The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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   Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Volume One, Chapter 11
                                                  [Page 967]

                  7. THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS

No accurate estimate of how many persons died in the
concentration camps can be made. Although the Nazis were
generally meticulous record keepers, the records they kept
about concentration camps appear to have been incomplete.

Occasionally there is a death book, or a set of index cards,
but for the most part, the victims apparently faded into an
unrecorded death. The scale of the concentration camp
operations is suggested by a set of seven books, the death
ledger of the Mauthausen Concentration Camp (physically
offered to the court). Each book bears on its cover
"Totenbuch" or Death Book -- Mauthausen. In these books were
recorded the names of some of the inmates who died or were
murdered in this camp. The books cover the period from
January 1939 to April 1945. They give the name, place of
birth, the assigned cause of death and time of death of each
individual recorded. In addition each corpse is assigned a
serial number. Addition of the serial numbers for the five-
year period produces a total figure of 35,318.

Examination of the books reveals the camp's routine of
death. For example, pages 568 to 582 of Volume 5 cover death
entries made for 19 March 1945 between fifteen minutes past
one in the morning until 2 o'clock in the afternoon. In this
space of 123/4 hours, 203 persons are reported as having
died. They were assigned serial numbers running from 8390 to
8593. The names of the dead are listed. The victims are all
recorded as having died of the same ailment" -- heart
trouble". They died at brief intervals. They died in
alphabetical order. The first who died was a man named
Ackermann who died at one fifteen A.M. The last was a man
named Zynger who died at 2 o'clock P.M.

At twenty minutes past two o'clock on the afternoon of the
same day, 19 March 1945, the fatal roll call began again,
and continued until half past four o'clock. In a space of
two hours, 75 more persons died. Once again they died from
heart failure and in alphabetical order. The entries are
recorded in the same volume, from pages 582 through 586.

Another death book was found at Camp Mauthausen. This is a
single volume, which has on its cover the words -- "Death
Book -- Prisoners of War". Pages 234 through 246 contain
entries recording the names of 208 prisoners of war,
apparently Russians, who at 15 minutes past midnight on 10
May 1942,

                                                  [Page 968]
were executed at the same time. The book notes that the
execution was directed by the Chief of the SD and the SIPO
(Heydrich) .

It is common knowledge that the anguish of the concentration
camp was spread, not only over the Continent of Europe, but
over all the world. Even today all over the world people are
still seeking word of their friends and relatives who
vanished into the Nazi concentration camps and left no trace
behind. This fact is emphasized by the 23 November 1945
issue of the weekly newspaper, "Aufbau", published in the
German language in New York City. On the back pages -- 8, 9,
10, and 11 -- are published both notices requesting
information about friends and relatives, and notices
announcing the deaths of persons who were last heard of in a
Nazi concentration camp. The personal tragedies, which these
notices represent, multiplied an incalculable number of
times, is part of the legacy which the Nazi conspirators
have left to the world.

Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Article 6
(b, c). Vol. I, Pg. 5

International Military Tribunal, Indictment Number 1,
Sections III; VIII (A, C); X. Vol. I, Pg. 15,31,41,53

Hague Convention of 1907 respecting the Laws and Customs of
War on Land, Annex, Article 46. Vol. VI, Pg. 597

Geneva Convention of 1929 relative to treatment of Prisoners
of War, Articles 2, 3. Vol. VI, Pg. 600

                                                  [Page 969]
[Note: A single asterisk (*) before a document indicates
that the document was received in evidence Document at the
Nurnberg trial. A double asterisk (**) before a document
number indicates that the document was referred to during
the trial but was not formally received in evidence, for the
reason given in parentheses following the description of the
document. The USA series number, given in parentheses
following the description of the document, is the official
exhibit number assigned by the court.]

*374-PS; TWX Series of Orders signed by Heydrich and
Mueller, issued by Gestapo Headquarters Berlin, 9  - 11
January 1938, concerning treatment of Jews. (USA 729) . Vol.
III, Pg.  277

*392-PS; Official NSDAP circular entitled "The Social Life
of New Germany with Special Consideration of the German
Labor Front", by Prof. Willy Mueller (Berlin, 1938). (USA
326) .
Vol. III, Pg.  380

*641-PS; Report of Public Prosecutor General in Munich, 1
June 1933, concerning murder of Dr. Strauss in Dachau by an
SS guard. (USA 450) Vol. III, Pg. 453

*642-PS; Report to Public Prosecutor General in Munich, 1
June 1933, concerning murder of Hausmann in Dachau by an SS
guard. (USA 451) Vol. III, Pg. 454

