The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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COLONEL STOREY: Activities were initiated in Hungary as
indicated by Document 158-PS, Exhibit USA 382, which I now
offer in evidence. This was a copy of a message initialed by
Utikal, Rosenberg's Chief of Staff. The first paragraph of
this document states:

     "The Einsatzstab of Reichsleiter Rosenberg for the
     occupied territories has dispatched a Sonderkommando
     under the direction of Stabseinsatzsfuehrer Dr. Zeiss,
     who is identified by means of his Service Book Number
     187, for the accomplishment of the missions of the
                                                   [Page 67]
     Einsatzstab in Hungary outlined in the Fuehrer's Decree
     of 1st March, 1942."

I now offer into evidence Document 171-PS, Exhibit USA 383,
which is an undated report on the "Library for Exploration
of the Jewish Question." The fifth paragraph states:

     "The most significant book-collections today belonging
     to the stock of the Library for Exploration of the
     Jewish Question are the following..."

The ninth item of the list which follows refers to "Book-
collections from Jewish Communities in Greece (about 10,000

It was only natural that an operation conducted on so vast a
scale, extending as it did to France, Belgium, the
Netherlands. Luxembourg, Norway, Denmark, the Occupied
Eastern Territories. the Baltic States, the Ukraine, Hungary
and Greece, should call upon a multitude of other agencies
for assistance. Among the other agencies co-operating in the
plunder programme were several of those which stand indicted
here as Criminal Organisations. The co-operation of the
Wehrmacht High Command was demanded by the  Hitler order of
1st March, 1942, which I now offer in evidence as our
Document 149-PS, Exhibit USA 369, which is signed personally
by Adolf Hitler and is also in the Jumbo type. The order
decrees the ideological fight against the enemies of
National Socialism to be a military necessity, and reaffirms
the authority of the Einsatzstab Rosenberg to conduct
searches and seizures of suitable material for the Hohe
Schule. The fifth paragraph states:

     "The measures of execution concerning co-operation with
     the Wehrmacht are assured by the Chief of the O.K.W.
     with the consent of Reichsleiter Rosenberg."

While I am on that document, which is referred to later, I
should like to read the other portions. I call attention of
your Honour to the distribution. It is distributed to all
duty stations of the Armed Forces, the Party, and the State.
It says:

     "Jews, Freemasons, and related ideological enemies of
     National Socialism are responsible for the war which is
     now being waged against the Reich. The co-ordinated,
     ideological fight against those powers is a military
     necessity. I have therefore charge Reichsleiter
     Rosenberg to carry out this task in co-operation with
     the chief of the O.K.W. His `staff for special
     purposes' in the occupied territories is authorised to
     search libraries, record-offices, lodges and other
     ideological and cultural institutions of all kinds for
     suitable material, and to confiscate the said material
     for the ideological task of the N.S.D.A.P. and the
     later scientific research work of the `Hohe Schule.'
     The same regulation applies to cultural material which
     is in possession of Jews; and of unobjectionable

The final passage is:

     "The necessary measures within the territories of the
     East under the German Administration are determined by
     Reichsleiter Rosenberg in his capacity as
     Reichsminister for the Occupied Eastern Territories."
     Signed: Adolf Hitler."

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, I think the Tribunal would
find it convenient, and it would save time, if the
documents, when they are referred

                                                   [Page 68]
to, were read in full in so far as you want to read them,
rather than returning to read one passage and then returning
to a document later on.

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir. May I explain why that was, Sir? I
was trying to fit in this presentation with the Leadership
Corps. It was quoted in two places and I didn't notice it
until I started.

THE PRESIDENT: What I am saying is that I think it is much
easier to follow the documents if all the parts of the
document which you wish to read are read at one time, rather
than to read one sentence, then come back to another
sentence, and then possibly come back to a document for a
third sentence. I don't know whether that will be possible
for you to do.

COLONEL STOREY: We will try to work it out that way, Sir.


