurance from the S.S. that he would be
allowed to utilise concentration camp inmates for his experiments.

I refer to our Document 1582-PS, a letter dated the 22nd of May, 1941,
addressed to Dr. Rascher, and bearing the stamp of the Personal  Staff
of  the  Reichsfuehrer S.S., and the initials, "K Br," which  initials
are those of S.S. Sturmbannfuehrer Karl Brandt. I offer this letter as
Exhibit USA 462.

     "Dear Dr. Rascher:
     Shortly  before flying to Oslo, the Reichsfuehrer  S.S.  gave  me
     your letter of 15 May 1941, for partial reply.
     I  can  inform you that prisoners will of course be readily  made
     available  for  the high-flight researches. I have  informed  the
     Chief   of  the  Security  Police  of  this  agreement   of   the
     Reichsfuehrer S.S., and requested that the competent official  be
     instructed to get in touch with you."

The  altitude experiments were conducted by Rascher, and in May  1942,
General Field Marshal Milch, on behalf of the Luftwaffe, expressed his
thanks to the S.S. for the assistance it furnished in connection  with
the experiments.

I  refer  to our Document 343-PS, and I offer in evidence an  original
letter,   dated   the   20th   of  May,  1942,   addressed   to   S.S.
Obergruppenfuehrer  Wolff, and signed E. Milch, as  exhibit  USA  463.
That letter, which appears on Page 2 of the translation, and on Page 1
of the original German, is as follows:

     Dear Wolff -- (the German says, 'Liebes Woelffchen') --
     In  reference to your telegram of 12 May, our sanitary  inspector
     reports  to me that the altitude experiments carried out  by  the
     S.S. and Air Force at Dachau have been finished. Any continuation
     of these experiments seems materially unjustifiable. However, the
     carrying  out  of experiments of some other kind,  in  regard  to
     perils  on  the  high seas, would be important. These  have  been
     prepared in immediate agreement with the proper offices  ;  Major
     (MC)  Weltz  will be charged with the execution and Capt.  (M.C.)
     Rascher  will be made available until further orders in  addition
     to his duties within the Medical Corps of the Air Corps. A change
     of  these  measures does not appear necessary, and an enlargement
     of the task is not considered pressing at this time.
     The  low-pressure  chamber would not  be  needed  for  these  low
     temperature  experiments. It is urgently needed at another  place
     and therefore can no longer remain in Dachau.
     I convey the special thanks from the Supreme Commander of the Air
     Corps to the S.S. for their extensive co-operation.
     I  remain  with best wishes for you in good comradeship and  with
     Heil Hitler!
     Always yours
     E. Milch."

THE  PRESIDENT: Major Farr, had you not better read the letter on  the
preceding page? It may be capable of an explanation.

MAJOR  FARR:  The  letter on the preceding page,  dated  the  31st  of
August,  1942,  is  also  from General Field  Marshal  Milch,  and  is
addressed to the Reichsfuehrer S.S. It reads as follows:

     "Dear Himmler:
     1  thank  you very much for your letter of the 25th of August.  I
     have read with great interest the reports of Dr. Rascher and  Dr.
     Romberg.  1  have been informed about the current experiments.  I
     shall ask the two gentlemen to give a lecture, combined with  the
     showing of motion pictures, to my men in the near future.
                                                            [Page 162]
     Hoping that it will be possible for me to see you on the occasion
     of my next visit to Headquarters, 1 remain with best regards and
                                                          Heil Hitler!
                                                            E. Milch."

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