The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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In the next letter Keitel writes to Lammers, acknowledging receipt
of his letter and telling of his compliance with the request.
Keitel also writes to Rosenberg telling him of the action he has
taken. Now, the letter to Dr. Lammers: I shall read the text.

   "Dear Reich Minister,
   
   I acknowledge receipt of the copy of the Fuehrer's Decree in
   which the Fuehrer appointed Reichsleiter Alfred Rosenberg as
   his Commissioner for the Central Control of Questions
   connected with the East European Region. I have named General
   of the Artillery Jodl, Head of the Armed Forces Operational
   Staff, as my permanent deputy, and Major General Warlimont as
   his deputy."

And the letter to Reichsleiter Rosenberg on the same date

   "The Head of the Reich Chancellery has sent me a copy of the
   Fuehrer's Decree, by which he has appointed you his
   Commissioner for the Central Control of Questions connected
   with the East European Region. I have charged General of the
   Artillery Jodl, Head of the Armed Forces Operational Staff and
   his deputy, Major General Warlimont, with the solving of these
   questions, as far as they concern the Supreme Command of the
   Armed Forces. Now I ask you, as far as your office is
   concerned, to deal with them only."

Immediately upon receipt of the order from Hitler, Rosenberg began
building his organisation, conferring with the various ministries,
issuing his instructions, and generally making the detailed plans
and preparations necessary to carry out his assigned mission.
Although Rosenberg's files, which were captured intact, were
crowded with documents evidencing both the extent of the
preparation and its purpose, I believe that the citation of a
small number which are typical should be sufficient for the
Tribunal and the record. All of those I shall now discuss were
found in the defendant Rosenberg's files.

Our document numbered 1030-PS is a memorandum, dated 8th May,
1941, entitled "General Instructions for all Reichskommissars in
the Occupied Eastern Territories." I offer that in evidence as
Exhibit USA 144.

In these instructions to his chief henchmen, Rosenberg outlines
the political aims and purposes of the attack. In the second and
third paragraphs of the English translation, which appear on Page
2 of the German, the following remarks appear:

   "The only possible political goal of war can be the aim to
   free the German Reich from the 'grossrussisch' pressure for
   centuries to come.

                                                        [Page 251]

   This corresponds not only with German interests, but also with
   historical justice, for Russian Imperialism was in a position
   to accomplish its policy of conquest and oppression almost
   unopposed, whilst it threatened Germany again and again.
   Therefore, the German Reich has to beware of starting a
   campaign against Russia with a historical injustice, meaning
   the reconstruction of a Great Russian Empire, no matter of
   what kind. On the contrary, all historical struggles of the
   various nationalities against Moscow and Petersburg have to be
   scrutinised for their bearing on the situation today. This has
   been done on the part of the National Socialist movement to
   correspond to the Leader's political testament as laid down in
   his book, that now the military and political threat from the
   East shall be eliminated for ever.
   
   Therefore this huge area must be divided, according to its
   historical and racial conditions, into 'Reichskommissariats',
   each of which bears within itself a different political aim.
   The Reichskommissariat Ostland (Eastland), including White
   Ruthenia, will have the task of preparing, by way of
   development into a Germanised Protectorate, a progressively
   closer cohesion with Germany. The Ukraine will become an
   independent State in alliance with Germany, and Caucasia, with
   the contiguous Northern Territories, a Federal State with a
   German plenipotentiary. Russia proper must put her own house
   in order for the future. These general viewpoints are
   explained in the following instructions for each
   Reichskommissar. Beyond that there are still a few
   considerations which possess validity for all
   Reichskommissars."

The fifth paragraph of the English translation, Page 7 of the
German, presents a fascinating rationalisation of a contemplated
robbery. It reads:

   "The German people have achieved, in the course of centuries,
   tremendous accomplishments in the Eastern European area.
   Nearly its entire real estate property has been confiscated
   without indemnification; hundreds of thousands (in the South,
   on the Volga) have been starved or deported, or, as in the
   Baltic territories, have been cheated out of the fruits of
   their cultural work during the past 700 years. The German
   Reich will now have to proclaim the principle, that after the
   occupation of the Eastern Territories, the former German
   assets have become the property of the people of Greater
   Germany, irrespective of the consent of the former individual
   proprietors, where the German Reich may reserve the right
   (assuming that this has not already been done during
   resettlement) to arrange a just settlement. The manner of
   compensation and restitution of this national property, will
   be subject to different treatment by each Reichskommissariat."