COLONEL STOREY: Co-operation of the S.S. and the S.D. is
indicated in a letter from Rosenberg to Bormann dated 23rd
April, 1941, Document 071-PS, Exhibit USA 371, which I now
offer in evidence. This letter states in the fifth sentence
of the first numbered paragraph:

     "It is understood that the confiscations are not
     executed by the regional authorities,  but that this is
     conducted by the Security Service (S.D.) as well as by
     the police."
Farther down in the same paragraph it is stated:
     It has been communicated to me in writing by a
     Gauleiter that the chief office of the  Reich Security
     (R.S.H.A.) of the S.S. has claimed the following from
     the library of a monastery: The Catholic Handbook,
     Albertus Magnus; Edition of the Church Fathers, History
     of the Papacy, by L. V. Pastor; and other works."
The second and last paragraph stated that:
     I should like to remark in this connection that this
     affair has already been executed on our side with
     Security Service (S.D.) in the most loyal fashion."

The defendant Goering showed special diligence in furthering
the purposes of the Einsatzstab Rosenberg, a diligence which
will be readily understood in view of the fact that he
himself directed that second in priority only to the demands
of the Fuehrer were to be "those art objects which served
the completion of the Reichsmarshal's -- that is Goering's -
- collection."

On 1st May, 1941, Goering issued an order to all Party,
State and Wehrmacht services, which I am now offering into
evidence as Document 1117-PS, Exhibit USA 384. It is an
original bearing Goering's signature. This order requested
all Party, State and Wehrmacht services, and I now quote:

     "... to give all possible support and assistance to the
     Chief of Staff of Reichsleiter Rosenberg's staff....
     The above-mentioned persons are requested to report to
     me on their work, particularly on any difficulties
     which might arise."

On 30th May, 1942, Goering claimed credit for a large degree
of the success of the Einsatzstab. I offer in evidence a
captured photostatic copy of a letter from Goering to
Rosenberg, showing Goering's signature, which bears our No.
1015-I-PS, and which I offer in evidence as Exhibit USA 385.
The last paragraph of this letter states as follows:

     "...On the other hand I also support personally the
     work of the Einsatzstab wherever I can do so, and a
     great part of the seized cultural
                                                   [Page 69]
     goods can be accounted for because I was able to assist
     the Einsatzstab with my organisations."

If I have tried the patience of the Tribunal with numerous
details as to the origin, the growth and the operation of
the art looting organisation, it is because I feel that it
will be impossible for me to convey to you a full conception
as to the magnitude of the plunder without conveying first
to you information as to the vast organisational work that
was necessary in order to enable the defendants to collect
in Germany cultural treasures of staggering proportions.

Nothing of value was safe from the grasp of the Einsatzstab.
In view of the great experience of the Einsatzstab in the
complex business of the organised plunder of a continent,
its facilities were well suited to the looting of material
other than cultural objects. Thus, when Rosenberg required
equipment for the furnishing of the offices of the
administration in the East, his Einsatzstab was pressed into
action to confiscate Jewish homes in the West. Document L-
188, which is Exhibit USA 386, and which I now offer in
evidence, is a copy of a report submitted by the director of
Rosenberg's office, West, operating under the Ministry for
the Occupied Eastern Territories. I wish to quote at some
length from this document and I call the Tribunal's
attention to the third paragraph on Page 3 of the

     "The Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg was charged
     with the carrying out of this task" -- that is, the
     seizure of art possessions --  "in addition to this
     seizure of property, at the suggestion of the Director
     West of the Special Section of the Einsatzstab, it was
     proposed to the Reichsleiter that the furniture and
     other contents of the unguarded Jewish homes should
     also be secured and dispatched to the Minister for the
     Occupied Eastern Territories for use in the Eastern

The last paragraph on the same page states:

     "At first all the confiscated furniture and goods were
     dispatched to the administrations of the Occupied
     Eastern Territories. Owing to the terror attacks on
     German cities which then began, and in the knowledge
     that the bombed-out people in Germany ought to have
     preference over the Eastern people, Reichsminister and
     Reichsleiter Rosenberg obtained a new order from the
     Fuehrer according to which the furniture, etc.,
     obtained through the N Action was to be put at the
     disposal of bombed-out people within Germany."

