The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Last-Modified: 1999/09/17

                                                  [Page 346]



MR. DODD: May it please the Tribunal, at the close of
yesterday's session, we were discussing and had just
completed reading the excerpts from the interrogation of 6th
October, 1945, wherein the defendant Alfred Rosenberg was

There have been introduced Documents 017-PS and 019-PS and I
have read excerpts from them. The Tribunal will recall that
they are letters written by the defendant Sauckel to the
defendant Rosenberg, requesting the assistance of the
defendant Rosenberg in the recruitment of additional foreign
labourers. I refer to them in passing, by way of
recapitulation, with respect to the defendant Sauckel's
participation in this slave labour programme and also the
assistance of the defendant Rosenberg. Also the defendant
Sauckel received help from the defendant Seyss-Inquart, who
was the Reichskommissar for the Occupied Netherlands.

I refer again to the transcript of the interrogation under
oath of the defendant Sauckel, which was read from
yesterday, and I now refer to another part of it. The
transcript of this interrogation will be found at the back
of the document book. It is the very last document and I
wish to quote particularly from it.

   "Q. For a moment, I want to turn our attention to
   Holland. It is my understanding that the quotas for the
   workers from Holland were agreed upon, and then the
   numbers given to the Reichskommissar Seyss-Inquart to
   fulfil, is that correct?
   A. Yes, that is correct.
   Q. After the quota was given to Seyss-Inquart, it was
   his mission to fulfil it - with the aid of your
   representatives; was it not?
   A. Yes. This was the only possible thing for me to do
   and the same applied to other countries."

And the defendant Hans Frank, who was the Governor General
of the Government General of Poland, participated in the
filling of defendant Sauckel's quota requirements.

I refer again to the interrogation of the defendant Sauckel
and to Page 1 of the excerpts from the transcript of this
interrogation, as it appears in the document book:

   "Q. Was the same procedure substantially followed of
   allocating quotas in the Government General of Poland?
   A. Yes. I have to basically state again that the only
   possibility I had of carrying through these missions was
   to get in touch with the highest German military
   authorities in the respective country and to transfer to
   them the orders of the Fuehrer and ask them very
   urgently, as I have always done, to fulfil these orders.
                                                  [Page 347]
   Q. Such discussions in Poland, of course, were with the
   Governor General Frank?
   A. Yes. I spent a morning and afternoon in Cracow two or
   three times and I personally spoke to Governor General
   Frank. Naturally, there was also present Secretary Dr.

The S.S., as in most matters involving the use of force and
brutality, also extended its assistance. We refer to
Document 1292-PS, which is Exhibit USA 225. This Document,
1292-PS, is the report of the Reichschancellor Lammers of a
conference with Hitler, which was attended by, among others,
the defendant Sauckel, the defendant Speer, and Himmler, the
Reichsfuehrer S.S. I turn to Page 2 of the document,
beginning with the third line from the top of the page of
the English text; and it is Page 4, Paragraph 2 of the
German text. The quotation reads as follows:
   "The Plenipotentiary for Employment and Labour, Sauckel,
   declares that he will attempt with fanatical
   determination to obtain these workers. Until now, he has
   always kept his promises as to the number of workers to
   be furnished. With the best of intentions, however, he
   is unable to make a definite promise for 1944. He will
   do everything in his power to furnish the requested
   manpower in 1944. Whether it will succeed depends
   primarily on what German enforcement agents will be made
   available. His project cannot be carried out with
   domestic enforcement agents."

There are additional quotations, as the Tribunal may
observe, in this very part from which I have been reading,
but I intend to refer to them again a little further on.

The defendant Sauckel participated in the formulation of the
overall labour requirements for Germany, and passed out
quotas to be filled by and with the assistance of the
individuals and agencies referred to, in the certain
knowledge that force and brutality were the only means
whereby his demands could be met. Turning to Document 1292-
PS again, and quoting from Page 1:-

   "A conference took place with the Fuehrer today which
   was attended by: the Plenipotentiary for the Employment
   of Labour, Gauleiter Sauckel; the Secretary for Armament
   and War Production, Speer; the Chief of the Supreme
   Command of the Army, General Field Marshal Keitel;
   General Field Marshal Milch; the Minister of the
   Interior, Reichsfuehrer of the S.S. Himmler; and myself.
   (The Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Minister of
   National Economy had repeatedly asked to be permitted to
   participate prior to the Conference, but the Fuehrer did
   not wish their attendance.)
   The Fuehrer declared in his introductory remarks:
   I want a clear picture:
   1.How many workers are required for the maintenance of
   German War Economy?
      (a) For the maintenance of present output?
      (b) To increase its output?
   2.How many workers can be obtained from occupied
   countries, or how many can still be gained in the Reich
   by suitable means (increased output)? For one thing, it
   is this matter of making up for losses by death,
   infirmity, the constant fluctuation of workers, and so
   forth, and for another it is a matter of procuring
   additional workers.

