The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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What sort of "work" is meant is clearly shown by the
following "commandments". I quote extracts from this

   "5th Commandment: It is essential that you should always
   bear in mind the end to be attained. You must pursue
   this aim with the utmost tenacity, but the methods used
   may be elastic to a degree and may be left to the
   discretion of the individual.
                                                  [Page 150]
   6th Commandment: Since the newly incorporated
   territories must be secured permanently to Germany and
   Europe, much will depend on how you conduct yourself
   there. Lack of character in individuals will constitute
   a definite ground for removing them from their work. No
   one recalled for this reason can ever again occupy a
   responsible position in the Reich proper".

In this way, the future "agricultural leaders" were not only
ordered to be implacable, merciless and cruel in their
plundering activities but were also warned of what would
happen to them if they were not implacable enough or if they
showed "lack of character".

The following "commandments" develop the same idea:

   "7th Commandment: Do not ask: 'how will this benefit the
   peasants', but 'how will it benefit Germany'?
   8th Commandment: Do not talk - act! You can never talk a
   Russian round or persuade him with words. He can talk
   better than you can, for he is a born speaker"!
   Only your will must decide, but this will must be
   directed to the execution of great tasks. Only in this
   case will it be morally justified even in its cruelty.
   Keep away from the Russians - they are not Germans, they
   are Slavs.
   9th Commandment: We do not wish to convert the Russians
   to National Socialism; we only wish to make them a tool
   in our hands. You must win the youth of Russia by
   assigning tasks to them, by taking them firmly in hand
   and administering ruthless punishment to those who
   practise sabotage or fail to accomplish the work
   expected of them.
   The investigation of personal records and applications
   takes up time which is needed for your German task. You
   are neither investigating magistrates nor yet the
   Wailing Wall.
   11th Commandment: ... His (Russian) stomach is elastic,
   therefore - no false pity for him"!

Such were these commandments for "agricultural leaders",
which one should - to be more exact - call "commandments for
cannibals". The "file" begins with these "Commandments",
which are followed by a perfectly clear-cut programme for
the plundering of USSR agriculture.

At the beginning of this programme we read:-

   "Fundamental Directives for the Organisation of Economic
   Policy in the East" (Agricultural Group).
   As regards food policy, the aim of this campaign is:
   1. To guarantee food supplies for many years ahead for
   the German Armed Forces and the German civilian

As you see, your Honours, a perfectly clear and candid
formulation of the aims of the attack on the USSR is given.
Of course, it does not complete these aims. They were not
confined to the stealing of provisions, and provisions were
far from being the only thing stolen. This is only an
extract from the "agricultural leaders'" file, and they were
not the only people to be entrusted with tasks of pillage
and their performance.

The "file" as a whole contains the following sections of a
carefully thought out and extremely concrete programme for
the plunder of the Soviet Union's agriculture. I read the
table of contents. Your Honours will find this document on
Page 67 of the document book:

   "1. Twelve Commandments.
   2. Main agricultural directives.
   3. Organisation chart.
   4. Instructions for the regional agricultural leader.
   5. Instructions for engaging personnel.
   6. State Farms: Directives for the taking over and
   management of State Farms (Sowchos).
                                                  [Page 151]
   7. Directives for taking over and management of
   collective farms (Kolchos).
   8. Agricultural machine depots, directives for
   9. Directives for book-keeping.
   10. Furnishing food supplies for the cities.
   11. Schedules for agricultural
   12. Price lists."

I am not, your Honours, going to take up your time by
reading the whole of this document, which consists of 98
typewritten pages. I am presenting it to the Tribunal in its
entirety, to be included in the files of the trial.

I shall read from this document, already presented to the
Tribunal by my American colleagues on the 10th December of
last year as Exhibit USA 147, only a few short lines. It is
a note of the record of a speech made by Rosenberg at a
secret conference on 20th June, 1941, dealing with
"Questions of the East".

