The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Archive/File: imt/tgmwc/tgmwc-06-58.05
Last-Modified: 1997/10/17

I present to the Court these documents which were not
available some time ago; they weigh heavily in the scales,
on the side of the prosecution. On Page 17, Your Honours,
you will find the document which has been cited by me. It
bears the Document 225-D (Exhibit USSR 349:

     "Supreme Command of the Army,
       of Army Equipment and the Commander-
       in-Chief of the Replacement Training Army,
     
                                  "Berlin, 6th August, 1941.
     
      "Subject: Food Ration of Soviet Prisoners of War.
     
     "The Soviet Union did not subscribe to the agreement of
     27th July, 1929, concerning the treatment of prisoners
     of war. Consequently we are not obliged to supply
     Soviet prisoners of war with food corresponding in
     quantity or quality to the requirements of this
     regulation. Taking the general food situation into
     consideration, the following rations for Soviet
     prisoners of war were established, which rations were
     considered adequate according to medical findings:
     
                                                  [Page 305]
     
     "The ration in the camps for the prisoners of war (not
     employed on essential work) amounted to:
     
                                   for 28 days
     
     Bread                             6 kg.
     Meat                            400 gr.
     Fat                             440 gr.
     Sugar                           600 gr.
     
                                   for 28 days
     
     For prisoners doing special work:
     
     Bread                             9 kg.
     Meat                            600 gr.
     Fat                             520 gr.
     Sugar                           900 gr."
     
A similar regulation, headed, "Food Ration for Soviet
Prisoners of War," was sent as secret information by the
Chancellery of the Nazi Party on 17th December, 1941.

I shall quote only one sentence from that Party directive,
which you will find on Page 18 of the document book:
     
     "An open discussion of the question regarding the food
     supply of the prisoners of war either orally or in
     writing is forbidden, because of the possibility of
     enemy propaganda."

Further, the authors of the document emphasise that there is
no danger of any substantial deterioration of the food
supply of "our German people." I consider that the hint is
sufficiently clear. The document was distributed to the High
Command of the Army, to the commands of corps areas, to the
military authorities in Bohemia and Moravia, and to military
commissioners in a number of cities.

The Fascist conspirators established particularly low
rations for men of the Red Army. On the basis of their own
estimates the monthly ration for Soviet prisoners of war was
42 per cent. in regard to fats, 66 per cent. in regard to
sugar and bread and 0 per cent. in regard to meat, as
compared with the amount of food provided for prisoners of
war from other armies fighting against Germany.

Moreover, there was a special note in the directive itself.
You will find the special note on Page 19 of the document
book:

     "If the ration for non-Soviet prisoners of war is
     reduced, the ration for Soviet prisoners of war must be
     lowered accordingly."
     
But even these starvation rations, which could not sustain
the life of an adult person, more often than not existed
only on paper.

I present another document to the Tribunal as Exhibit USSR
177.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Pokrovsky, I do not think it matters
very much, but when you said "0 per cent." in regard to
meat, when you were dealing with the percentage, was that
correct, because in setting out the amount of food which
they were allowed, or were supposed to be allowed, there was
400 grams of meat for ordinary men and 600 grams of meat for
other men doing special work, and I do not see how 400 grams
can be 0 per cent. of the ration allowed to other non-Soviet
prisoners.

COLONEL POKROVSKY: You are quite right, Sir. I have the same
figures here, but there is no contradiction here at all. I
am reporting to the Tribunal now that there were several
directives, and the first one appears to be the best for the
Soviet prisoners of war. It states that 400 grams of meat
was the ration. The next directive, which established the
percentage of food supply for the Soviet prisoners of war
and others, shows 0 per cent.

As far as I understand it, if there was not meat for all of
the prisoners of war, the Soviet prisoners would not receive
any meat at all.

                                                  [Page 306]
                                                            
THE PRESIDENT: I see. Then you say that the words "on the
basis of their own estimates" are referring to some
estimates other than the estimate which you give. It does
not matter about that, but I understand you to say that
there are other estimates which show they did not give them
anything. Please proceed.

COLONEL POKROVSKY: You are quite right, Sir.

I present to the Tribunal one more document dealing with the
same question. That is Exhibit USSR 177. You will find it on
Page 21 of your document book. This is a record of a
conference of the Reich Ministry of Food (R.E.M.) under the
direction of State Secretary Backe and Ministerial Director
Moritz. The document is dated 24th November, 1941, 16.30
hours. Among those who took part in the conference were
representatives of various departments, in particular
General Reineke -- probably the Tribunal will remember that
it was Reineke who headed that particular phase of the work
dealing with the prisoners of war -- and Ministerial
Director Mansfeld. The subject under discussion was the
supply of food to Russian prisoners of war and civilian
workers. I quote (Page 21 of your document book):

     (I) Types of Food.
     
     Attempts to produce a special Russian bread have proved
     that a useful mixture consists of 50 per cent. rye
     bran, 20 per cent.  residue of sugar beet, 20 per cent.
     cellulose flour and 10 per cent. flour made of straw or
     leaves. Meat not usually employed for human consumption
     can never sufficiently satisfy a demand for meat.
     
     Russians must, therefore, be fed entirely on horse-
     flesh and on the meat of animals which had not been
     slaughtered and which, at present, is issued in double
     quantities on the ration cards.
     
     With the present technique of fat production, inferior
     fats no longer exist; the Russian will, therefore,
     receive good edible fats."
     
These derisive words can scarcely pass unnoticed. Russian
prisoners of war, who had been receiving "meat not usually
employed for human consumption," were now receiving, on
their starvation rations, only "meat which is to-day issued
in double quantities on ration cards"; and instead of fats
they were to get certain substances which can only be used
for food because of "the present technique of the fat
production." And these products are called "good edible
fats."

     "(II) Rations."
     
The second part of the document is entitled "Rations." I
quote (the part being cited by me is on Pages 21 and 22 in
your document book):
     
     "Since there is a great discrepancy among the estimates
     of the present experts of the Health Administration,
     the Reich Office of Public Health, and the Army Medical
     Inspectorate as to the necessary caloric requirements,
     a final decision concerning the ration will be made in
     the course of the week by a smaller circle of experts.
     Seven days of flour soup as a transition diet and
     cancellation of the words 'without work' are from now
     on decreed for such Russians as are at present in
     German camps.
     
     "III. The number of Russians whom the Reich Ministry of
     Supply can supply with food."

I should note here that this sentence means, "The number of
Russians whom the Reich Ministry of Food (R.E.M.) can
provide has now been established."

     "State Secretary Backe was non-committal in answer to
     persistent questioning by General Reineke and
     Ministerial Director Mansfeld."


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