Document 1029-PS in our series is an "Instruction for a
Reichskommissar in the Baltic Countries and White Russia." It is
typical of the type of instruction which was issued to each of the
appointed commissioners or "Kommissars", and is amazingly frank in
outlining the intentions of the Nazi conspirators toward the
country they intended to occupy in the course of their aggression.
I offer this document in evidence as Exhibit USA 145. 1 should
like to read into the record the first three paragraphs. It
begins:-

   "All the regions between Narva and Tilsit have constantly been
   in close relationship with the German people. A 700-year-old
   history

                                                        [Page 252]


   has moulded the inner sympathies of the majority of the races
   living there in a European direction, and has added this
   region to the living space of Greater Germany.
   
   The aim of a Reichskommissar for Esthonia, Latvia, Lithuania
   and White Russia" - last words added in pencil - "must be to
   strive to achieve the form of a German Protectorate, and then
   transform the region into part of the Greater German Reich by
   Germanising racially possible elements, colonising Germanic
   races and banishing undesirable elements. The Baltic Sea must
   become a Germanic inland sea under the guardianship of Greater
   Germany.
   
   For certain cattle-raising products the Baltic region is a
   land of surplus, and the Reichskommissar must endeavour to
   make this surplus once more available to the German people,
   and, if possible, to increase it. With regard to the process
   of Germanising or resettling, the Esthonian people are
   strongly Germanised to the extent of 50 per cent. by Danish,
   German and Swedish blood, and can be considered as a kindred
   nation. In Latvia, the section capable of being assimilated is
   considerably smaller than in Esthonia. In this country
   stronger resistance will have to be reckoned with, and
   banishment on a larger scale will have to be envisaged. A
   similar development may have to be reckoned with in Lithuania,
   for here too the emigration of racial Germans is called for in
   order to promote very intensive Germanisation (on the East
   Prussian border)."

Omitting a paragraph, the next paragraph is also interesting and
reads as follows:

   "The task of a Reichskommissar with his seat of office in Riga
   will therefore largely be an extraordinarily positive one. A
   country which 700 years ago was captured by German Knights,
   built up by the Hanseatic League, and by reason of a constant
   influx of German blood, together with Swedish elements, was a
   predominantly Germanised land, is to be established as a
   mighty German borderland. The preliminary cultural conditions
   are available everywhere, and the German Reich will be able to
   guarantee the right to a later emigration to all those who
   have distinguished themselves in this war, to the descendants
   of those who gave their lives during the war, and also to all
   who fought in the Baltic campaign, never once lost courage,
   fought on in the hour of despair and delivered Baltic
   civilisation from Bolshevism. For the rest, the solution of
   the colonisation problem is not a Baltic question, but one
   which concerns Greater Germany, and it must be settled on
   these lines."

These two directives are, I think, sufficiently typical of the
whole to show the Tribunal the extent of the planning and
preparation for this phase of the aggression, as well as the
political purpose it was hoped would be achieved thereby. However,
on 28th June, 1941, less than a week after the invasion, Rosenberg
himself prepared a full report of his activities since his
appointment on 20th April, One might almost think he had so
meticulously recorded his activities in order to be of assistance
to this prosecution.

This report is Numbered 1039-PS, and I now offer it in evidence as
Exhibit USA 146. To me the most interesting things about this
report are its disclosures concerning the number of these
defendants who worked with and assisted Rosenberg in the planning
and preparation for this phase

                                                        [Page 253]

of the aggression, and the extent to which practically all of the
ministries and offices of both State and Party are shown to have
been involved in this operation. The report was found in the
defendant Rosenberg's files and, although rather long, is of such
importance in implicating persons, groups and organisations that
it must, I believe, be read in full in order that it may be made
part of the record. It is headed "Report on the Preparatory Work
in Eastern European Questions."