In his speech, Rosenberg stated particularly:-

   "The problem of feeding German nationals undeniably
   heads the German demands on the East just now, and here
   the Southern Regions and the Northern Caucasus must help
   to balance the German food situation. We certainly do
   not consider ourselves obliged to feed the Russian
   people as well from the produce of these fertile
   regions. We know that this is a cruel necessity, which
   has nothing to do with any humane feelings. It will
   undoubtedly be necessary to carry out evacuation on a
   large scale, and the Russians are doomed to live through
   some very hard years."

Thus did the leaders of Hitlerite Germany formulate the
tasks they set themselves when preparing their attack on the
Soviet Union.

As early as August, 1942 - that is, from 26th to 28th August
- Gauleiter Koch, who had just arrived from Hitler's
headquarters, spoke at a conference in Rovno. The record of
this conference was found in Rosenberg's archives. This
document was kindly put at our disposal by our American
colleagues. It is registered as 264-PS, but it has not been
presented to
the Tribunal.

I read into the record an excerpt from this record. The
members of the Tribunal will find it on Page 74 in the
document book.

   He (Koch) explained the political situation and his
   tasks as Reichkommissar in the following way: "There is
   no free Ukraine. We must aim at making the Ukrainians
   work for Germany, and not at making the people here
   happy. The Ukraine will have to make good the German
   shortages. This task must be accomplished without regard
   for losses.... The Fuehrer has ordered 3 million tons of
   grain from the Ukraine for the Reich, and they must be
   delivered ..."

I shall show later how far this original figure - 3 million
tons of grain - was exceeded by the Hitlerite plunderers,
whose avid appetite grew from month to month.

All these methods of plunder had been planned in advance by
the criminal Hitlerite Government, which worked out a scheme
for carrying out organised plunder and practical methods of
pillaging the occupied territories.



With the Tribunal's permission, I shall read extracts from a
secret document issued by Reichsmarschall Goering which was
captured by units of the Red Army. This document bears the
title: "Directives for Economic Management" ("Green File")
and extracts from it have already been mentioned by my
colleagues. This document is presented by the Soviet
Prosecution as Exhibit USSR 10.

The title page reads (Page 76 of the document book):

   "Eastern Staff for Economic Leadership. Secret High
   Command Document.
                                                  [Page 152]
   Note: The present directives are to be considered as
   Secret High Command Documents (Documents of State
   Importance) until X-day; after X-day they will no longer
   be secret and will be treated as open documents for
   official use only.
   Directives on the Subject of Economic Leadership in the
   Occupied Eastern Territories.
   Part I. - Economic tasks and organisation. Berlin, June,
   Printed by the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces."

As is clear from the text of the document, these
"directives" were published immediately before Germany's
attack on the USSR "for the information of military and
economic authorities regarding economic tasks in the Eastern
territories to be occupied".

In setting forth the "Main economic tasks," the "directives"
state in the first paragraphs:-

   "1. According to the Fuehrer's order, it is essential in
   the interests of Germany that every possible measure for
   the immediate and complete exploitation of the Occupied
   Territories be adopted. Any measure liable to hinder the
   achievement of this purpose should be waived or
   2. The exploitation of the occupied regions should be
   carried out primarily in the economic field controlling
   food supplies and provisions. The main economic purpose
   of the campaign is to obtain the greatest possible
   quantity of food and crude oil for Germany. In addition,
   other raw materials from the Occupied Territories must
   be supplied to the German war economy as far as is
   technically possible and as far as the demands of the
   industries to be maintained outside the Reich permit."

I omit the next part of that excerpt, and I pass on to the
following one, which the members of the Tribunal will find
on Page 78:-

   "The idea that order should be restored in the Occupied
   Territories and their economic life re-established as
   soon as possible is entirely mistaken. Different parts
   of the country must of necessity receive very different
   treatment. Order should only be restored and industry
   promoted in regions where we can obtain considerable
   reserves of agricultural produce or crude oil."

I omit the rest of this quotation in order to save time.

Further, the plan devised in advance for the organised
plunder of the Soviet Union provided in detail for the
removal from the USSR to Germany of all raw materials,
supplies and stocks of goods available, and also for the
general plundering of the civilian population. In
confirmation of this I cite excerpts from this document so
that I shall not have to read it in full. The members of the
Tribunal will find these underlined excerpts on Pages 83, 87
and 88 of the document book.