The report continues with a description of the efficient
methods employed in looting the Jewish homes in the West
(top of Page 4 of translation).

     "The confiscation of Jewish homes was carried out as
     follows: So-called confiscation officials went from
     house to house when no records were available of the
     addresses of Jews who had departed or fled, as was the
     case, for instance, in Paris, in order to collect
     information as to abandoned Jewish homes... They drew
     up inventories of those homes and subsequently sealed
     them... In Paris alone about twenty confiscation
     officials confiscated more than 38,000 homes. The
     transportation of the contents of these homes was
     completed with all the available vehicles of the Union
     of Parisian Removal Contractors, who had to provide up
     to 150 trucks, and 1,200 to 1,500 French laborers."

If your Honour pleases, I am omitting the rest of the
details of that report because our French colleagues will
present them later.

                                                   [Page 70]

Looting on such a scale seems fantastic. But I feel I must
refer to another statement, for, though the seizure of the
contents of over 71,000 homes and their shipment to the
Reich in upwards of 26,000 railroad cars is by no means a
petty operation, the quantities of plundered art treasures
and books and their incalculable value, as revealed in the
document I am about to offer, will make these figures
dwindle by comparison.

I next refer to the stacks of leather-bound volumes in front
of me, to which the Justice referred in his opening

These thirty-nine volumes which are before me contain
photographs of works of art secured by the Einsatzstab and
are volumes which were prepared by members of the Rosenberg
staff. All of these volumes bear our Number 2522-PS, and I
offer them in evidence as Exhibit USA 388.

I am passing to your Honours eight of these volumes, so that
each one of you -- they are all different -- might see a
sample of the inventory. I call your Honours' attention to
the inside cover page. Most of them have an inventory, in
German, of the contents of the book, and then follows  a
true photograph of each one of these priceless art treasures
separated by fine tissue paper.

There are thirty-nine of these volumes that were captured by
our forces when they overran a part of Southern occupied
German areas.

THE PRESIDENT: Is there anything known about the articles
photographed here?

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir: I will describe them later. I
believe each one of them is identified in addition to the

THE PRESIDENT: I meant whether the articles, the furniture
or pictures themselves, have been found.

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir, most of them were found in an
underground cavern, I believe in the Southern part of
Bavaria; and these books were found by our staff in co-
operation with the group of U.S. Army people who have
assembled these art treasures and are now in the process of
returning them to the rightful owners. That is where we got
these books.

I should like to refer, while your Honour are looking at
these, just to the aggregate totals of the different
paintings. Here are the totals as shown by Document 1015-B-
PS, which is in the document book. As they are totalled, I
don't think your Honours need follow the document; you can
continue looking at the books if you like.
     "Up to 15th July, 1944, the following had been
     scientifically inventoried:
     21,903 Art Works.
     5,281 paintings, pastels, water-colours, drawings.
     684 miniatures, glass and enamel paintings, books and
     583 plastics, terra-cottas, medallions and plaques.
     2,477 articles of furniture of value to art history.
     583 textiles (Gobelins, rugs, embroideries, Coptic
     materials, majolica, ceramics, jewellery, coins, art
     treasures made with precious stones).
     5,825 objects of decorative art (porcelains, bronzes,
     faience, majolica ceramics, jewelry, coins, art objects
     with precious stones).
     1,286 East Asiatic art works (bronzes, plastics,
     porcelains, paintings, folding screens, weapons).
     259 art works of antiquity (sculptures, bronzes, vases,
     jewellry bowls, cut stones, terra-cottas)."
                                                   [Page 71]

The mere statement that 21,903 art works have been seized
does not furnish an adequate conception of their value. I
refer again to the statement in the document: "The
extraordinary artistic and material value of the seized art
works cannot be expressed in figures" and to the fact that
they are objects of such a unique character that their
evaluation is entirely impossible. These thirty-nine volumes
are by no means a complete catalogue. They present, at the
most, pictures of about 2,500 of the art treasures seized,
and I ask you to imagine that this catalogue had been
completed and that, in the place of thirty-nine volumes, we
had 350 to 400 volumes. In other words, if they were
prepared in inventory form as these thirty-nine volumes, to
cover all of them, it would take 350 to 400 volumes.