   "Immediately after the notification of individual Supreme
   Reich offices regarding the Fuehrer's decree of 20th March,
   1941, a conference with the Chief of the O.K.W. (Armed Forces
   High Command) took place" - that is the defendant Keitel.
   "After presentation of the various political alms in the
   proposed Reichskommissariats and presentation of personal
   requirements for the East, the chief of the O.K.W. explained
   that a deferment (U.K.-Stellung) would be too complicated in
   this case and that this matter could be carried out best by
   direct cancellation (Abkommandierung) by command of the Chief
   of the O.K.W. General Field Marshal Keitel then issued an
   appropriate command which established the basis for the coming
   requirements. He named as deputy and liaison officer General
   Jodl and Major General Warlimont. The negotiations which then
   commenced relative in all questions of the Eastern Territory"
   - relative to, I suppose it is - "were carried on by the
   gentlemen of the O.K.W. in collaboration with officials of my
   office.
   
   A conference took place with Admiral Canaris, to the effect
   that under the given confidential circumstances my office
   could in no way deal with any representatives of the people of
   the East-European area. I asked him to do this in so far as
   the Military Intelligence required it, and then to name
   persons to me who could count as political personalities over
   and above the military intelligence in order to arrange for
   their eventual commitment later. Admiral Canaris said that
   naturally also my wish not to recognise any political groups
   among the emigrants would be considered by him, and that he
   was planning to proceed in accordance with my indications.
   
   Later on I informed General Field Marshal von Brauchitsch and
   Grossadmiral Raeder about the historical and political
   conceptions of the Eastern problem. In further conferences we
   agreed to appoint a representative of my office to the Supreme
   Commander of the Army, to the Chief Quartermaster and to the
   Army Groups respectively for questions relative to political
   configuration and requests of the O.K.W. In the meantime this
   has been done.
   
   Already at the outset there was a discussion with Minister of
   Economics (Reichswirtschaftsminister) Funk" - the defendant
   Funk - "who appointed as his permanent deputy
   Ministerialdirektor Dr. Schlotterer. Almost daily conferences
   were then held with Dr. Schlotterer with reference to the war
   economic intentions of the Economic Operational Staff East. In
   this connection I had conferences with General Thomas, State
   Secretary Korner, State Secretary Backe, Ministerial Director
   Reicke, General Schubert, and others.
   
   Far-reaching agreement was reached in the Eastern questions as
   regards direct technical work now and in the future. A few
   problems regarding the relationship of the proposed Reich
   ministry toward the

                                                        [Page 254]

   Four Year Plan are still open and will be subject, after
   submission, to the decision of Fuehrer. In principle I
   declared that I in no way intended to found an economic
   department in my office; economics would rather be handled
   substantially and practically by the Reichsmarschall" - that
   is the defendant Goering - "and the persons appointed by him.
   However, the two responsible department heads, namely,
   Ministerial Director Dr. Schlotterer for industrial economy,
   and Ministerial Director Riecke for food economy, would be
   placed in my office as permanent liaison men, to co-ordinate
   here political aims with the economic necessities in a
   department which would have to unite yet with other persons
   for such co-ordinating work, depending on labour conditions as
   they may arise later on (political leadership of labour
   unions, construction, et cetera).
   
   After notification of the Reich Foreign Minister, the latter
   appointed Geheimrat Grosskopf as permanent liaison man to my
   office. For the requested representation in the political
   department of my office (headed by Reichsamtsleiter
   Dr.Seibbrandt), the Foreign Ministry released Consul General
   Dr. Braeutigam, who has been known to me for many years,
   speaks Russian, and worked for years in Russia. Negotiations
   which, if necessary, will be placed before the Fuehrer, are
   under way with the Foreign Office regarding its wishes for the
   assignment of its representatives to the future Reich
   Commissioners or 'Kommissars'.
   