                                                  [Page 970]
*644-PS; Report to Public Prosecutor General in Munich, 1
June 1933, concerning murder of Schloss in Dachau by an SS
guard. (USA 452) Vol. III, Pg. 455

*645-PS; Report to Public Prosecutor General in Munich, 1
June 1933, concerning murder of Nefzger in Dachau by an SS
guard. (USA 453) Vol. III, Pg. 457

*778-PS; Disciplinary and Penal Measures for Concentration
Camp Dachau and Service Regulations for the Camp Personnel,
signed by Eicke, 1 October 1933. (USA 247) Vol. III, Pg. 550

833-PS; Instructions by Admiral Canaris, Head of the Abwehr,
2 February 1942, concerning prosecution of crimes against
the Reich or occupying forces in the occupied territories.
Vol. III, Pg. 600

*1063-A-PS; Order of Chief of SIPO and SD, 2 January 1941,
concerning classification of concentration camps. (USA 492)
Vol. III, Pg. 777

*1063-B-PS; Letter signed by Kaltenbrunner, 26 July 1943,
concerning establishment of Labor Reformatory camps. (USA
492) Vol. III, Pg. 778

*1063-D-PS; Mueller's order, 17 December 1942, concerning
prisoners qualified for work to be sent to concentration
camps. (USA 219) Vol. III, Pg. 778

1063-E-PS; Copy of Mueller's order, 25 June 1942, concerning
increased shipments to concentration camps. Vol. III, Pg.

1151-P-PS; Letter from WVHA, 28 March 1942, concerning
"Action 14 F 13" from files of Gross Rosen Concentration
camp. Vol. III, Pg. 808

                                                  [Page 971]

*1165-PS; Letter from Commandant of concentration Camp Gross
Rosen, 23 October 1941, and letter of Mueller to all Gestapo
offices, 9 November 1941, concerning execution of Russian
PW's. (USA 244) Vol. III, Pg. 821

*1166-PS; Interoffice memorandum of WVHA, 15 August 1944,
concerning number of prisoners and survey of prisoners'
clothing. (USA 458) Vol. III, Pg. 824

1216-PS; Typewritten memorandum, "Important Incidents in
Concentration camp Dachau". Vol. III, Pg. 846

1390-PS; Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of
the People and State, 28 February 1933. 1933
Reichsgesetzblatt, Part I, p. 83. Vol. III, Pg. 968

*1531-PS; Directive from RSHA, 26 October 1939, concerning
execution of protective custody, and directive, 12 June
1942, concerning third degree. (USA 248) .Vol. IV, Pg. 93

*1584-I-PS; Teletype from Goering to Himmler, 14 February
1944, concerning formation of 7th Airforce Group squadron
for special purposes. (USA 221) .Vol. IV, Pg. 117

*1584-III-PS; Correspondence between Himmler and Goering, 9
March 1944, concerning use of concentration camp inmates in
aircraft industry. (USA 457) .Vol. IV, Pg. 118

1616-PS; Letter from Dr. Rascher to Himmler, 17 February
1943, concerning freezing experiments. .Vol. IV, Pg. 133

*1650-PS; Directive to State Police Directorates from Chief
of SIPO and SD by Mueller, 4 March 1944, concerning captured
escaped PWs except British and American PWs. (USA 246) .Vol.
IV, Pg. 158

                                                  [Page 972]

*1723-PS; Order concerning cooperation of Party offices with
the Secret State Police, 25 January 1938, published in
Decrees, Regulations, Announcements, 1937, Vol. II.  pp. 430-
439. (USA 206) .Vol. IV, Pg. 219

*1919-PS; Himmler's speech to SS Gruppenfuehrers, 4 October
1943. (USA 170) .Vol. IV, Pg. 558

1956-PS; Meaning and Tasks of the Secret State Police,
published in The Archives, January 1936, vol. 2224, p. 1342.
.Vol. IV, Pg. 598

2107-PS; Law on Secret State Police of 10 February 1936.
1936 Preussische Gesetzsammlung, pp 21-22. .Vol. IV, Pg. 732

2108-PS; Decree for execution of Law on Secret State Police
of 10 February 1936. 1936 Preussische Gesetzsammlung, pp. 22-
24. .Vol. IV, Pg. 732

2169-PS; Quarterly report of the SS medical officer of Hmb.
Neuengamme concentration camp, 29 March 1945. .Vol. IV, Pg.