We had arranged, your Honours, to project just a few of
these on the screen, but before we do that, which is the end
of this part of the presentation, I should like to call your
Honours' attention to Document 015-PS. It is dated 16th
April, 1943. It is a copy of a letter from Rosenberg to
Hitler. The occasion for the writing of this letter was the
birthday of the Fuehrer, to commemorate which Rosenberg
presented some folders of photographs of pictures seized by
the Einsatzstab. And I imagine, although we have no
authentic evidence, that probably some of these were
prepared for that occasion. In the closing paragraph of the
letter, Document 015-PS, Exhibit USA 387, he says:

     "I beg of you, my Fuehrer, to give me a chance during
     my next audience to report to you orally on the whole
     extent and state of this art seizure action. I beg you
     to accept a short written intermediate report of the
     progress and extent of the art seizure action, which
     will be used as a basis for this later oral report, and
     also to accept three volumes of the temporary picture
     catalogues which, too, show only a part of the
     collection you own. I shall deliver further catalogues,
     which are now being compiled, when they are finished."

Rosenberg then closes with this touching tribute to the
aesthetic tastes of the Fuehrer, tastes which were satisfied
at the expense of a continent, and I quote:

     "I shall take the liberty during the requested audience
     to give you, my Fuehrer, another twenty folders of
     pictures, with the hope that this short occupation with
     the beautiful things of art which are so near to your
     heart, will send a ray of beauty and joy into your
     revered life."

THE PRESIDENT: Will you read all the passage that you began;
five lines above that beginning with the words, "These
photos represent ----"

COLONEL STOREY: "These photos represent an addition to the
collection of fifty-three of the most valuable objects of
art delivered some time ago to your collection. This folder
also shows only a small percentage of the exceptional work
and extent of these objects of art seized by my service
command (Dienststelle) in France and put into a safe place
in the Reich."

If your Honours please, at this time we would like to
project on the screen a few of these photographs. The
photographs of paintings which we are now about to project
on the screen are taken from a single volume of the
catalogue and are mere representative of the many volumes of
pictures of similar works. The other items, photos of which
are to be projected, were picked from various volumes on
special subjects. For example, the Gobelin tapestry which
you are about to see is merely one picture from an entire
volume of tapestry illustrations. Each picture that

                                                   [Page 72]
you will see is representative of a number of volumes of
similar pictures, and each volume from which these single
pictures were taken represents approximately a tenth of the
total number of volumes which would be necessary to
illustrate all the items actually plundered by the
Einsatzstab. We will now have the slides, just a few of

(Photographs were projected on the screen in the court

This first picture is a portrait of a woman, painted by the
Italian painter Palma Vecchio.

The next picture is a portrait of a woman by the Spanish
painter Velasquez.

This picture is a portrait of Lady Spencer by the English
painter Sir Joshua Reynolds.

This picture is a painting by the French painter Watteau.

This is a painting of "The Three Graces" by Rubens.

This is a portrait of an old woman by the famous painter

This painting of a young woman is by the Dutch painter Van

Now this picture is a sample of sixteenth century jewelry in
gold and enamel, decorated with pearls.

This is a seventeenth century Gobelin tapestry.

This picture is of a Japanese painting from the catalogue
volume on East Asiatic art.

This is an example of famous china.

This is a picture of a silver-inlaid Louis XIV cabinet.

The last picture is of a silver altar piece of the fifteenth
or sixteenth century, of Spanish origin.

That is the last picture.

I call to your attention again that each of the pictures you
have just seen is merely representative of a large number of
similar items illustrated in the thirty-nine volume
catalogue which is, in itself, only partially complete.
There is little wonder that the Fuehrer's occupation with
these beautiful things of art, which were nearest to his
heart, should have sent a ray of beauty and joy into his
revered life. I doubt that any museum in the world, whether
the Metropolitan in New York, the British Museum in London,
the Louvre in Paris or the Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow,
could present such a catalogue as this; in fact, should they
pool their treasures the result would certainly fall short
of the art collection that Germany amassed for herself, at
the expense of the other nations of Europe. Never in history
has a collection so great been amassed with so little

It is refreshing, however, to know that the victorious
Allied armies have recovered most of such treasures,
principally hidden away in salt mines, tunnels, and secluded
castles; and the proper governmental agencies are now in the
process of restoring these priceless works of art to their
rightful owners.