   The Propaganda Ministry" - that is Goebbels - "appointed State
   Secretary Gutterer as permanent liaison man, and a complete
   agreement was reached to the effect that the decisions on all
   political and other essays, speeches, proclamations, et
   cetera, would be made in my office; a great number of
   substantial works for propaganda would be delivered and the
   papers prepared by the Propaganda Ministry would be modified
   here, if necessary. The whole practical employment of
   propaganda will indisputably be subject to the Reich Ministry
   of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. For the sake of closer
   co-operation, the Propaganda Ministry assigns yet another
   person directly under my department, 'Enlightenment and
   Press', and in addition appoints a permanent Press liaison
   man. All these activities have been going on for some time,
   and without attracting notice to my office in any way, this
   agreement on contents and terminology takes place continually
   every day.
   
   Thorough discussions took place with Reichsminister Ohnesorge
   concerning future transmission of communications and setting
   up of all technical necessities in future occupied
   territories; with Reichsminister Seldte on the supply of
   labour forces; with Reichsminister Frick" - that is the
   defendant Frick - "State Secretary Stuckart, in detailed form
   on the assignment of numerous necessary officials for the
   Kommissariats. According to the present estimate there will be
   four Reich Kommissariats, as approved by the Fuehrer. I shall
   ask the Fuehrer for political and other reasons to set up a
   suitable number of General Kommissariats (24), Main
   Kommissariats (about 80), and Regional Kommissariats (over
   900). A General Kommissariat would correspond to a former
   General Government; a Main Kommissariat to a Main, Government.

                                                        [Page 255]

   A Regional Kommissariat contains three or four Districts
   (Kreise). In view of the huge spaces, that is the minimum
   number which appears necessary for a future civil government
   and/or administration. A portion of the officials has already
   been requested on the basis of the above-named command of the
   Chief of the O.K.W."

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Alderman, speaking for myself, I do not
understand why it is necessary to read this document in full. You
have already shown that there was a plan for dividing Russia up
into a number of Kommissariats.

MR. ALDERMAN: Yes, sir.

THE PRESIDENT : This is merely a detailed report on that.

MR. ALDERMAN: Quite true. I should like merely to point out two or
three other individual defendants who are referred to in this
document and as to whom the document shows that they were in
immediate complicity with this whole scheme. The first of those,
about three paragraphs further down, the Reich Youth Leadership.
That is the defendant Baldur von Schirach. Then, of course,
Gruppenfuehrer S.S. Heydrich, about the next paragraph -

THE PRESIDENT: Well, he is not a defendant.

MR. ALDERMAN: No, Sir, his organisation is, however, if the
Tribunal please, charged as a Criminal Organisation.

In the next paragraph, the defendant Ministerial Director
Fritzsche, to work under Goebbels.

Without a long discussion of further propaganda material, I might
summarise the individual implication in this fashion. Those of the
individual defendants now on trial which this report personally
involves are Keitel, Jodl, Raeder, Funk, Goering, Ribbentrop,
Frick, Schirach, and Fritzsche. The organisations involved by this
report include the following: O.K.W., O.K.H., O.K.M., Ministry of
the Interior, Ministry of Economics, Reich Foreign Ministry,
Propaganda Ministry, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of
Communications, The Reich Physicians Leader, Ministry of Munitions
and Armaments, Reich Youth Leadership, Reich Organisational
Leader, German Labour Front, the S.S., the S.A. and the Reich
Press Chief.

At a later stage in the trial, and in other connections, I should
like to ask the Tribunal to consider that the document with which
I have just been dealing be considered a part of the record to the
extent that it involves these individuals.

THE PRESIDENT: I think you can treat it as all being in evidence.

MR. ALDERMAN : At a later stage in the trial and in other
connections, evidence will be introduced concerning the manner in
which all of this planning and preparation for the elimination of
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a political factor was
actually carried out. The planned execution of intelligentsia and
other Russian leaders was, for example, but a part of the actual
operation of the programme to destroy the Soviet Union
politically, and make impossible its early resurrection as a
European Power.

Having thus elaborately prepared on every side for the invasion of
the Soviet Union, the Nazi conspirators proceeded to carry out
their plans, and on 22nd June, 1941, hurled their armies across
the borders of the U.S.S.R.



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