                                                  [Page 348]

   The Plenipotentiary for the Employment of Labour,
   Sauckel, declared that, in order to maintain the present
   pool of workers, he would have to add at least 2.5 but
   probably 3 million new workers in 1944. Otherwise
   production would fall off. Reichsminister Speer declared
   that he needed an additional 1.3 million labourers.
   However, this would depend on whether it would be
   possible to increase production of iron ore. Should this
   not be possible, he would need no additional workers.
   Procurement of additional workers from occupied
   territory would, however, be subject to the condition
   that these workers would not be withdrawn from armament
   and auxiliary industries already working there, for this
   would mean a decrease of production of these industries
   which he could not tolerate. Those, for instance, who
   were already working in France in industries mentioned
   above must be protected against being sent to work in
   Germany by the Plenipotentiary for the Employment of
   Labour. The Fuehrer agreed with the opinions of
   Reichsminister Speer and emphasised that the measures
   taken by the Plenipotentiary for the Employment of
   Labour should under no circumstances lead to the
   withdrawal of workers from armament and auxiliary
   industries working in occupied territories, because such
   a shift of workers would only cause disturbances of
   production in occupied countries.
   The Fuehrer further called attention to the fact that at
   least 250,000 labourers would be required for
   preparations against air attacks in the field of
   civilian air raid protection. For Vienna alone 2,000-
   2,500 were required immediately. The Plenipotentiary for
   the Employment of Labour must add at least 4 million
   workers to the manpower pool, considering that he
   required 21 million workers for maintenance of the
   present level, that Reich Minister Speer needed 1.3
   million additional workers, and that the above-mentioned
   preparations for security measures against air attacks
   called for 0.25 million labourers."

Referring again to Page 2, the first full paragraph of the
English text of this document, and Page 5, Paragraph 1 of
the German text:

   "The Reichsfuehrer S.S. explained that the enforcement
   agents put at his disposal were extremely few, but that
   he would try to help the Sauckel project to succeed by
   increasing them and working them harder. The
   Reichsfuehrer S.S. made immediately available 2,000 to
   2,500 men from concentration camps for air raid
   preparations in Vienna."

Passing the next paragraph of this document and continuing
with the paragraph entitled "Results of the Conference", and
quoting it directly after the small figure II:

   "The Plenipotentiary for Employment of Labour shall
   procure at least 4,000,000 new workers from occupied

Moreover, as Document 3012-PS, which has already been
offered as Exhibit USA 190, revealed, the defendant Sauckel
in requesting the assistance of the Army for the recruitment
of 1,000,000 men and women from the occupied Eastern
territories informed the defendant Keitel that prompt action
was required and that, as in all other occupied countries,
pressure had to be used if other measures were not
successful. Again, as revealed by Document 018-PS, which has
been offered and from which excerpts have been read, the
defendant Sauckel was informed by the defendant Rosenberg,
that the enslavement of foreign labour was achieved by force
and brutality.

                                                  [Page 349]

Notwithstanding his knowledge of conditions, the defendant
Sauckel continued to request greater supplies of manpower
from the areas in which the most ruthless methods had been
applied. Indeed, when German Field Commanders on the Eastern
Front attempted to resist or restrain the defendant
Sauckel's demands, because forced recruitment was swelling
the ranks of the partisans and making the Army's task more
difficult, Sauckel sent a telegram to Hitler, in which he
implored him, Hitler, to intervene.

I make reference to Document 407-II-PS, which is Exhibit USA
226. This document is a telegram from the defendant Sauckel
to Hitler, dated 10th March, 1943, It is a rather long
message, but I wish to call particularly to the attention of
the Tribunal the last paragraph on Page 1 of the English
text. It is Page 2, Paragraph 5 of the German text. Quoting
the last paragraph of the English text:-

   "Therefore, my Fuehrer I ask you to abolish all orders
   which oppose the compulsion of foreign workers for
   labour, and to report to me kindly whether the concept
   of the mission presented here is still right."

Turning to Paragraph 5 on the first page of this English
text, we find these words, quoting them directly:

   "If the compulsion for labour and the forced recruiting
   of workers in the East is not possible any more, then
   the German war industries and agriculture cannot fulfil
   their tasks to the full extent."

The next paragraph:-

   "I myself have the opinion that our Army leaders should
   not give credence under any circumstances to the
   atrocity and propaganda campaign of the partisans. The
   Generals themselves are greatly interested that the
   support for the troops is made possible in time. I
   should like to point out that hundreds of thousands of
   excellent workers going into the field as soldiers now
   cannot possibly be substituted by German women not used
   to work, even if they are trying to do their best.
   Therefore, I have to use the people of the Eastern

THE PRESIDENT: I think you should read the next paragraph.