I shall next refer to Document 154-PS, which is a letter
dated the 5th July, 1942, from Doctor Lammers, Reich
Minister and Chief of the Chancellery, to the highest Reich
authorities and services directly subordinate to the
Fuehrer. This letter states and implements the Hitler order
that was introduced in evidence, and explains that the
Fuehrer delegated authority to Rosenberg's staff to search
for and seize cultural property by virtue of Reichsleiter
Rosenberg's position as representative of the Fuehrer for
the supervision of the whole ideological and political
education of the N.S.D.A.P.

The Tribunal will recall, however, that it is by virtue of
holding this

                                                   [Page 73]
office that defendant Rosenberg occupied a place within the
Reichsleitung or Party Directorate of the Leadership Corps.
That is Exhibit USA 370, and it is offered merely for the
purpose of showing the address to the highest Reich
authorities and services directly subordinate to the

In a letter to the defendant Bormann, dated the 23rd April,
1941, the defendant Rosenberg protested against the
arbitrary removals by the S.D. and other public services
from libraries, monasteries, and other institutions -- and
he proposed that in the claims by the S.D. and his
representative the final regulation as to the confiscation
should be made by the Gauleiter. This letter has been
offered previously as 071-PS, and I quote, beginning with
the next to the last sentence at the bottom of page one of
the English translation -- I am sorry, your Honour, that is
in the other book ----

THE PRESIDENT: You cited 071-PS this morning.

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir, and I will forego that at the
moment, your Honour, because it refers to the other book.
Finally, in connection with the presentation of this
subject, I submit that the summary of evidence establishes
that the defendants and their conspirators, Rosenberg and
Bormann, acting in their capacity as political leaders  of
the Leadership Corps of the Nazi Party and as members
thereof, participated in the Conspiracy or Common Plan
alleged in Count I of the Indictment and committed acts
constituting the crimes alleged. Accordingly we submit: (I)
The Leadership Corps of the Nazi Party is a group or
organisation in the sense in which those terms are used in
Article 9 of the Charter; (2) The defendants and
conspirators, Rosenberg and Bormann, committed the crimes
defined in Article 6 of the Charter, and in that capacity as
members of the Political Leaders  of the Leadership Corps of
the Nazi Party.

It was at all times the primary and central design and
purpose of the Leadership Corps of the Nazi Party to direct,
engage, and participate in the execution of the Conspiracy
which contemplated and involved the commission of the Crimes
as defined in Article 6 of the Charter.

And I should like now to call attention again to a chart
which was identified in the beginning -- I believe by Major
Wallis; it was taken from the publication which is entitled
`The Face of the Party.' This chart emphasises, more clearly
than I can state the total and thorough control over the
life of the German, beginning at the age of ten, at the
bottom of the chart, and continuing through the various

Notice the age of ten to fourteen, the Jungvolk. Then it
goes to the Adolf Hitler School on the right, twelve to
eighteen. The Hitler Jugend, fifteen to eighteen; the S.A.,
the N.S.K.K., N.S.F.K., nineteen to twenty. And then the
labour service over at the left; and then again to the S.A.,
S.S., N.S.K.K., N.S.F.K.; and then into the Wehrmacht, and
up through to the top box on the left of the top row of men,
the Political Leaders  of the N.S.D.A.P. Next,  all of those
buildings up there, as I understand, are the academies of
the N.S.D.A.P., and then finally, at the top, to the
Political Leaders  of the German Volk, thus showing the
complete evolution. This is the final exhibit, and with that
I close the presentation of the Leadership Corps. The next
presentation is the Reich Cabinet, the "Reichsregierung." We
will take just a few moments.

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