   "All raw materials, semi-manufactured or finished
   products of which we can make use are to be withdrawn
   from commerce. This will be done by IV Wi and by the
   economic authorities by means of appeals and orders, by
   ordering confiscation or by military supervision or
   Page 88: from the section "Raw materials and the
   exploitation of commercial resources." - "Platinum,
   magnesium and rubber are to be secured at once and
   transported to Germany as soon as possible."

Page 87:-

   "Food products, articles for personal use and clothing
   found in combat and rear zones, are to be placed at the
   disposal of IVa for immediate military requirements."

Page 83:-

In the section of the Directives entitled "Economic
Organisation" we find a project of machinery with wide
ramifications which was to carry out this organised plunder
of the U.S.S.R. I shall read a series of excerpts from this
section, which the members of the Tribunal will find on Page
79 of the document book.

                                                  [Page 153]

   "(A) General questions.
   To guarantee unified economic leadership in the theatre
   of operations, as well as in the administrative areas to
   be established at a later date, the Reichsmarschall has
   An Eastern Staff for Economic Leadership, directly under
   himself, and headed by a Representative of the
   Reichsmarschall State-Secretary Korner....
   The orders of the Reichsmarschall apply to all economic
   spheres, including food supply and agriculture.

In directing your attention to these two excerpts, your
Honours, I consider it definitively proved that the
defendant Goering not only had personal charge of the
preparations for the plunder of private, public and State
property, but later on directed personally the vast
organisation specially set up for these criminal purposes.

You can judge of the projected organisation by the following
extracts from the "Green File":

   "Organisation of Economic Administration:
   (B) Theatre of Operations.
   1. The military and economic establishments of the
   Eastern Economic Staff, in so far as their activities
   cover the theatre of operations, are incorporated in the
   Army Staffs and are subordinate to them in military
     (a) In the Lines of Communications Area:
     One economic inspectorate at each of the Chief
     Commands of the Lines of Communications Area.
     One or several mobile units of the economic section
     with the Security Divisions.
     One IV Wi Group at each of the Commands of the Armies
     in the Field.
     (b) In the Army Administration District:
     One IV Wi Group (or one Signal Service liaison officer
     from the Administrative Department in charge of
     Economy and Armaments).
     One IV Wi Group for each of the Field Commands
     attached to the L. of C. formations; in addition, as
     and when necessary, economic mobile units are to be
     sent forward to the Armies in the Field. These units
     are subordinate in military matters to the Commander-
     in-Chief of the Army."

Further on, in paragraph 4 of this same section, under the
title "Structure of the Individual Economic Institutions",
the whole plan of construction of the Eastern Economic Staff
is described. I shall cite it in my own words in order to
save time. The members of the Tribunal will find the
document to which I refer on Page 79 in the document book.

Chief of the economic staff with the leadership group (field
leadership questions, also manpower). Group La, in charge of
food and agriculture, running "the entire agricultural
production and also the assembling of supplies for the
army". Group W, in charge of industry, raw materials,
forestry, finance, banking property, and trade. Group M, in
charge of troop requirements, armaments and transport.
"Economic inspectorates" attached to army groups, in charge
of the "economic exploitation of the rear area". Mobile
units of the economic section, organised "in the zone of
each security division" and consisting of one officer as
commander and several specialists in the different fields.
Economic groups attached to the field commands, which are
responsible for supplying the immediate requirements of the
troops within the sphere of activity of the field command
and for preparing the economic exploitation of the country
in the interests of war economy.

                                                  [Page 154]

To these economic groups were attached experts on manpower,
food production and agriculture, industrial economy and
general economic questions.

The economic section, attached to the Supreme Commands of
the Army, with special technical battalions and platoons as
well as special intelligence sub-sections for industrial
research, particularly in the field of raw materials and
crude oil, and sub-sections for locating and securing
agricultural produce and machines, including tractors.

This same plan also provides for special technical units for
crude oil (battalions and companies) and also the so-called
mining battalions.

Thus, under the direct control of the defendant Goering, a
whole army of plunderers of all ranks and branches was
provided, prepared, trained and drilled in advance for the
organised pillage and looting of the national property of
the USSR.

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