   "I myself report to you that the workers belonging to
   all foreign nations are treated humanely and correctly
   and cleanly, are fed and housed well and are even
   clothed. On the basis of my own services with foreign
   nations I go as far as to state that never before in the
   world were foreign workers treated as correctly as is
   now happening, in the hardest of all wars, by the German

In addition to being responsible for the recruitment of
foreign civilian labour by force defendant Sauckel was
responsible for the conditions under which foreign workers
were deported to Germany and for the treatment to which they
were subjected within Germany.

We have already referred to the conditions under which these
imported persons were transported to Germany and we have
read from Document 2241-PS-3 to show that Sauckel knew of
these conditions. Yesterday we referred at length to the
brutal, degrading, and inhuman conditions under which these
labourers worked and lived within Germany. We invite the
attention again of the Tribunal to Document 3044-PS, already
offered as Exhibit USA 206. It is Regulation No. 4 of 7th
May, 1942, issued by Sauckel, as the Plenipotentiary General
for the Mobilisation of Labour, concerning recruitment,
care, lodging, feeding and treatment of foreign workers of
both sexes. By this decree defendant Sauckel expressly

                                                  [Page 350]

that the assembly and operation of rail transports and the
supplying of food therefor was the responsibility of his
agents until the transports arrived in Germany. By the same
regulation defendant Sauckel directed that within Germany
the care of foreign industrial workers was to be carried out
by the German Labour Front, and that the care of foreign
agricultural workers was to be carried out by the Reich Food
Administration. By the terms of the regulation, Sauckel
reserved for himself ultimate responsibility for all aspects
of care, treatment, lodging and feeding of foreign workers
while in transit to and within Germany.

I refer particularly to the English text of this Document
3044-PS, Exhibit USA 206, and the part of it that I make
reference to is at the bottom of Page 1 in the English text,
and it appears at Page 518 of the volume in the German text.
Quoting directly from the English text:-

   "The care of foreign labour will be carried out.
   (a) Up to the Reich border
   by my commissioners or-in the occupied areas-by
   competent military or civil labour mobilisation
   agencies. Care of the labour will be carried out in co-
   operation with the respective competent foreign
   (b) Within the area of the Reich
       (1) By the German Labour Front in the cases of non-
       agricultural workers.
       (2) By the Reich Food Administration in the case of
       agricultural workers.
   The German Labour Front and the German Food
   Administration are bound by my directives in the
   carrying out of their tasks of caring for the workers.
   The agencies of the labour mobilisation administration
   are to give far-reaching support to the German Labour
   Front and the German Food Administration in the
   fulfilment of their assigned tasks.
   My competence for the execution of the care for foreign
   labour is not prejudiced by the assignment of these
   tasks to the German Labour Front and the Reich Food

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Dodd, do not you think that that is the
sort of passage which might be summarised and not read,
because all that it is really stating is that Sauckel, his
department and commissioners were responsible, and that is
what he is saying.

MR. DODD: Yes, indeed, your Honour, we spelled it out,
thinking that perhaps under the rule of getting it into the
record it must be read fully. I quite agree.

THE PRESIDENT: A summary will be quite sufficient, I think.

MR. DODD: In the same document, I should like to make
reference to the data on Page 3, Paragraph 3 of the English
text, which indicates, under the title of "Composition and
Operation of the Transports", that this function is the
obligation of the representatives of the defendant Sauckel;
and in Paragraph "c", on Page 5 of the English text, under
the title of "Supply for the Transport", after setting out
some responsibility for the office of the German Workers
Front, the defendant Sauckel states that for the rest his
offices effect the supply for the transport.

                                                  [Page 351]

The defendant Sauckel had an agreement with the head of the
German Labour Front, Dr. Robert Ley, and in this agreement,
the defendant Sauckel emphasised his ultimate responsibility
by creating a Central Inspectorate, charged with examining
the working and living conditions of foreign workers. We
refer to Document 1913-PS, Exhibit USA 227. This agreement
between the defendant Sauckel and the then Chief of the
German Labour Front is published in the 1943 edition of the
Reichsarbeitsblatt, Part 1, at Page 588. It is a rather
lengthy agreement, and I shall not read it all or any great
part of it, except such part as will indicate the basic
agreements between the defendant Sauckel and Ley, with
respect to the foreign workers and their living conditions
and working conditions.

On the first page of the English text:-

   "The Reichsleiter of the German Labour Front, Dr. Ley,
   in collaboration with the Plenipotentiary General for
   the Arbeitseinsatz, Gauleiter Sauckel, will establish a
   'Zentral Inspektion' for the continuous supervision of
   all measures concerning the care of the foreign workers
   mentioned under 1. This will have the designation:
       'Central Inspection for Care of Foreign Workers.'"

Paragraph 4, marked with the Roman numeral IV, in the same
text, states:-

   "The offices of the administration of the Arbeitseinsatz
   will be constantly informed by the 'Central Inspection
   for the Care of Foreign Workers' of its observations, in
   particular, immediately in each case in which action of
   State organisations seems to be necessary."

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