2171-PS; US Government report B-2833 on Numerical Expansion
of Buchenwald Concentration Camp, during years 1937-1945.
.Vol. IV, Pg. 900

*2176-PS; Report on Mauthausen concentration camp, by
investigating officer, Office of Judge Advocate, Third US
Army, 17 June 1945. (USA 249) .Vol. IV, Pg. 836

2187-PS; Order from Main SS economic administration office,
14 July 1943, concerning beating of female prisoners. .Vol.
IV, Pg. 842
                                                  [Page 973]

*2189-PS; Orders from Department D of Economic and
Administrative Main Office, 11 August 1942, concerning
punishment by beating (USA 460) .Vol. IV, Pg. 842

2222-PS; Report of investigation of Buchenwald Concentration
Camp, by Judge Advocate Section, Third United States Army,
25 May 1945. .Vol. IV, Pg. 860

*2285-PS; Affidavit, 13 May 1945, by two French officers,
about shooting of prisoners at Mauthausen (USA 490) .Vol.
IV, Pg. 991

*2309-PS; Report by Headquarters Third United States Army,
21 June 1945, concerning Flossenburg Concentration Camp.
(USA 245) .Vol. IV, Pg. 999

*2324-PS; Extracts from Reconstruction of a Nation, by
Hermann Goering, 1934. (USA 233) .Vol. IV, Pg. 1033

*2330-PS; Order of Protective Custody, Police Directorate of
Nurnberg-Fuerth of Josef Simon, Chairman of German
Shoemaker's Union, 29 August 1935. (USA 237) .Vol. IV, Pg.

*2334-PS; Affidavits of Lorenz Hagen, Chairman of Local
Committee, German Trade Unions, Nurnberg. (USA 238) .Vol.
IV, Pg. 1041

2344-PS; Reconstruction of a Nation by Goering, 1934, p. 89.
.Vol. IV, Pg. 1065

2347-PS; Court decisions from 1935 Reichsverwaltungsblatt,
Vol. 56, pp. 577578, 20 July 1935. .Vol. IV, Pg. 1066

2476-PS; Affidavit of Josef Buehler, 14 January 1945. .Vol.
V, Pg. 228

*2477-PS; Affidavit of Willy Litzenberg, 14 January 1945.
(USA 518) .Vol. V, Pg. 229

2478-PS; Affidavit of Willy Litzenberg, 14 January 1945.
.Vol. V, Pg. 230
                                                  [Page 974]

*2499-PS; Original Protective Custody Order served on Dr. R.
Kempner, 15 March 1935. (USA 232) .Vol. V, Pg.236

*2513-PS; Extract from The National Socialist Workers' Party
as an Association Hostile to State and to Republican Form of
Government and Guilty of Treasonable Activity. (USA 235)
.Vol. V, Pg. 252

2533-PS; Extract from article "Legislation and Judiciary in
Third Reich", from Journal of the Academy for German Law,
1936, pp. 141-142. .Vol. V, Pg. 277

*2605-PS; Affidavit of Dr. Rudolf Kastner, former President
of the Hungarian Zionist Organization, 9/13/1945. (USA 242)
.Vol. V, Pg. 313

2615-PS; Affidavit of Dr. Wilhelm Hoettl, 5 November 1945.
.Vol. V, Pg. 338

2655-PS; Concordat between the Holy See and the German
Reich, Article 31. 1933 Reichsgesetzblatt, Part II, p.679,
687-8. .Vol. V, Pg. 364

*2663-PS; Hitler's speech to the Reichstag, 30 January 1939,
quoted from Voelkischer Beobachter, Munich edition, 1
February 1939. (USA 268) .Vol. V, Pg. 367

*2745-PS; Order for commitment to concentration camp, 7 July
1943, Kaltenbrunner's signature. (USA 519) .Vol. V, Pg. 383

*2753-PS; Affidavit of Alois Hoellriegl, 7 November 1945.
(USA 515) .Vol. V, Pg. 393

*2928-PS; Affidavit of Mathias Lex, deputy president of the
German Shoemakers Union. (USA 239) .Vol. V, Pg. 594
                                                  [Page 975]
*3051-PS; Three teletype orders from Heydrich to all
stations of State Police, 10 November 1938, on measures
against Jews, and one order from Heydrich on termination of
protest actions. (USA 240) .Vol. V, Pg. 797

*3249-PS; Affidavit of Dr. Franz Blaha, 24 November 1945.
(USA 663) .Vol. V, Pg. 949

*3420-PS; US Army report on human skin exhibits at
Buchenwald Concentration Camp. (USA 252) .Vol. VI, Pg. 122

*3421-PS; Certificate accompanying human skin exhibit. (USA
253) .Vol. VI, Pg. 123

*3423-PS; US Army report on identification of tattooed human
skins. (USA 252) ) .Vol. VI, Pg. 123

*3590-PS; Charges and findings against Weiss and others
tried by US Military Court at Dachau. (USA 664) ) .Vol. VI,
Pg. 288

*3601-PS; Affidavit of Sidney Mendel, 28 December 1945,
concerning the connection of Frick's Ministry of Interior
with concentration camps. (GB 324) ) .Vol. VI, Pg. 313

*3751-PS; Diary of the German Minister of Justice, 1935
concerning prosecution of church officials and punishment in
concentration camps. (USA 828; USA 858) ) .Vol. VI, Pg. 636

*3762-PS; Affidavit of SS Colonel Kurt Becher, 8 March 1946,
concerning the responsibility of Kaltenbrunner for
concentration camp executions. (USA 798) ) .Vol. VI, Pg. 645

*3844-PS; Statement of Josef Niedermayer, 7 March 1946,
concerning Kaltenbrunner's part in "bullet" orders at
Mauthausen concentration camp. (USA 801) ) .Vol. VI, Pg. 782

*3846-PS; Interrogation of Johann Kanduth, 130 January 1945,
concerning crematorium at Mauthausen and the activities of
Kaltenbrunner there. (USA 796) ) .Vol. VI, Pg. 783

                                                  [Page 976]
*3868-PS; Affidavit of Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Hoess,  5
April 1946, concerning execution of 3,000,000 people at
Auschwitz Extermination Center. (USA 819) ) .Vol. VI, Pg.

*3870-PS; Affidavit of Hans Marsalek, 8 April 1946,
concerning Mauthausen Concentration Camp and dying statement
of Franz Ziereis, the Commandant. (USA 797) ) .Vol. VI, Pg.

*D-84; Gestapo instructions to State Police Departments, 5
August 1937, regarding protective custody for Bible
students. (USA 236) ) .Vol. VI, Pg. 1040

*D-569; File of circulars from Reichsfuehrer SS, the OKW,
Inspector of Concentration Camps, Chief of Security Police
and SD, dating from 29 October 1941 through 22 February
1944, relative to procedure in cases of unnatural death of
Soviet PW, execution of Soviet PW, etc. (GB 277) ) .Vol.
VII, Pg. 74

*D-728; Circular, 15 March 1945, from NSDAP Gauleitung
Hessen-Nassau to the "Kreis"-Leaders of the Gau, concerning
Action by the Party to keep Germans in check until end of
the War. (GB 282) .Vol. VII, Pg. 174

*D-745-A; Deposition of Anton Kaindl, 8 March 1946,
concerning SS personnel supervising concentration camps.
(USA 811) .Vol. VII, Pg. 208

*D-745-B; Deposition of Anton Kaindl, 19 March 1946,
concerning SS personnel supervising concentration camps.
(USA 812). .Vol. VII, Pg. 209
                                                  [Page 977]

*D-746-A; Deposition of Fritz Suhren, 8 March 1946,
concerning SS personnel supervising concentration camps.
(USA 813) .Vol. VII, Pg. 209

*D-746-B; Deposition of Fritz Suhren, 19 March 1946,
concerning SS personnel supervising concentration camps.
(USA 814) .Vol. VII, Pg. 210

*D-748; Affidavit of Karl Totzauer, 15 March 1946,
concerning SS personnel supervising concentration camps.
(USA 816) .Vol. VII, Pg. 211

*D-749-B; Statement of Rudolf Hoess, 20 March 1946,
concerning SS personnel supervising concentration camps.
(USA 817) .Vol. VII, Pg. 212

*D-750; Deposition of August Harbaum, 19 March 1946,
concerning SS personnel supervising concentration camps.
(USA 818) .Vol. VII, Pg. 213

*L-83; Affidavit of Gerhart H. Seger, 21 July 1945. (USA
234) .Vol. VII, Pg. 859

*L-215; File of orders and dossiers of 25 Luxembourgers
committed to concentration camps at various times in 1944.
(USA 243) .Vol. VII, Pg. 1045

*R-91; Telegram from Mueller, SS Gruppenfuehrer to
Reichsfuehrer SS, 116 February   1942. (USA 241) .Vol. VIII,
Pg. 60

*R-124; Speer's conference minutes of Central Planning
Board, 1942-44, concerning labor supply. (USA 179) .Vol.
VIII, Pg. 146

*R-129; Letter and enclosure from Pohl to Himmler, 30 April
1942, concerning concentration camps. (USA 217) .Vol. VIII,
Pg. 198

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